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Full-Text Articles in Law

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu Mar 2021

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Is privacy a luxury for the rich world? Remarkably, there is a dearth of literature evaluating whether data privacy is too costly for companies to implement, or too expensive for governments to enforce. This paper is the first to offer a review of surveys of costs of compliance, and to summarize national budgets for enforcement. The study shows that while privacy may indeed prove costly for companies to implement, it is not too costly for governments to enforce. This study will help inform governments as they fashion and implement privacy laws to address the “privacy enforcement gap”—the disparity between ...


Domain-Specific Plurilateral Cooperation As An Alternative To Trade Agreements, Bernard M. Hoekman, Charles F. Sabel Jan 2021

Domain-Specific Plurilateral Cooperation As An Alternative To Trade Agreements, Bernard M. Hoekman, Charles F. Sabel

Faculty Scholarship

At the end of 2017 different groups of WTO members decided to launch talks on four subjects, setting aside the WTO consensus working practice. This paper argues that these ‘joint statement initiatives’ (JSIs) should seek to establish open plurilateral agreements (OPAs) even in instances where the outcome can be incorporated into existing schedules of commitments of participating WTO members. Designing agreements as OPAs provides an institutional framework for collaboration among the responsible national authorities, transparency, mutual review, and learning, as well as alternatives to default WTO dispute settlement procedures which may not be appropriate for supporting cooperation on the matters ...


Are Data Privacy Laws Trade Barriers?, Margot Kaminski Jan 2020

Are Data Privacy Laws Trade Barriers?, Margot Kaminski

Articles

No abstract provided.


Unintended Agency Problems: How International Bureaucracies Are Built And Empowered, Anu Bradford, Stavros Gadinis, Katerina Linos Jan 2018

Unintended Agency Problems: How International Bureaucracies Are Built And Empowered, Anu Bradford, Stavros Gadinis, Katerina Linos

Faculty Scholarship

The ground underneath the entire liberal international order is rapidly shifting. Institutions as diverse as the European Union, International Monetary Fund, United Nations, and World Trade Organization are under major threat. These institutions reflect decades of political investments in a world order where institutionalized cooperation was considered an essential cornerstone for peace and prosperity. Going beyond the politics of the day, this Article argues that the seeds of today’s discontent with the international order were in fact sown back when these institutions were first created. We show how states initially design international institutions with features that later haunt them ...


From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe Jan 2015

From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe

Faculty Scholarship

Transparency obligations have undergone substantial transformations since the inception of the GATT in 1947. The paper begins by tracing the evolution of transparency principles during the WTO era. From an obligation to publish general laws affecting trade, the system now includes peer review by governments (monitoring and surveillance), and efforts to inform the public. The system is remarkable for what has been accomplished, but much remains to be done. Originally designed for a handful of developed countries, the system now provides an expanded knowledge base that benefits states, economic actors and citizens with inadequate resources to acquire information on their ...


From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe Jan 2015

From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe

Faculty Scholarship

Transparency obligations have undergone substantial transformations since the inception of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 117 1947. From an obligation to publish general laws affecting trade, the system now includes peer review by governments (in the form of monitoring and surveillance) and efforts to inform the public. These accomplishments are remarkable, but much remains to be done. Originally designed for a handful of developed countries, the global trading system now must provide an expanded knowledge base that benefits 160 member states, millions of economic actors, and hundreds of millions of citizens with inadequate resources to acquire ...


Competition Policy And Free Trade: Antitrust Provisions In Ptas, Anu Bradford, Tim Buthe Jan 2015

Competition Policy And Free Trade: Antitrust Provisions In Ptas, Anu Bradford, Tim Buthe

Faculty Scholarship

Trade agreements increasingly contain provisions concerning ‘behind-the-border’ barriers to trade, often beyond current World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments (Dur, Baccini and Elsig 2014). Today’s preferential trade agreements (PTAs) may include, for instance, rules regarding ‘technical’ barriers to trade that go beyond the WTO’s Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement), accelerating the replacement of differing national product safety standards with common international standards and thus reducing the trade-inhibiting effect of regulatory measures (Buthe and Mattli 2011; World Trade Organization 2012). Today’s PTAs may also go beyond WTO rules in prohibiting preferences for domestic producers in government ...


