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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tarnished Gold: The Endangered Species Act At 50, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2024

Tarnished Gold: The Endangered Species Act At 50, Jonathan H. Adler

FIU Law Review

The ESA is arguably the most powerful and stringent federal environmental law on the books. Yet for all of the Act’s force and ambition, it is unclear how much the law has done much to achieve its central purpose: the conservation of endangered species. The law has been slow to recover listed species and has fostered conflict over land use and scientific determinations that frustrate cooperative conservation efforts. The Article aims to take stock of the ESA’s success and failures during its first fifty years, particularly with regard the conservation of species habitat on private land. While the Act authorizes …


Fischman Serves As Witness In Endangered Species Act Hearing, James Owsley Boyd Apr 2023

Fischman Serves As Witness In Endangered Species Act Hearing, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

An environmental law expert from the Indiana University Maurer School of Law served as an expert witness today (April 18) as part of a congressional hearing on the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Professor Rob Fischman participated in one of three panels convened by the U.S. House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water, Wildlife, and Fisheries as lawmakers consider four Congressional Review Act (CRA) resolutions challenging the implementation of certain aspects of the ESA.


Using Federal Public Lands To Model A New Energy Future: Why The Biden Administration Should Prioritize Renewable Energy Development On Public Lands, Meghen Sullivan Mar 2023

Using Federal Public Lands To Model A New Energy Future: Why The Biden Administration Should Prioritize Renewable Energy Development On Public Lands, Meghen Sullivan

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Oil and gas extraction on public lands and waters is responsible for twenty percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. If American public lands were their own country, they would be the fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world. As of 2020, only twenty percent of total U.S. electricity generation came from renewable energy sources. While renewable energy development on public lands has increased, most renewable energy comes from private lands. However, public lands contain immense renewable energy potential; for example, it is estimated that half of this country’s geothermal resources are found on public lands. Despite underutilized renewable energy potential …


Risk Regulation And Management Against Illegal Wildlife Trade: Europe And America, Olonyi Bosire Mar 2022

Risk Regulation And Management Against Illegal Wildlife Trade: Europe And America, Olonyi Bosire

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Introduction

The source or initial crime in the illegal wildlife trade chain is mostly committed beyond the shores of North America and Europe. However, the two regions continue to be massive destination markets and key transit hubs for illegal wildlife products. Illegal trade networks are shadowy and therefore problematic to study. This helps explain the wide valuation of illegal wildlife trade currently estimated by the Global Environment Facility (“GEF”) as ranging between 7 and 23 billion dollars per annum.

Policies and strategies to pre-empt or respond to illegal wildlife trade keep evolving as appreciation grows for the previously underestimated complexities, …


More Than A Rake: Toward A Statutory Solution For Wildfire Threats To Department Of Defense Installations, Steven L. Spencer Ii Major Jan 2022

More Than A Rake: Toward A Statutory Solution For Wildfire Threats To Department Of Defense Installations, Steven L. Spencer Ii Major

Natural Resources Journal

Over the past four decades, the average area annually burned in wildfires in the United States has roughly quadrupled. Larger, more powerful wildfires increasingly threaten inhabited areas as well as vital infrastructure, including many installations of the United States Armed Forces. This article first introduces readers to what wildfire is and the unique challenges it creates to the environment, health and, specifically, to the Department of Defense (DoD). Next, it discusses the dominant approaches to addressing the wildfire threat, prescribed fire and mechanical treatment. It then summarizes the primary laws, policies and partners involved in wildfire policy in the United …


The Illegally Traded Elephant In The Room: Species Terrorism & Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade, Áine Dillon Dec 2021

The Illegally Traded Elephant In The Room: Species Terrorism & Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade, Áine Dillon

Pace International Law Review

The illegal wildlife trade has been a dilemma for decades

and remains prevalent globally – international intervention is

required now. While most countries participate in the Convention

on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild

Fauna and Flora (“CITES”), not all countries have the same approaches

to combating the illegal wildlife trade. Unique approaches

can be beneficial because each illegally traded species

requires a different response, and countries with limited resources

can also participate. However, the lack of a unified response

hinders the global fight against the illegal wildlife trade.

