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Full-Text Articles in Law

Law Not War: A Reflection On The Life And Work Of Benjamin B. Ferencz, 1920-2023, Patricia M. Mische Aug 2023

Law Not War: A Reflection On The Life And Work Of Benjamin B. Ferencz, 1920-2023, Patricia M. Mische

The Journal of Social Encounters

Solidarity in this essay is differentiated from collectivism, conformity, group think, herd mentality and mob action. It is defined as a mindful and empathetic choice to work in unity with others to alleviate human suffering and uphold human dignity by advancing systems of greater justice, peace, freedom, and inclusion for all. This form of solidarity is explored through the prism of one person’s life – that of Benjamin Ferencz – and how he used his experience, talents, and skills to develop and promote the international legal framework needed to address and prevent crimes against humanity. It traces his life from …


Justice Without Power: Yemen And The Global Legal System, Amulya Vadapalli Mar 2023

Justice Without Power: Yemen And The Global Legal System, Amulya Vadapalli

Michigan Law Review

The war in Yemen has remained the world’s worst humanitarian crisis since 2015, and yet it is shockingly invisible. The global legal system fails to offer a clear avenue through which the Yemeni people can hold the state actors responsible for their harm accountable. This Note analyzes international legal mechanisms for vindicating war crimes and human rights abuses perpetrated in Yemen. Through the lens of Yemen’s humanitarian crisis, it highlights gaps in the global legal structure, proposes alternative accountability processes, and uses a variety of sources—including interviews with practitioners and Arabic language legal scholarship—to explicate a victim-centered transitional justice process …


International Criminal Responsibility Of The Individual: A Quantum Leap For Man’S Humanity, Giovanni Distefano Prof. Nov 2022

International Criminal Responsibility Of The Individual: A Quantum Leap For Man’S Humanity, Giovanni Distefano Prof.

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

Properly speaking, international criminal responsibility is not a new chapter of public international law, but rather the recent revival of an old chapter of the Law of Nations. In the recent past, we have seen the emergence of ad hoc international criminal tribunals that is with a limited competence, as established in their statutes.([1]) Instead, today’s International Criminal Court enjoys, within its statutory (treaty) limits, a general jurisdiction; it is thus a permanent organ of a general character, mirroring the ICJ in matters of international criminal law. It will also be in charge of the international criminal responsibility …


Parameters Summer 2022, Usawc Press May 2022

Parameters Summer 2022, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Dysfunctional Warfare: The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine, Rob Johnson May 2022

Dysfunctional Warfare: The Russian Invasion Of Ukraine, Rob Johnson

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine was based on false premises, faulty assumptions, and a weak strategy. As the conflict has unfolded, heavy losses have imposed a strain on available Russian manpower. The Russian army reached a culminating point outside Kyiv and has exhibited little sign of operational learning. By contrast, Ukrainians have fought an existential war, making good use of dispersed light infantry tactics with high motivation levels. Western support has allowed them to compensate for their deficiencies in armaments and munitions. This commentary also shows military and policy leaders how the political context continues to impose limitations on the Ukrainians.


Animating The U.S. War Crimes Act, Beth Van Schaack Nov 2021

Animating The U.S. War Crimes Act, Beth Van Schaack

International Law Studies

All war crimes are challenging to prosecute. Typical reasons include the technicality of some constitutive elements, the difficulties of amassing sufficient evidence, the vagaries of unreliable or unavailable witnesses, and the often-impenetrable khaki wall of silence. Adding to these challenges, the United States has erected a number of idiosyncratic structural barriers in the way in which it has incorporated the prohibitions against war crimes into its domestic legal frameworks, both military and civilian. This article addresses problems with the U.S. federal war crimes statute and proposes reforms that would (1) better conform to U.S. obligations under the Geneva Conventions and …


U.S. Recognition Of A Commander’S Duty To Punish War Crimes, Brian Finucane Jul 2021