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Jul 2011

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

UF Law Faculty Publications

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets.

In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...


After The Fall: Financial Crisis And The International Order, Robert B. Ahdieh Oct 2010

After The Fall: Financial Crisis And The International Order, Robert B. Ahdieh

Faculty Scholarship

Recent years have challenged the international order to a degree not seen since World War II — and perhaps the Great Depression. As the U.S. housing crisis metastasized into a financial and economic crisis of grave proportions, and spread to nearly every corner of the globe, the strength of our international institutions — the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Twenty, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, and others — was tested as never before. Likewise tested, were the limits of our national commitment to those institutions, to our international obligations, and to global engagement more generally.

In ...


When The Wto Works, And How It Fails, Anu Bradford Jan 2010

When The Wto Works, And How It Fails, Anu Bradford

Faculty Scholarship

This Article seeks to explain when an international legal framework like the WTO can facilitate international cooperation and when it fails to do so. Using an empirical inquiry into different agreements that the WTO has attempted to facilitate – specifically intellectual property and antitrust regulation – it reveals more general principles about when and why the WTO can facilitate agreement in some situations and not others. Comparing the successful conclusion of the TRIPs Agreement and the failed attempts to negotiate a WTO antitrust agreement reveal that international cooperation is likely to emerge when the interests of powerful states are closely aligned and ...


When The Wto Works, And How It Fails, Anu Bradford Jan 2010

When The Wto Works, And How It Fails, Anu Bradford

Faculty Scholarship

This Article seeks to explain when an international legal framework like the WTO can facilitate international cooperation and when it fails to do so. Using an empirical inquiry into different agreements that the WTO has attempted to facilitate — specifically, intellectual property and antitrust regulation — it reveals more general principles about why the WTO can facilitate agreement in some situations and not in others. Comparing the successful conclusion of the TRIPS Agreement and the failed attempts to negotiate a WTO antitrust agreement indicates that international cooperation is likely to emerge when the interests of powerful states align and when concentrated interest ...


Limiting Anticompetitive Government Interventions That Benefit Special Interests, D. Daniel Sokol Jan 2009

Limiting Anticompetitive Government Interventions That Benefit Special Interests, D. Daniel Sokol

UF Law Faculty Publications

When government regulates, it may either intentionally or unintentionally generate restraints that reduce competition ("public restraints"). Public restraints allow a business to cloak its action in government authority and to immunize it from antitrust regulation. Private businesses may misuse the government's grant of antitrust immunity to facilitate behavior that benefits businesses at consumers' expense. One way is by obtaining government grants of immunity from antitrust scrutiny. A recent series of Supreme Court decisions has made this situation worse by limiting the reach of antitrust law in favor of sector regulation. This is true even though the Supreme Court refers ...


Global Governance: The World Trade Organization's Contribution, Andrew D. Mitchell, Elizabeth Sheargold Jan 2009

Global Governance: The World Trade Organization's Contribution, Andrew D. Mitchell, Elizabeth Sheargold

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Democracy and administrative law concern ideas of governance, legitimacy, and accountability. With the growth of bureaucracy and regulation, many democratic theorists would argue that administrative law mechanisms are essential to achieving democratic objectives. This article considers the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) contribution to governance both in terms of global administrative law and democracy. In relation to administrative law, it first explores the extent to which the WTO’s own dispute settlement process contributes to this area. Second, it considers the operation of administrative law principles embedded within the WTO Agreements on Members. For example, the WTO Agreements require that ...


Canadian Softwood Lumber And Free Trade Under Nafta, Sydney M. Cone Iii. Jan 2007

Canadian Softwood Lumber And Free Trade Under Nafta, Sydney M. Cone Iii.