While traditional methods to combat crime, such as passing

laws, …


Legal Protection For Wildlife And Their Natural Habitat In The States Of The Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council - Dr. Maryam Bint Hasan Al-Khalifa Mar 2021

Legal Protection For Wildlife And Their Natural Habitat In The States Of The Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council - Dr. Maryam Bint Hasan Al-Khalifa

UAEU Law Journal

The concern of the states of the Arabian Cooperation Council to protect the environment in general and the conservation of wild life and their natural habitat in particular stems from the great significance of the need to protect the environment and human life. This attempt is a substantial part of environmental protection since man is the first beneficiary to sustain and continue the well being of the environment for eco balance through the activation of its major components in a natural and continuous manner.

The States of the Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council made individual efforts in the field of protecting …


Natural Resources And Natural Law Part Ii: The Public Trust Doctrine, Robert W. Adler Sep 2020

Natural Resources And Natural Law Part Ii: The Public Trust Doctrine, Robert W. Adler

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Natural Resources and Natural Law Part I: Prior Appropriation analyzed claims by some western ranchers, grounded in natural law, that they have property rights in grazing resources on federal public lands through prior appropriation. Those individuals advocated their position in part through civil disobedience and armed standoffs with federal officials. They also asserted that their duty to obey theistic natural law overrode any duty to obey the Nation’s positive law. Similar claims that individual religious beliefs override positive law have been made recently regarding a range of other controversial issues, such as same-sex marriage, public insurance for birth control, and …


Rethinking Global Governance To Address Zoonotic Disease Risks: Connecting The Dots, Kelley Lee Jan 2020

Rethinking Global Governance To Address Zoonotic Disease Risks: Connecting The Dots, Kelley Lee

Animal Sentience

Large-scale changes in human behaviour are urgently needed to prevent future pandemics involving zoonotic diseases such as COVID-19. However, this will not happen to the required degree, and with sufficient speed, without a major shift in how humanity collectively governs itself. Alongside a shift in focus from individual behaviours to the structural conditions underpinning the world economy that shape human behaviours, effective global governance presses us to connect more dots than ever before. The One Health approach is an important starting point but we need to go much further.


Golf Course Land Positive Effects On The Environment, Lauren Sewell Apr 2019

Golf Course Land Positive Effects On The Environment, Lauren Sewell

Seattle Journal of Environmental Law

This article evaluates both the positive and negative environmental aspects of golf course. This is a detailed analysis of mitigation efforts to limit harm of the courses and improvements golf course should pursue.


Law Library Blog (January 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2019

Law Library Blog (January 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


More Than Birds: Developing A New Environmental Jurisprudence Through The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Patrick G. Maroun Jan 2019

More Than Birds: Developing A New Environmental Jurisprudence Through The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Patrick G. Maroun

Michigan Law Review

This year marks the centennial of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, one of the oldest environmental regulatory statutes in the United States. It is illegal to “take” or “kill” any migratory bird covered by the Act. But many of the economic and industrial assumptions that undergirded the Act in 1918 have changed dramatically. Although it is undisputed that hunting protected birds is prohibited, circuit courts split on whether so-called “incidental takings” fall within the scope of the Act. The uncertainty inherent in this disagreement harms public and private interests alike—not to mention migratory birds. Many of the most important environmental …


Public-Private Conservation Agreements And The Greater Sage-Grouse, Justin R. Pidot Oct 2018

Public-Private Conservation Agreements And The Greater Sage-Grouse, Justin R. Pidot

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In 2015, the Obama Administration announced its conservation plans for the greater sage-grouse, an iconic bird of the intermountain west.Political leadership at the time described those plans as the “largest landscape-level conservation effort in U.S. history,”and they served as the foundation for a decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (“FWS”) that a listing of the bird was not warranted under the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”). The Trump Administration appears poised to substantially amend the plans, although an array of interested parties have urged that the plans be left intact. Regardless of the outcome of this debate, conservation of …


Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen Aug 2018

Avian Jurisprudence And The Protection Of Migratory Birds In North America, Marshall A. Bowen

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Complementary Authority And The One-Way Ratchet: Ecosystem Services Property, Regulation, And Wildlife Conservation, Kalyani Robbins Jul 2018

Complementary Authority And The One-Way Ratchet: Ecosystem Services Property, Regulation, And Wildlife Conservation, Kalyani Robbins

Kalyani Robbins

Due to the priorities of the Trump Administration, which are not a great match with those of the conservation community, we find ourselves in a period of rollbacks for all kinds of environmental regulation, including the protection of wildlife. When the federal government fails to adequately regulate, we look to other sources of authority to fill that gap. The first and most obvious place to look is to state and local governments. They are our best hope to avoid hemorrhaging vulnerable species during this presidency. Alas, looking at the realities of state wildlife conservation laws, we see the gaps remain. …


Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Apr 2018

Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay is an edited version of a talk presented at the 2017 J.B. & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium on Private Environmental Governance at the George Washington University. It is adapted from a longer article entitled Trust Me, I’m A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique of Pragmatic Activism, in 42 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 425 (2017).


