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Uniform Commercial Code

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Coordination Of The Uniform Commercial Code And Common Law, Kenneth C. Kettering Oct 2023

Coordination Of The Uniform Commercial Code And Common Law, Kenneth C. Kettering

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Deciding whether an issue that is in the ambit of a statute should be resolved by reference to the statute alone, or whether other sources of law should be applied, is a common interpretative task. The Uniform Commercial Code ("UCC") contains rules of interpretation that address the subject, and those rules have not been altered since the UCC was first generally enacted. Nevertheless, questions often arise on the subject under the UCC. This paper examines the UCC rules on point. The analysis is germane to the interpretation and drafting of other statutes that codify rules of private law.


Floating Liens Over Crypto-In-Commerce, Christopher K. Odinet, Andrea Tosato Jan 2023

Floating Liens Over Crypto-In-Commerce, Christopher K. Odinet, Andrea Tosato

Indiana Law Journal

Commercial law and crypto are colliding. Against the backdrop of explosive growth (and discord) in the digital asset market, there has been a series of recent revisions to American commercial law aimed at addressing new and emerging technologies. These changes to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) are designed to facilitate the buying and selling of digital assets as well as their use as collateral. However, to date, the literature exploring these changes has mainly focused on understanding the basics of the new regime. This Essay moves beyond that baseline by showing how the UCC amendments can be used to structure …


Modernizing Notice Of Breach Rules To Preserve Contract Remedies, Stephen Plass Jan 2023

Modernizing Notice Of Breach Rules To Preserve Contract Remedies, Stephen Plass

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Recently, the legal community has scrutinized the capacity of mandatory arbitration rules to deter or foreclose claims for breach of contract. But little attention has been paid to express and constructive notice of breach rules that are just as effective at foreclosing contractual remedies. While four-year statutes of limitations are typically viewed as the default cutoff time for breach of contract claims, contracting parties, particularly buyers of goods, must act much sooner to preserve their legal remedies. It is now common practice for sellers to require notice of breach within days or weeks of their performance as an express condition …


Untangling Attorney Retainers From Creditor Claims, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Jesse T. Wynn Jan 2022

Untangling Attorney Retainers From Creditor Claims, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Jesse T. Wynn

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Clients will often use a retainer to secure an attorney’s representation. But clients in economic distress may have creditors that are eager to access the client’s funds in the attorney’s hands. Attorneys, clients, courts, and regulators have struggled to understand who has the best claim to such retainer funds. In this Article, we attempt to untangle the most common areas of confusion. We conclude that Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) offers strong protection for an attorney’s interest in client retainers through security interests, even though some courts have misapplied the UCC in this context. Further, we recommend …


Social Justice And Deposit Return Calculations: A Study Of Success And Failure In Commercial Law Reform, William H. Widen Jan 2020

Social Justice And Deposit Return Calculations: A Study Of Success And Failure In Commercial Law Reform, William H. Widen

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

This Article proceeds as follows: Part I describes case law which uses a “penalty” interpretation for § 2-718(2) and (3). Part II describes case law in which courts do not apply a penalty. Part III offers a penalty-free interpretation for § 2-718(2) and (3) that remains true to the statutory language. These three parts make extensive use of numerical examples and explanations. Although the presentation may seem dense in parts, an appreciation of the numbers is essential to understanding both the problem and the solution.

Part IV describes the drafting history of § 2-718(2) and (3) to support the …


Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins Oct 2019

Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins

Indiana Law Journal

When the majority of modern contract and consumer protection laws were written in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s, consumers almost always acted as buyers, and businesses almost always acted as sellers. As a result, these laws reflect a model of strong sellers and weak buyers. But paradigms are shifting. Advances in technology and constraints on consumers’ financial lives have pushed consumers into new roles. Consumers today often act as sellers—hawking gold to make ends meet, peddling durable goods on eBay, or offering services in the sharing economy to make a profit. Consumers and business models have changed, but the laws …


A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan Jun 2019

A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan

Washington and Lee Law Review

Since the 1980s, software is at the core of most modern organizations, most products and most services. Part II of this Article examines how the U.C.C. evolved as the primary source of law for the first generation of computer contracts during the mainframe computer era. Part III examines how courts have overextended U.C.C. Article 2, as the main source of law for software licensing, to the limits. Part IV argues that the ALI and the NCCUSL should propose a new Article 2B for software licensing. Part V recommends a new Article 2C for “software as a service.”


