Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

WTO

Antitrust and Trade Regulation

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in Law

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu Mar 2021

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Is privacy a luxury for the rich world? Remarkably, there is a dearth of literature evaluating whether data privacy is too costly for companies to implement, or too expensive for governments to enforce. This paper is the first to offer a review of surveys of costs of compliance, and to summarize national budgets for enforcement. The study shows that while privacy may indeed prove costly for companies to implement, it is not too costly for governments to enforce. This study will help inform governments as they fashion and implement privacy laws to address the “privacy enforcement gap”—the disparity between ...


Domain-Specific Plurilateral Cooperation As An Alternative To Trade Agreements, Bernard M. Hoekman, Charles F. Sabel Jan 2021

Domain-Specific Plurilateral Cooperation As An Alternative To Trade Agreements, Bernard M. Hoekman, Charles F. Sabel

Faculty Scholarship

At the end of 2017 different groups of WTO members decided to launch talks on four subjects, setting aside the WTO consensus working practice. This paper argues that these ‘joint statement initiatives’ (JSIs) should seek to establish open plurilateral agreements (OPAs) even in instances where the outcome can be incorporated into existing schedules of commitments of participating WTO members. Designing agreements as OPAs provides an institutional framework for collaboration among the responsible national authorities, transparency, mutual review, and learning, as well as alternatives to default WTO dispute settlement procedures which may not be appropriate for supporting cooperation on the matters ...


Are Data Privacy Laws Trade Barriers?, Margot Kaminski Jan 2020

Are Data Privacy Laws Trade Barriers?, Margot Kaminski

Articles

No abstract provided.


Gulf Airline Subsidization: Should The European Union And The United States Collaborate To Combat This Alleged Threat?, Savannah H. Moon Jul 2019

Gulf Airline Subsidization: Should The European Union And The United States Collaborate To Combat This Alleged Threat?, Savannah H. Moon

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Given Today's New Wave Of Protectionsim, Is Antitrust Law The Last Hope For Preserving A Free Global Economy Or Another Nail In Free Trade's Coffin?, Allison Murray Feb 2019

Given Today's New Wave Of Protectionsim, Is Antitrust Law The Last Hope For Preserving A Free Global Economy Or Another Nail In Free Trade's Coffin?, Allison Murray

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


After The Fall: Financial Crisis And The International Order, Robert B. Ahdieh Jun 2018

After The Fall: Financial Crisis And The International Order, Robert B. Ahdieh

Robert B. Ahdieh

Recent years have challenged the international order to a degree not seen since World War II — and perhaps the Great Depression. As the U.S. housing crisis metastasized into a financial and economic crisis of grave proportions, and spread to nearly every corner of the globe, the strength of our international institutions — the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Twenty, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, and others — was tested as never before. Likewise tested, were the limits of our national commitment to those institutions, to our international obligations, and to global engagement more generally.

In ...


Unintended Agency Problems: How International Bureaucracies Are Built And Empowered, Anu Bradford, Stavros Gadinis, Katerina Linos Jan 2018

Unintended Agency Problems: How International Bureaucracies Are Built And Empowered, Anu Bradford, Stavros Gadinis, Katerina Linos

Faculty Scholarship

The ground underneath the entire liberal international order is rapidly shifting. Institutions as diverse as the European Union, International Monetary Fund, United Nations, and World Trade Organization are under major threat. These institutions reflect decades of political investments in a world order where institutionalized cooperation was considered an essential cornerstone for peace and prosperity. Going beyond the politics of the day, this Article argues that the seeds of today’s discontent with the international order were in fact sown back when these institutions were first created. We show how states initially design international institutions with features that later haunt them ...


The Tbt Agreement’S Failure To Solve U.S. - Cool, Elinore R. Carroll Sep 2016

The Tbt Agreement’S Failure To Solve U.S. - Cool, Elinore R. Carroll

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Lodging The Sustainable Development Goals In The International Trade Regime: From Trade Rhetoric To Trade Plethoric, Nasser A. Alreshaid Jun 2016

Lodging The Sustainable Development Goals In The International Trade Regime: From Trade Rhetoric To Trade Plethoric, Nasser A. Alreshaid

Nasser A Alreshaid

While the international community is stimulated by the new sustainable development goals’ impetus, the global trade regime lives through its 40’s mid-life crisis and anticipates what it does not know. Views of the multilateral trading system being stalled by a proliferation of other preferential trade agreements, signal a deep inquiry into this policy trend. What this paper intends to highlight though, is that if lessons are drawn from the new sustainable development goals, these global trade challenges could be mere air turbulence. By introducing the needs of states and their constituents through these goals, an inclusive and more representative ...


