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Full-Text Articles in Law

Rules Of The Road: The Struggle For Safety And The Unmet Promise Of Federalism, Sara C. Bronin Jul 2021

Rules Of The Road: The Struggle For Safety And The Unmet Promise Of Federalism, Sara C. Bronin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

American streets have become increasingly dangerous. 2020 saw the highest year-over-year increase in roadway death rates in 96 years, and the last year for which we have data on non-drivers, 2018, was the was the deadliest year for pedestrians and cyclists in three decades. Though this resurgence of road violence has many complex causes, what makes American roads uniquely deadly are laws that lock in two interrelated design problems: unfriendly streets and unsafe vehicles.

Design standards articulate how streets and vehicles look and function. As they have been enshrined in law, they favor drivers and their passengers over any other ...


The Impact Of Municipal Fiscal Crisis On Equitable Development, Christopher J. Tyson Apr 2021

The Impact Of Municipal Fiscal Crisis On Equitable Development, Christopher J. Tyson

Journal Articles

The article focuses on how redevelopment authorities and land banks (RALBs) are especially vulnerable to municipal fiscal distress given investment and coordination necessary to bring about meaningful, impactful equitable development require a level of resource deployment most local governments. It mentions powers of public finance authority, distressed property management, code enforcement and blight elimination. It also mentions resources necessary to do urban planning, community engagement.


Towards An Urban Disability Agenda, Samuel R. Bagenstos Nov 2020

Towards An Urban Disability Agenda, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

The overwhelming majority of Americans with disabilities live in metropolitan areas. Yet those areas continue to contain significant barriers that keep disabled people from fully participating in city life. Although political and social debate has periodically turned its attention to urban issues or problems — or even the so-called “urban crisis” — during the past several decades, it has too rarely attended to the issues of disability access. When political debate has focused on disability issues, it has tended to address them in a nationally uniform way, without paying attention to the particular concerns of disabled people in cities. Even when city ...


Beyond Green Infrastructure--Integrating The Ecosystem Services Framework Into Urban Planning Law And Policy, J. B. Ruhl Jan 2020

Beyond Green Infrastructure--Integrating The Ecosystem Services Framework Into Urban Planning Law And Policy, J. B. Ruhl

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Despite the heavy emphasis in legal scholarship on federal and state governance of environmental policy, cities have had their champions as well. Legal scholars who stand out as having defined a position for local governance in the environmental domain include John Nolan, Jamison Colburn, Keith Hirokawa, Tony Arnold, and, on any such list, Julian Juergensmeyer. Indeed, in the United States and many other nations, cities have been leaders in many of the looming issues of environmental policy, including those with global dimensions, like climate change mitigation, and surely those with local focus, like climate change adaptation. In the United States ...


Comprehensive Rezonings, Sara C. Bronin Jan 2019

Comprehensive Rezonings, Sara C. Bronin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Of all powers given to local governments, the power to zone is one of the most significant. Zoning dictates everything that gets built in a locality—and thus effectively dictates all of the key activities that take place within it. Nationwide, most zoning codes were adopted in the first half of the twentieth century. Many, including the zoning codes of New York City and Chicago, were significantly revised in the 1960s. While these codes have been revised piecemeal, just a few American cities have undergone a comprehensive revision: replacing the old code with a completely new one.

A comprehensive rezoning ...


Environmental Determinism: Functional Egalitarian Spaces Promote Functional Egalitarian Practices, Katharine Silbaugh Jan 2019

Environmental Determinism: Functional Egalitarian Spaces Promote Functional Egalitarian Practices, Katharine Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

Egalitarian, place-based thinking belongs at the table when considering approaches to improving early childhood. Places connect people’s lives. They also generate patterns that organize, and can re-organize, our social order and behavior. Places can spark and support the development of self-governance and cultivate a political voice grounded in the needs of the same community that place generates. Whether considered as community schools, community centers, or more ambitiously, community housing developments designed to include services that meet the needs of residents, the spatial dimensions of early childhood policy require explicit consideration.


Distinguishing Households From Families, Katharine B. Silbaugh May 2016

Distinguishing Households From Families, Katharine B. Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

The study of the relationship between all families, whether marital or non-marital, and households, is underdeveloped, despite extensive study of the mismatch between family law, which is still focused on marriage and parenthood, and family practices. Often, in an effort to update the discourse, discussions of non-marital families seem to deploy households or living arrangements as a substitute classification in the place of the old marital family. This Article argues that we need to resist the tendency to substitute the idea of “household” when the boundaries of legal family fail us, because households are not necessarily familial, and because core ...