Complementary Authority And The One-Way Ratchet: Ecosystem Services Property, Regulation, And Wildlife Conservation, Kalyani Robbins Jan 2018

Complementary Authority And The One-Way Ratchet: Ecosystem Services Property, Regulation, And Wildlife Conservation, Kalyani Robbins

Faculty Publications

Due to the priorities of the Trump Administration, which are not a great match with those of the conservation community, we find ourselves in a period of rollbacks for all kinds of environmental regulation, including the protection of wildlife. When the federal government fails to adequately regulate, we look to other sources of authority to fill that gap. The first and most obvious place to look is to state and local governments. They are our best hope to avoid hemorrhaging vulnerable species during this presidency. Alas, looking at the realities of state wildlife conservation laws, we see the gaps remain. …


A Review Of Contemporary U.S. Wild Horse And Burro Management Policies Relative To Desired Management Outcomes, Keith A. Norris Jan 2018

A Review Of Contemporary U.S. Wild Horse And Burro Management Policies Relative To Desired Management Outcomes, Keith A. Norris

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Legally defined “wild” horse (Equus ferus caballus ) and burro (E. asinus ; WHB) populations in the United States exceed established population objectives. The context of WHB policy and management can be categorized into ecological, geographical, legal, social, and political perspectives. Ecologically, all WHB populations in the United States are considered feral animals, but certain populations are afforded protection and management by the federal Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act (WFRHBA) of 1971. The current policy and management paradigms under which the WFRHBA is being implemented has contributed to rangeland degradation, poor WHB health, and impacts to native wildlife. This …


The Comparative Institutions Approach To Wildlife Governance, Dean Lueck Jan 2018

The Comparative Institutions Approach To Wildlife Governance, Dean Lueck

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article develops a comparative institutions approach to wildlife governance by examining the property rights to the habitat and the stocks of wild populations. The approach is based on the transaction cost and property rights approach and lies primarily in the traditions of Coase, Barzel, Ostrom, and Williamson. The approach recognizes the often-extreme costs of delineation and enforcement of property rights to wild populations and their habitats; thus, all systems are notably imperfect compared to the typical neoclassical economics approach. These costs arise because wildlife habitat and wildlife populations are part of the land which has many attributes and uses—most …


The Constitutionality Of Fish And Wildlife Related Searches And Seizures Conducted By Conservation Agents In Missouri, Travis R. Mclain Jan 2018

The Constitutionality Of Fish And Wildlife Related Searches And Seizures Conducted By Conservation Agents In Missouri, Travis R. Mclain

Saint Louis University Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Galperin Jan 2018

Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Galperin

Articles

This essay is an edited version of a talk presented at the 2017 J.B. & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium on Private Environmental Governance at the George Washington University. It is adapted from a longer article entitled Trust Me, I’m A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique of Pragmatic Activism, in 42 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 425 (2017).


Trust Me, I'M A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique Of Pragmatic Activism, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jan 2017

Trust Me, I'M A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique Of Pragmatic Activism, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Pragmatism is a robust philosophy, vernacular hand waiving, a method of judicial and administrative decisionmaking, and, more recently, justification for a certain type of political activism. While philosophical, judicial, and administrative pragmatism have garnered substantial attention and analysis from scholars, we have been much stingier with pragmatic activism — that which, in the spirit of the 21st Century’s 140-character limit, I will call “pragtivism.” This Article is intended as an introduction to pragtivism, a critique of the practice, and a constructive framework for addressing some of my critiques.

To highlight the contours of pragtivism, this Article tells the story of …


Trust Me, I'M A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique Of Pragmatic Activism, Joshua Galperin Jan 2017

Trust Me, I'M A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique Of Pragmatic Activism, Joshua Galperin

Articles

Pragmatism is a robust philosophy, vernacular hand waiving, a method of judicial and administrative decisionmaking, and, more recently, justification for a certain type of political activism. While philosophical, judicial, and administrative pragmatism have garnered substantial attention and analysis from scholars, we have been much stingier with pragmatic activism — that which, in the spirit of the 21st Century’s 140-character limit, I will call “pragtivism.” This Article is intended as an introduction to pragtivism, a critique of the practice, and a constructive framework for addressing some of my critiques.