U.S. Recognition Of A Commander’S Duty To Punish War Crimes, Brian Finucane

International Law Studies

This article explores the United States' recognition of the doctrine of command responsibility. The doctrine has been invoked by those alleging that President Trump’s pardons of U.S. personnel convicted or accused of war crimes could amount to war crimes themselves. The article focuses on a commander’s duty to punish war crimes by his subordinates. It examines the United States’ past recognition of the duty to punish as an element of command responsibility under the law of war. The principle that a commander has an obligation to punish war crimes by his subordinates is not a progressive development of the law …


Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi Apr 2021

Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi

Michigan Journal of International Law

For the first time in the history of international criminal law, the ICC Elements of Crimes included a statutory definition of sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity. Such definition is derived from, and in fact almost identical to, the definition of enslavement in the same text. In July 2019, that language for the first time was adopted and applied in the conviction of general Bosco Ntaganda, the first ever conviction for sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity at the ICC, as part of the situation in the Democratic …


The Fallacy Of Contract In Sexual Slavery: A Response To Ramseyer's "Contracting For Sex In The Pacific War", Yong-Shik Lee, Natsu Taylor Saito, Jonathan Todres Apr 2021

The Fallacy Of Contract In Sexual Slavery: A Response To Ramseyer's "Contracting For Sex In The Pacific War", Yong-Shik Lee, Natsu Taylor Saito, Jonathan Todres

Michigan Journal of International Law

Over seven decades have passed since the end of the Second World War, but the trauma from the cruelest war in human history continues today, perpetuated by denial of responsibility for the war crimes committed and unjust attempts to rewrite history at the expense of dignity, life, and justice for the victims of the most serious human rights violations. The latest such attempt is a troubling recharacterization of the sexual slavery enforced by Japan during the Second World War as a legitimate contractual arrangement. A recent paper authored by J. Mark Ramseyer, entitled “Contracting for Sex in the Pacific War,” …


International Criminal Responsibility Of The Individual: A Quantum Leap For Man’S Humanity, Giovanni Distefano Mar 2021

International Criminal Responsibility Of The Individual: A Quantum Leap For Man’S Humanity, Giovanni Distefano

UAEU Law Journal

Properly speaking, international criminal responsibility is not a new chapter of public international law, but rather the recent revival of an old chapter of the Law of Nations. In the recent past, we have seen the emergence of ad hoc international criminal tribunals that is with a limited competence, as established in their statutes.[1] Instead, today’s International Criminal Court enjoys, within its statutory (treaty) limits, a general jurisdiction; it is thus a permanent organ of a general character, mirroring the ICJ in matters of international criminal law. It will also be in charge of the international criminal responsibility of …


The Icc Should Not Encourage Occupation, Uri Weiss Jan 2021

The Icc Should Not Encourage Occupation, Uri Weiss

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Can Soldiers Do ”The Decent Thing” In War? The Just War Tradition, The Laws Of War, And Saving Private Ryan, Ted Van Baarda Oct 2020

Can Soldiers Do ”The Decent Thing” In War? The Just War Tradition, The Laws Of War, And Saving Private Ryan, Ted Van Baarda

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Prosecuting Starvation Crimes In Yemen's Civil War, Laura Graham Jan 2020

Prosecuting Starvation Crimes In Yemen's Civil War, Laura Graham

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

"This article will discuss whether the responsible parties for starvation in Yemen can be prosecuted under international criminal law (ICL) or international humanitarian law (IHL) for war crimes or crimes against humanity (CAH)."


Book Review: Hitler’S Atrocities Against Allied Pows: War Crimes Of The Third Reich, Timothy Heck Dec 2019

Book Review: Hitler’S Atrocities Against Allied Pows: War Crimes Of The Third Reich, Timothy Heck

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Hitler’s Atrocities Against Allied PoWs cannot be regarded as an academic study of the fate awaiting captured Allied servicemen and women. Its narrow focus, socio-political goal, and limited engagement with the historiography prevent it from serving as more than a survey text or springboard. Chinnery attempts to tie the individual fates to a larger argument that the German armed forces and their security force compatriots were systematically responsible for the abuses described in the book. While the individual cases are compelling and some have a clear connection to explicit policies, the book does not succeed in linking its other examples …