Distributional Consequences Of Public Policies: An Example From The Management Of Urban Vehicular Travel, Winston Harrington, Elena Safirova, Conrad Coleman, Sébastien Houde, Adam M. Finkel Mar 2014

Distributional Consequences Of Public Policies: An Example From The Management Of Urban Vehicular Travel, Winston Harrington, Elena Safirova, Conrad Coleman, Sébastien Houde, Adam M. Finkel

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper uses a spatially disaggregated computable general equilibrium model of a large US metropolitan area to compare two kinds of policies, “Live Near Your Work” and taxation of vehicular travel, that have been proposed to help further the aims of “smart growth.” Ordinarily, policy comparisons of this sort focus on the net benefits of the two policies; that is, the total monetized net welfare gains or losses to all citizens. While the aggregate net benefits are certainly important, in this analysis we also disaggregate these benefits along two important dimensions: income and location within the metropolitan area. The resulting ...


Requiem For Regulation, Garrett Power Jan 2014

Requiem For Regulation, Garrett Power

Faculty Scholarship

This comment reviews U.S. Supreme Court decisions over the past 100 years which have considered the constitutional limitations on governmental powers. It finds that at the three-quarter mark of the 20th century, a remarkable set of Court precedents had swollen the regulatory powers of governments while shrinking private rights to property and contract. But since the Reagan years, a more conservative Court has undertaken to curtail governmental activity in general, and to limit federal, state, and local planning in particular. A number of 5-4 decisions expanded private property rights and contracted the scope of the federal “commerce power.” The ...


How Often Do Cities Mandate Smart Growth Or Green Building?, Michael Lewyn Jan 2014

How Often Do Cities Mandate Smart Growth Or Green Building?, Michael Lewyn

Scholarly Works

Much has been written about the role of government regulation in facilitating automobile-oriented sprawl. Zoning codes reduce walkability by artificially segregating housing from commerce, forcing businesses and multifamily landlords to surround their buildings with parking, and artificially reducing density. The “smart growth” movement seeks to reverse these policies, both through regulation and through more libertarian, deregulatory policies. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent cities have in fact chosen the former path, and to discuss the possible side effects of prescriptive smart growth and green building regulations. In particular, this paper focuses on attempts to make ...


The 2012 Environmental Law Symposium: California's Urban Wildlands: Cities As Habitat, Golden Gate University School Of Law Nov 2012

The 2012 Environmental Law Symposium: California's Urban Wildlands: Cities As Habitat, Golden Gate University School Of Law

Environmental Law Symposia

Welcome to the 2012 Environmental Law Symposium, held in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JOURNAL the publication of this year's edition of the Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal's Symposium: The City as Habitat: A Place for Urban Wildlands. This edition and our Symposium bring to the stage discussions of California's urban habitats, including the Presidio's Crissy Field in San Francisco, the Ballona Wetlands in Playa Del Ray in Southem California, the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, and many others. Today we join many urban planning circles in the discussion on preserving a prominent place for greenspace and ...


From Bricks And Mortar To Mega-Bytes And Mega-Pixels: The Changing Landscape Of The Impact Of Technology And Innovation On Urban Development, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2011

From Bricks And Mortar To Mega-Bytes And Mega-Pixels: The Changing Landscape Of The Impact Of Technology And Innovation On Urban Development, Patricia E. Salkin

Scholarly Works

This article reflects upon the impact that technology and innovation has had on urban development. From NASA's Landstat program, to Google maps and GPS, technology has had a significant impact on urban planning and land use law. The article begins with a discussion of the impact of the elevator and steel technologies on urban architecture and density, and then moves to changes in transportation such as the automobile and the development of public transportation systems. Green buildings, GIS, satellite data, online mapping, personal computers, the Internet and cell phones are all examined.