The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis May 2016

The Shochu Conundrum: Economics And Gatt Article Iii, Alex Davis

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper will discuss the National Treatment (NT) obligation contained in Article III of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 as applied in precedential tax discrimination cases. Case law has not taken a firm stance on the economic versus legal interpretation of the likeness/directly competitive or substitutable (DCS) criterion or the principle of “so as to afford protection” (SATAP) captured in Article III.2. After examining the case law on discriminatory taxation, I conclude that the NT obligation in trade agreements is imperfect. Nonetheless, NT is a critical component of these agreements, and the international trade ...


Nafta Largely Responsible For The Obesity Epidemic In Mexico, Alana D. Siegel Jan 2016

Nafta Largely Responsible For The Obesity Epidemic In Mexico, Alana D. Siegel

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This note examines the link between the obesity epidemic in Mexico and NAFTA. Siegel argues that NAFTA’s leniency towards Foreign Direct Investments as well as its limitations on governmental regulation has impeded Mexico’s ability to address detrimental public health concerns, directly contributing to their obesity epidemic. Siegel then attempts to reconcile the desire for free trade with public health regulation by proposing changes to NAFTA’s language in order to create the flexibility necessary to directly address public health concerns.


From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe Jan 2015

From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe

Faculty Scholarship

Transparency obligations have undergone substantial transformations since the inception of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 117 1947. From an obligation to publish general laws affecting trade, the system now includes peer review by governments (in the form of monitoring and surveillance) and efforts to inform the public. These accomplishments are remarkable, but much remains to be done. Originally designed for a handful of developed countries, the global trading system now must provide an expanded knowledge base that benefits 160 member states, millions of economic actors, and hundreds of millions of citizens with inadequate resources to acquire ...


Competition Policy And Free Trade: Antitrust Provisions In Ptas, Anu Bradford, Tim Buthe Jan 2015

Competition Policy And Free Trade: Antitrust Provisions In Ptas, Anu Bradford, Tim Buthe

Faculty Scholarship

Trade agreements increasingly contain provisions concerning ‘behind-the-border’ barriers to trade, often beyond current World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments (Dur, Baccini and Elsig 2014). Today’s preferential trade agreements (PTAs) may include, for instance, rules regarding ‘technical’ barriers to trade that go beyond the WTO’s Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement), accelerating the replacement of differing national product safety standards with common international standards and thus reducing the trade-inhibiting effect of regulatory measures (Buthe and Mattli 2011; World Trade Organization 2012). Today’s PTAs may also go beyond WTO rules in prohibiting preferences for domestic producers in government ...


From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe Jan 2015

From Sunshine To A Common Agent: The Evolving Understanding Of Transparency In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert Wolfe

Faculty Scholarship

Transparency obligations have undergone substantial transformations since the inception of the GATT in 1947. The paper begins by tracing the evolution of transparency principles during the WTO era. From an obligation to publish general laws affecting trade, the system now includes peer review by governments (monitoring and surveillance), and efforts to inform the public. The system is remarkable for what has been accomplished, but much remains to be done. Originally designed for a handful of developed countries, the system now provides an expanded knowledge base that benefits states, economic actors and citizens with inadequate resources to acquire information on their ...


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Dec 2014

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

Stephen Joseph Powell

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets. In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...


Limiting Anticompetitive Government Interventions That Benefit Special Interests, D. Daniel Sokol Nov 2014

Limiting Anticompetitive Government Interventions That Benefit Special Interests, D. Daniel Sokol

D. Daniel Sokol

When government regulates, it may either intentionally or unintentionally generate restraints that reduce competition ("public restraints"). Public restraints allow a business to cloak its action in government authority and to immunize it from antitrust regulation. Private businesses may misuse the government's grant of antitrust immunity to facilitate behavior that benefits businesses at consumers' expense. One way is by obtaining government grants of immunity from antitrust scrutiny. A recent series of Supreme Court decisions has made this situation worse by limiting the reach of antitrust law in favor of sector regulation. This is true even though the Supreme Court refers ...


Environmental Unilateralism And The Wto/Gatt System, Ilona Cheyne Oct 2014

Environmental Unilateralism And The Wto/Gatt System, Ilona Cheyne

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The World Trade Organization: Elevating Property Interests Above Human Rights, Marjorie Cohn Oct 2014

The World Trade Organization: Elevating Property Interests Above Human Rights, Marjorie Cohn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The World Trade Organization And Its Interpretation Of The Article Xx Exceptions To The General Agreement Of Tariffs And Trade, In Light Of Recent Developments, Brandon L. Bowen Oct 2014

The World Trade Organization And Its Interpretation Of The Article Xx Exceptions To The General Agreement Of Tariffs And Trade, In Light Of Recent Developments, Brandon L. Bowen

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


An Overview Of The Draft China Antimonopoly Law, H. Stephen Harris Jr. Sep 2014

An Overview Of The Draft China Antimonopoly Law, H. Stephen Harris Jr.