Opportunities And Challenges Seeking Accountability For War Crimes In Palestine Under The International Criminal Court's Complementarity Regime, Thomas Obel Hansen May 2019

Opportunities And Challenges Seeking Accountability For War Crimes In Palestine Under The International Criminal Court's Complementarity Regime, Thomas Obel Hansen

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is currently conducting a preliminary examination of the situation in Palestine, involving allegations against Israeli authorities and military personnel as well as what the Prosecutor refers to as “Palestinian armed groups.” The preliminary examination creates a framework for advancing accountability norms in the Palestinian context and globally for international crimes committed by States with significant resources. However, the road to accountability is anything but straightforward. Indeed, several challenges relating both to the applicable legal framework and broader policy issues, could delay—or potentially even undermine—the accountability process, if not properly understood and managed. One particularly important …


Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens May 2019

Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller Apr 2019

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nuremberg’s prosecutors prominently used Lemkin’s genocide concept. They also dealt in detail with the mass murder of Europe’s Jews. However, for them ‘genocide’ and the Holocaust were not congruent. They used different definitions of Lemkin’s concept and interpreted the relationship between the mass murder of the European Jews and the entire mass violence of the Nazis differently. Lemkin had little influence on the application of his concept in the Nuremberg trials between 1945 and 1949. The implementation of the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention put an end to the broad use of the original concept from 1944. Although both Lemkin …


Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić Oct 2018

Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

After the fall of Srebrenica in summer of 1995, the Scorpions unit, dispatched to support the Bosnian Serb Army as it took over the enclave, shot six men in Trnovo. The men, three of whom were underage, were some of thousands of Bosnian Muslims that fell into the hands of Bosnian Serb troops, and that were executed in the days and weeks following July 11th. A member of the unit filmed the execution. Fragments of the video were first shown during the Slobodan Milosevic trial, and multiple times in the years after, in the courtrooms in The Hague and Belgrade. …


The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore May 2018

The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Standards In Command Responsibility Prosecutions: How Strict, And Why?, Michael J. Sherman Apr 2018

Standards In Command Responsibility Prosecutions: How Strict, And Why?, Michael J. Sherman

Northern Illinois University Law Review

The attached article looks at the concept of command responsibility “ the idea that a commander may be held liable for crimes committed by his or her soldiers, even if the commander did not order these crimes to be committed, and may not have been aware of the criminal activity at all. It examines command responsibility prosecutions attached to a number of different conflicts: World War II, the Yugoslavian and Rwandan genocides, and the Sierra Leonean civil war. It also discusses proposed standards for command responsibility prosecutions set out by the African Union and the UN (both in the International …


Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott Feb 2018

Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott

Maine Law Review

After years of negotiation, a majority of the nations of the world have agreed to create an International Criminal Court. It will be given jurisdiction over three core types of offenses: genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. With regard to war crimes, however, nations that join the court may take advantage of an “opt-out” procedure, whereby the court's jurisdiction over these offenses may be rejected for seven years after the court comes into existence. For various reasons, a small number of nations, including the United States, have refused to sign the treaty creating the court. While heralded as a …


Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham Feb 2017

Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

Does international law entitle armed groups to detain people? And what obligations are imposed on such non-state actors when they do detain? This article sets out suggested obligations for armed groups related to the right to challenge the basis for any detention and considers some related issues of fair trial and punishment. The last part of this article briefly considers the legal framework governing state responsibility and individual criminal responsibility for those that assist armed groups that detain people in ways that violate international law.