Sprawl, Family Rhythms, And The Four-Day Work Week, Katharine Silbaugh May 2010

Sprawl, Family Rhythms, And The Four-Day Work Week, Katharine Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

We evaluate the four-day work week against the background of other institutional and social practices and constraints. But we fix these other variables when considering the value of this work reform. For example, workers enjoy the commute time and expense savings associated with a four-day week. These savings would mean little if the commutes in question were negligible. Therefore, the value of the four-day work week depends in part on the social history that gave us increasingly substantial commutes. This Article seeks to highlight some of the institutional practices that influence the adoption of a four-day work week, particularly those ...


State Of Maryland V. Louis Hyman: Did Progressivism, Concern For Public Health, And The Great Baltimore Fire Influence The Court Of Appeals?, Justin Haas Jan 2010

State Of Maryland V. Louis Hyman: Did Progressivism, Concern For Public Health, And The Great Baltimore Fire Influence The Court Of Appeals?, Justin Haas

Legal History Publications

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, increased immigration from eastern Europe and a growing garment industry in Baltimore led to vast growth in so-called sweatshops: cramped workspaces in which clothing was partially or completely sewn for market. As the sweatshops grew, integrated clothing factories were also emerging, finally becoming a real force in the Baltimore garment industry around the turn of the twentieth century. As the integrated factories grew, the workers joined in the growing organized labor movement, and then began to push for greater protections for the health and safety of workers, as well as fair wages ...


Green V. Garrett: How The Economic Boom Of Professional Sports Helped To Create, And Destroy, Baltimore’S Memorial Stadium, Jordan Vardon Jan 2010

Green V. Garrett: How The Economic Boom Of Professional Sports Helped To Create, And Destroy, Baltimore’S Memorial Stadium, Jordan Vardon

Legal History Publications

Buildings, like people, have lives all their own. They have beginnings, middles, ends, and even good and bad years. This project is a study of a building known by many names, including Venable Park, Mud Stadium, The Great White Elephant of 33rd St., The Old Gray Lady, and the World’s Largest Outdoor Insane Asylum, although for most of its life it was officially referred to as Memorial Stadium, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

The story of Memorial Stadium is really the story of those in the community that surround it. As the use and popularity of the Stadium grew, so ...


The Baltimore Development Corporation: A Case Study Of Economic Development Corporations, Shadow Government, And The Fight For Public Transparency And Accountability, Maximilian Tondro Jan 2010

The Baltimore Development Corporation: A Case Study Of Economic Development Corporations, Shadow Government, And The Fight For Public Transparency And Accountability, Maximilian Tondro

Legal History Publications

This paper explores the limited public accountability of local quasi-public development corporations in negotiating and implementing public redevelopment projects by examining the history of the Baltimore Development Corporation (BDC). For most of its two-decade existence the BDC has strenuously resisted all public inquiry and oversight, a tradition inherited from its predecessors that originated as private business-led entities performing tasks under contract with Baltimore City (City). Like other similar quasi-public local development corporations, the BDC justified its need for secrecy as necessary to ensure the BDC’s effectiveness and efficiency in negotiating with private businesses on redevelopment projects. This assertion that ...


Caretti V Broring Building Company: The Sewering And Planning Of A City, Sheba Newman-Blount Jan 2010

Caretti V Broring Building Company: The Sewering And Planning Of A City, Sheba Newman-Blount

Legal History Publications

Caretti v Broring Building Company was a case decided by the Court of Appeals of Maryland in 1926. Louis and Lucia Caretti sued the Broring Building Company in 1925 to enjoin them from polluting a stream that flowed through the Carettis’ property with sewage from their sewer system. The Carettis sued for an injunction to stop the operation of the sewer and further pollution of the stream. The Court of Appeals reversed the trial court ruling and decided in the Carettis’s favor, granting them an injunction against Broring.

The Carettis’ case occurred at a time when Baltimore was undergoing ...


Back To The Future: Is Form-Based Code An Efficacious Tool For Shaping Modern Civic Life?, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2007

Back To The Future: Is Form-Based Code An Efficacious Tool For Shaping Modern Civic Life?, Lolita Buckner Inniss

Articles

This Essay serves as a critique of the New Urbanism in general and of form-based code in particular as a tool of the New Urbanism. It may be true that form-based code offers more flexibility than traditional zoning schemes and thus may offer some respite from acknowledged ills such as social and racial divisions created by exclusionary zoning and other tools, and from the relative inutility of single or limited use districts. However, I will argue that these benefits are eclipsed by some of the problems of form-based code. Form-based code is frequently hailed as a back to the future ...