Articles & Chapters

Canada and the United States have been involved in a long-running dispute over U.S. efforts to protect U.S. producers of softwood lumber by imposing high duties on imports of Canadian-origin softwood lumber. This dispute was prolonged by virtue of the fact that Canada and the United States not only are parties to the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA"), but also are members of the World Trade Organization ("WTO"). NAFTA contains provisions for the resolution of a trade dispute by an arbitration panel. A WTO agreement known as the Dispute Settlement Understanding ("DSU") separately provides for the creation ...


International Antitrust Negotiations And The False Hope Of The Wto, Anu Bradford Jan 2007

International Antitrust Negotiations And The False Hope Of The Wto, Anu Bradford

Faculty Scholarship

Multinational corporations (“MNCs”) operate today in an increasingly open global trade environment. While tariff barriers have collapsed dramatically, several states and numerous scholars have raised concerns that the benefits of trade liberalization are undermined by various non-tariff barriers (“NTBs”) to trade, including the anticompetitive business practices of private enterprise. As a result, demands to link trade and antitrust policies more closely by extending the coverage of the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) to incorporate antitrust law have gathered momentum over the last decade.


The Promotion Of Free-Trade Areas Viewed In Terms Of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment And Imperial Preference, Sydney M. Cone Iii. Jan 2005

The Promotion Of Free-Trade Areas Viewed In Terms Of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment And Imperial Preference, Sydney M. Cone Iii.

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Beyond Special And Differential Treatment, Frank J. Garcia Jan 2004

Beyond Special And Differential Treatment, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Developing country concern over awed special and differential treatment (S&D) provisions has already contributed to the failed Seattle and Cancún WTO Ministerial Meetings. In order to succeed, the current WTO Doha Development Round must go beyond simply reforming existing S&D provisions, important as that is. Developing countries must re-focus WTO trade and development policy around the twin goals of development and fairness. Developing countries need a comprehensive agreement on S&D clarifying that development, not trade liberalization, is the number one economic policy goal of developing countries, and that fairness, not charity, is the basis for development. Such an agreement should also establish adequate domestic policy space for minimally-distorting development policies; create binding and unconditional preferential market access; provide adequate time to implement complex new trade agreements; create truly “precise, effective and operational” S&D provisions; and adequately fund technical assistance.


The Byrd Amendment Is Wto-Illegal: But We Must Kill The Byrd With The Right Stone, Jagdish N. Bhagwati, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2003

The Byrd Amendment Is Wto-Illegal: But We Must Kill The Byrd With The Right Stone, Jagdish N. Bhagwati, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

On 16 January 2003, the WTO Appellate Body issued its report on United States – Continued Dumping And Subsidy Offset Act Of 2000 (WTO Doc. WT/DS217 and 234/AB/R). In this report, the Appellate Body condemned the so-called US Byrd Amendment by finding that it was inconsistent with the US obligations under the WTO Agreements on Antidumping (AD) and Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM).


Economic Development, Competition Policy, And The World Trade Organization, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2002

Economic Development, Competition Policy, And The World Trade Organization, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

At the recent WTO ministerial meeting in Doha, Qatar, WTO members called for the launch of negotiations on disciplines relating to competition, on the basis of explicit consensus on modalities to be agreed at the 5th WTO ministerial in 2003. Discussions in WTO since 1997 have revealed little support for ambitious multilateral action. Proponents of WTO antitrust disciplines currently propose an agreement that is limited to ‘core principles’ – nondiscrimination, transparency, and provisions banning ‘hard core’ cartels. We argue that an agreement along such lines will create compliance costs for developing countries while not addressing the anticompetitive behavior of firms located ...


It's A Question Of Market Access, Kyle W. Bagwell, Robert W. Staiger, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2002

It's A Question Of Market Access, Kyle W. Bagwell, Robert W. Staiger, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

In this paper, we argue that market access issues associated with the question of the optimal mandate of the World Trade Organization should be separated from nonmarket access issues. We identify race-to-the-bottom and regulatory-chill concerns as market access issues and suggest that the WTIO should address these concerns. We then describe ways that WTO principles and procedures might be augmented to do so. As for nonmarket access issues, we argue that as a general matter these are best handled outside the WTO, and that, while implicit links might be encouraged, explicit links between the WTO and other labor and environmental ...