Individual Criminal Responsibility For The Destruction Of Religious And Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, Milena Sterio Jan 2017

Individual Criminal Responsibility For The Destruction Of Religious And Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, Milena Sterio

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, also known as Abon Tourab, was a member of the radical Islamic group Ansar Eddine, serving as one of four commanders during its brutal occupation of Timbuktu in 2012. The International Criminal Court (ICC) indicted Al Mahdi on several charges of war crimes, for intentional attacks against ten religious and historic buildings and monuments. All the buildings which Al Mahdi was charged with attacking had been under UNESCO protection, and most had been listed as world heritage sites. The case against Al Mahdi at the ICC unfolded relatively quickly and efficiently, from the official Malian …


Contemporary Soviet Criminal Law: An Analysis Of The General Principles And Major Institutions Of Post-1958 Soviet Criminal Law, Chris Osakwe Dec 2016

Contemporary Soviet Criminal Law: An Analysis Of The General Principles And Major Institutions Of Post-1958 Soviet Criminal Law, Chris Osakwe

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Expert Workshop Session: The Global Child, Haley Chafin, Jena Emory, Meredith Head, Elizabeth Verner Jul 2016

Expert Workshop Session: The Global Child, Haley Chafin, Jena Emory, Meredith Head, Elizabeth Verner

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Expert Workshop Session: Child Witnesses: Testimony, Evidence, And Witness Protection, Chelsea Swanson, Elizabeth Devos, Chloe Ricke, Andy Shin Jul 2016

Expert Workshop Session: Child Witnesses: Testimony, Evidence, And Witness Protection, Chelsea Swanson, Elizabeth Devos, Chloe Ricke, Andy Shin

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Problem Of Purpose In International Criminal Law, Patrick J. Keenan Apr 2016

The Problem Of Purpose In International Criminal Law, Patrick J. Keenan

Michigan Journal of International Law

Keenan addresses the problem of purposes in this Article, with two principal objectives. The first is to sort through the competing theories to identify the core purposes of international criminal law. The second is to show how those purposes are or can be put into effect in actual cases. These questions are important because the purposes for which the law is deployed significantly influence how it is deployed. Prosecutors bring different kinds of cases and argue different theories based at least in part on what they hope to achieve. For example, in the domestic context, prosecutors might choose to prioritize …


The Combatant’S Stance: Autonomous Weapons On The Battlefield, Jens David Ohlin Jan 2016

The Combatant’S Stance: Autonomous Weapons On The Battlefield, Jens David Ohlin

International Law Studies

Do Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) qualify as moral or rational agents? This paper argues that combatants on the battlefield are required by the demands of behavior interpretation to approach a sophisticated AWS with the “Combatant’s Stance”—the ascription of mental states required to understand the system’s strategic behavior on the battlefield. However, the fact that an AWS must be engaged with the combatant’s stance does not entail that other persons are relieved of criminal or moral responsibility for war crimes committed by autonomous weapons. This article argues that military commanders can and should be held responsible for perpetrating war crimes through …


Criminally Disproportionate Warfare: Aggression As A Contextual War Crime, Rachel E. Vanlandingham Jan 2016

Criminally Disproportionate Warfare: Aggression As A Contextual War Crime, Rachel E. Vanlandingham

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

International law has long recognized the general principle that an illegal act cannot produce legal rights. Yet, this principle of ex injuria jus non oritur is seemingly ignored in the uneasy relationship between the two international legal regimes most associated with war. A head of State can, for example, violate international law regulating the resort to armed force by ordering his military forces to illegally invade another country, yet he, through his military forces, simultaneously and subsequently benefits on the battlefield from the application of the separate body of international law regulating the actual conduct of war. The paradoxical benefit …


Can The Icc Consider Quesztions On Jus Ad Bellum In A War Crimes Trial?, Thomas S. Harris Jan 2016

Can The Icc Consider Quesztions On Jus Ad Bellum In A War Crimes Trial?, Thomas S. Harris

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

War has forever been considered the utmost necessary evil. Nevertheless, international law has for some time sought to limit the right to wage war (jus ad bellum), as well as the means and methods employed amid war (jus in bello). Although these two branches of law now share humanitarian purposes the prevention of war and its effects -- they have generally been kept separate throughout history. However, confronted with widespread violations of jus in bello, resulting in appalling humanitarian disasters, some have suggested amending their relationship. This was notably sought at the Nuremberg Trials, where prosecutors failed to contend that …