Back To The Future: Is Form-Based Code An Efficacious Tool For Shaping Modern Civic Life, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2007

Back To The Future: Is Form-Based Code An Efficacious Tool For Shaping Modern Civic Life, Lolita Buckner Inniss

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

This Essay serves as a critique of the New Urbanism in general and of form-based code in particular as a tool of the New Urbanism. It may be true that form-based code offers more flexibility than traditional zoning schemes and thus may offer some respite from acknowledged ills such as social and racial divisions created by exclusionary zoning and other tools, and from the relative inutility of single or limited use districts. However, I will argue that these benefits are eclipsed by some of the problems of form-based code. Form-based code is frequently hailed as a back to the future ...


Locational Justice: Race, Class, And The Grassroots Protest Of Property Takings, Judith E. Koons Jan 2006

Locational Justice: Race, Class, And The Grassroots Protest Of Property Takings, Judith E. Koons

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


How Goes The American Dream?, Chester Smolski Jan 1993

How Goes The American Dream?, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"Americans are a hard-working lot. The ambitious American worker has fewer holidays, less vacation time and other benefits than Western Europeans. They are well-rewarded for their pursuit of the American dream. Home ownership rates in this country are among the highest rates in the world. The typical American worker has more cars and more kitchen gadgets, electronic hardware, recreational gear and more computers in his home than any other worker in the world."


Redistricting Law And Minority Rights, Chester Smolski Oct 1991

Redistricting Law And Minority Rights, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"It has been referred to as "probably the most important civil rights law on the books," and the results of that legislation are most impressive. But more importantly, the Voting Rights Act promises to have an even greater influence in the coming decade."


Watch The Process, Chester Smolski Sep 1991

Watch The Process, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"The reason for the 1990 census is now at hand: The Reapportionment Commission is in place, and the process has just begun. The redrawing of local state and congressional boundary lines that define districts by populations to be represented at these three levels of government is upon us, and bears close watching."


Financing Difficulties Stall Linkage In Providence, Chester Smolski Mar 1989

Financing Difficulties Stall Linkage In Providence, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"When the India Point Club luxury condominium development, scheduled to be built on the Providence waterfront, was announced in 1987, there were many local skeptics who said it was too expensive for the Providence market. After all, selling penthouse condos overlooking the dirty Providence River for over $1 million was quite ambitious--and some said impossible."


Inflation Takes A Toll On The Poor, Chester Smolski Sep 1981

Inflation Takes A Toll On The Poor, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"Everyone is keenly aware these days of the declining value of the dollar and the inability of the average person to keep pace with the rising cost of living. Inflation, an insidious ailment of the economy, strikes all people alike, whether they be working families, single people, elderly or poor."


Providence Needs An Effective 'Land Bank' Policy, Chester Smolski Nov 1980

Providence Needs An Effective 'Land Bank' Policy, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"Recent disclosures on the purchase of vacant lots in Providence by certain city officals have raised two serious questions, only one of which has been addressed."


The Case For Residency Requirements, Chester Smolski May 1979

The Case For Residency Requirements, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"The issue has been raised previously. It came up again most recently with the applicants for jobs with the Providence Fire Department. The question is, 'Should city employees be required to live in the city which employs them?'"


Loss-Leaders For The Inner Cities, Chester Smolski Aug 1978

Loss-Leaders For The Inner Cities, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"The Wall Street Journal has called it 'the latest war between the states.' It is a tool long used by Southern cities and states that only now is being utilized in the Northeast and Midwest. And it has been used by the city of Providence at the Biltmore Plaza.


Land Management Bill Must Not Be Dismissed, Chester Smolski Apr 1978

Land Management Bill Must Not Be Dismissed, Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"After 10 years of study, three years of public meetings and discussion, three years of writing and revision, and now for the third consecutive year, the carefully conceived, greatly altered, and highly-detailed 136-page bill to manage the land of Rhode Island is before the General Assembly for possible enactment."


Statewide Land Use Plan For R.I., Chester Smolski Mar 1977

Statewide Land Use Plan For R.I., Chester Smolski

Smolski Texts

"The Rhode Island section of the American Institute of Planners has called it "the most significant single item of legistlation in the history of land planning in this state," and yet there is the real possibility that this far reaching measure may not be introduced for enactment in this session of the General Assembly."