To highlight the contours of pragtivism, this Article tells the story of …


The Hidden Rise Of Efficient (De)Listing, Zachary A. Bray Sep 2016

The Hidden Rise Of Efficient (De)Listing, Zachary A. Bray

Zachary Bray

What is the value of the gray wolf, and what might be the costs of including a tiny desert lizard on the list of endangered species? For decades, Congress has formally excluded questions about the economic value of species and the costs of their protection from agency decisions about whether a species should be listed under the Endangered Species Act. Recently, however, a number of federal legislators have sought to incorporate their own ad hoc views about the value of individual species in peril, and the costs of protecting such species, into listing decisions. This goal has been accomplished through …


Cascadia Wildlands V. Woodruff, Erick A. Valencia Mar 2016

Cascadia Wildlands V. Woodruff, Erick A. Valencia

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Predator management has long been a source of contention among the general public, and few predators have had a more polarizing effect on the public than wolves. Cascadia Wildlands v. Woodruff is yet another example of the tension between conservationists and private interests. In this case, Wildlands opposed the federal government’s FONSI and EA regarding Wildlife Services’s involvement in assisting the WDFW to implement its Wolf Conservation and Management Plan. The district court determined that Wildlife Services had acted arbitrarily and vacated Wildlife Services’s FONSI and EA.


Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, Jonathan Wood Feb 2016

Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, Jonathan Wood

Pace Environmental Law Review

Following the introduction, part II of this article will provide a brief background on the adoption of the Endangered Species Act. Part III will explain that the statute does not authorize the agencies to extend the take prohibition to all threatened species. Part IV will argue that returning to the statutory scheme would result in a fairer distribution of the costs of species protection by imposing the costs of prophylactic protection on agencies and the public generally. Burdening individuals would be a last resort, as Congress intended. Finally, Part V will identify how Congress’ policy is a reasonable way to …


Enhancing Watershed Planning In Implementation Of The Colorado Water Plan: An Overview Of Implementation Challenges And Opportunities, Douglas S. Kenney Jan 2016

Enhancing Watershed Planning In Implementation Of The Colorado Water Plan: An Overview Of Implementation Challenges And Opportunities, Douglas S. Kenney

Books, Reports, and Studies

25 pages.

Introduction -- Review of existing efforts -- Summary of interviews -- The salience of funding -- Recommendations -- Attachment A: Summary of reviewed watershed plans.


Public Trust Doctrine Implications Of Electricity Production, Lance Noel, Jeremy Firestone Dec 2015

Public Trust Doctrine Implications Of Electricity Production, Lance Noel, Jeremy Firestone

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

The public trust doctrine is a powerful legal tool in property law that requires the sovereign, as a trustee, to protect and manage natural resources. Historically, the public trust doctrine has been used in relationship to navigable waterways and wildlife management. Despite electricity production’s impact on those two areas and the comparatively smaller impacts of renewable energy, electricity production has garnered very little public trust doctrine attention. This Article examines how electricity production implicates the public trust doctrine, primarily through the lens of four states—California, Wisconsin, Hawaii, and New Jersey—and how it would potentially apply to each state’s electricity planning …


Uncertainty, Precaution, And Adaptive Management In Wildlife Trade, Annecoos Wiersema Oct 2015

Uncertainty, Precaution, And Adaptive Management In Wildlife Trade, Annecoos Wiersema

Michigan Journal of International Law

Wildlife trade is big business. Legal international trade in just some of the wild animals and plants traded worldwide is estimated at $350 to $530 million per year. The United States is the primary importer of virtually every major taxon of these species, including mammals, reptiles, fish, and plants. When it comes to illegal trade, estimates of its value range from $7 to $23 billion annually, covering wild animals, fish, and timber. This illegal trade fuels organized crime and militia and terrorist groups. In the face of all this pressure, some wild species appear to be traded in sustainable amounts. …


For Trinkets, Tonics, And Terrorism: International Wildlife Poaching In The Twenty-First Century, Ranee Khooshie Lal Panjabi Aug 2015

For Trinkets, Tonics, And Terrorism: International Wildlife Poaching In The Twenty-First Century, Ranee Khooshie Lal Panjabi

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.