International Cooperative Enforcement Agreements And Antitrust Extraterritoriality In The 21st Century, Basil Dominic Udotai Jan 1999

International Cooperative Enforcement Agreements And Antitrust Extraterritoriality In The 21st Century, Basil Dominic Udotai

LLM Theses and Essays

It is the focus of this thesis to critically evaluate the cooperative enforcement option proffered by the US authorities with a view to judging its attractiveness to other nations and its adequacy in solving problems posed by extraterritoriality in today's highly liberalized economy. In this regard, we shall see that the various models of cooperative enforcement arrangements adopted within the United States have failed to result in productive bilateral cooperation. This is due in large part, to the commitment of individual countries to satisfying national interests over cooperative obligations arising under the agreements. Because of these insufficiencies, the thesis ...


The Global Market And Human Rights: Trading Away The Human Rights Principle, Frank J. Garcia Jan 1999

The Global Market And Human Rights: Trading Away The Human Rights Principle, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


The Wto Legal System: Sources Of Law, David Palmeter, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 1998

The Wto Legal System: Sources Of Law, David Palmeter, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

Modern discussions of the sources of international law usually begin with a reference to Article 38 (1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which provides:

The Court, whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it, shall apply:

  1. international conventions, whether general or particular, establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting states;
  2. international custom as evidence of a general practice accepted as law;
  3. the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations;
  4. subject to the provisions of Article 59, judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly ...


Are Tuna And Dolphins The Same? A Rule Of Reason Approach To Resolve The Trade And Environment Conflict, Anantha K. Paruthipattu Jan 1997

Are Tuna And Dolphins The Same? A Rule Of Reason Approach To Resolve The Trade And Environment Conflict, Anantha K. Paruthipattu

LLM Theses and Essays

Trade and environment are both primary values in an ecologically and economically interdependent world; unleashing trade without regard to environmental impact is as detrimental as guarding the environment at the expense of trade and development. Tuna and dolphins have come to symbolize the policy struggle between trade and environment. In early 1990, the United States banned the import of tuna from Mexico and other countries that were fishing in a manner that damaged dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. Mexico challenged this ban before a GATT Panel, which ruled against the United States and held that the tuna ban ...


Private And Governmental Barriers Affecting International Market Contestability: Current And Prospective Remedies, Massimo G. Manzoni Jan 1997

Private And Governmental Barriers Affecting International Market Contestability: Current And Prospective Remedies, Massimo G. Manzoni

LLM Theses and Essays

Several interesting developments indicate that world attention is increasingly focusing on a "novel" category of trade barriers: non-tariff and non-border barriers. Following the Uruguay Round (the eighth round of negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, "GATT"), scholars and officers of international organizations have expressed hope that international market contestability will become a major goal of future international policy negotiations. Their studies have focused on the links between trade policy and competition policy, and have concluded that anticompetitive business practices are a potent barrier to international market contestability and might cause a loss of confidence in the free ...


The World Trade Organization's Agreement On Government Procurement: Expanding Disciplines, Declining Membership?, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 1995

The World Trade Organization's Agreement On Government Procurement: Expanding Disciplines, Declining Membership?, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) – originally negotiated during the Tokyo Round – was renegotiated for the second time during the Uruguay Round. It is one of the WTO's so-called Plurilateral Agreements, in that its disciplines apply only to those WTO Members that have signed it. In contrast to most of the other Tokyo Round codes – e.g., the agreements on technical barriers to trade (standards), import licensing, customs valuation, subsidies, and antidumping – the GPA could not be 'multilateralized'. With the reintroduction of agriculture and textiles and clothing into the GATT, procurement has therefore become the major 'hole' in the ...