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Sailing The Seas Of Protectionism: The Simultaneous Application Of Antidumping And Countervailing Duties To Nonmarket Economies - An Affront To Domestic And International Laws, Christopher Blake Mcdaniel Sep 2014

Sailing The Seas Of Protectionism: The Simultaneous Application Of Antidumping And Countervailing Duties To Nonmarket Economies - An Affront To Domestic And International Laws, Christopher Blake Mcdaniel

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Justice For All In The Dispute Settlement System Of The World Trade Organization, Kim Van Der Borght Sep 2014

Justice For All In The Dispute Settlement System Of The World Trade Organization, Kim Van Der Borght

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein Sep 2014

Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Behavioral International Law, Tomer Broude Feb 2014

Behavioral International Law, Tomer Broude

Tomer Broude

Economic analysis and rational choice have in the last decade made significant inroads into the study of international law and institutions, relying upon standard assumptions of perfect rationality of states and decision-makers. This approach is inadequate, both empirically and in its tendency towards outdated formulations of political theory. This article presents an alternative behavioral approach that provides new hypotheses addressing problems in international law while introducing empirically grounded concepts of real, observed rationality. First, I address methodological objections to behavioral analysis of international law: the focus of behavioral research on the individual; the empirical foundations of behavioral economics; and behavioral ...


The Depth Of The Trade In Services Agreement, Harold Godsoe Jan 2014

The Depth Of The Trade In Services Agreement, Harold Godsoe

Harold Godsoe

The setting against which plurilateral negotiations toward a new Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) are taking place is frustration. Service liberalization from GATS to bilateral PTAs to the Doha round have proven difficult and/or ineffective. The glaring and unexamined question is: why? This paper examines the current trade literature for what is known about TISA to date and subjects that information to a feasibility analysis for trade in service agreements. My goal is to understand what went wrong in previous attempts to liberalize services and/or trade and, consequently, what might being going wrong in TISA, and how it ...


A Failure To Consider: Why Lawmakers Create Risk By Ignoring Trade Obligations, David R. Kocan Professor Mar 2013

A Failure To Consider: Why Lawmakers Create Risk By Ignoring Trade Obligations, David R. Kocan Professor

David R. Kocan Professor

The U.S. Congress frequently passes laws facially unrelated to trade that significantly impact U.S. trade relations. These impacts are often harmful, significant, and long-lasting. Despite this fact, these bills rarely receive adequate consideration of how they will impact trade. Without this consideration, Congress cannot properly conduct a cost-benefit analysis necessary to pass effective laws. To remedy this problem, the U.S. Trade Representative should evaluate U.S. domestic law to determine whether it is consistent with international trade obligations. Moreover, the U.S. Congress committee structure should be amended so that laws that might impact trade are considered ...


Oportunidades Para Las Empresas Dentro De La Omc, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq. Dec 2012

Oportunidades Para Las Empresas Dentro De La Omc, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The author provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) by explaining the context of their interrelationship. Afterwards, the author delves into a brief analysis of Mexico’s role in the International Trade arena and concludes by describing the paths through which the private sector can benefit from the WTO.///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////El autor pone en contexto la interrelación entre la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) el Banco Mundial (BM) y el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI). Posteriormente, el autor describe brevemente el rol de México dentro de las instituciones de ...


Winner Or Loser? A Post-Quota Case Study Of Pakistan's Textiles And Clothing Exports, Umair H. Ghori Dec 2011

Winner Or Loser? A Post-Quota Case Study Of Pakistan's Textiles And Clothing Exports, Umair H. Ghori

Umair H. Ghori

Textiles and Clothing (T&C) is a critically important sector of international trade for developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs). The T&C sector engages abundant labour resources and requires low investment threshold. The T&C sector has been a contentious area in multilateral trade negotiations. With the expiration of quotas in 2005, many T&C dependent countries are experiencing considerable adjustment challenges. Pakistan is one such country that is extensively reliant on T&C industries. This research note presents a brief case study which looks at post-quota developments in Pakistan's T&C trade and the trade and ...


The Global Market And Human Rights: Trading Away The Human Rights Principle, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2011

The Global Market And Human Rights: Trading Away The Human Rights Principle, Frank J. Garcia

Frank J. Garcia

No abstract provided.


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Jul 2011

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

UF Law Faculty Publications

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets.

In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...