Untangling The Web Of Consignment Law: The Journey From The Common Law & Article 2 To Revised Article 9, Willa Gibson Feb 2019

Untangling The Web Of Consignment Law: The Journey From The Common Law & Article 2 To Revised Article 9, Willa Gibson

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article examines and analyzes the law of consignments from the common law through Revised Article 9 with a goal towards identifying and analyzing the uncertainties and confusion that have persisted throughout the transition from the common law to the UCC. The law of consignments has abounded with uncertainty since its genesis under common law. In an attempt to clarify the persistent confusion and disarray surrounding the law, the UCC enacted section 2-326; but the statute was not a model of clarity, engendering increased uncertainty and confusion. Courts wrestled with how to interpret the provision to be consistent with the …


Remedies In The Ucc: Some Critical Thoughts, Victor Goldberg Jun 2018

Remedies In The Ucc: Some Critical Thoughts, Victor Goldberg

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Uniform Commercial Code Article Two Revisions: The View Of The Trenches, Henry Gabriel Jun 2018

Uniform Commercial Code Article Two Revisions: The View Of The Trenches, Henry Gabriel

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Foreword, Leticia Diaz Jun 2018

Foreword, Leticia Diaz

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Revision Of Article 2: Commercial Sellers Vs. Consumer Buyers Appendix, James J. White Jun 2018

The Revision Of Article 2: Commercial Sellers Vs. Consumer Buyers Appendix, James J. White

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Importing Uniform Sales Law Into Article 2, Steven Walt Jun 2018

Importing Uniform Sales Law Into Article 2, Steven Walt

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Myth Of Trade Usages: A Talk, Lisa Bernstein Jun 2018

The Myth Of Trade Usages: A Talk, Lisa Bernstein

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Revision Of Article 2: Commercial Sellers Vs. Consumer Buyers, James J. White Jun 2018

The Revision Of Article 2: Commercial Sellers Vs. Consumer Buyers, James J. White

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Article 2 Of The Ucc: Some Thoughts On Success Or Failure In The Twenty-First Century, Robert A. Hillman Jun 2018

Article 2 Of The Ucc: Some Thoughts On Success Or Failure In The Twenty-First Century, Robert A. Hillman

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


“Dishonesty” In Fact: The Future Uncertainty Of Maryland’S Statutory Interpretation Of Good Faith & Encouraging Lax Lender Liability, Kara N. Achilihu Jun 2018

“Dishonesty” In Fact: The Future Uncertainty Of Maryland’S Statutory Interpretation Of Good Faith & Encouraging Lax Lender Liability, Kara N. Achilihu

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


U.S. Unconscionability And Article 1171 Of The New French Civil Code: Achieving Balance In Statutory Regulation And Judicial Intervention, Charles R. Calleros May 2018

U.S. Unconscionability And Article 1171 Of The New French Civil Code: Achieving Balance In Statutory Regulation And Judicial Intervention, Charles R. Calleros

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Uniform Commercial Acts, J.P. Mckeehan Oct 2017

The Uniform Commercial Acts, J.P. Mckeehan

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The Commissioners on Uniform State Laws have had twenty- five annual conferences. The principal fruit of their labors is represented by the Negotiable Instruments Act, enacted in forty-seven jurisdictions; the Warehouse Receipts Act, enacted in thirty-one jurisdictions; the Sales Act, enacted in fourteen jurisdictions, the Bills of Lading Act enacted in thirteen jurisdictions, and the Stock Transfer Act, enacted in nine jurisdictions. They have also drafted acts relating to divorce, family desertion, probate of wills, marriage evasion, workmen’s compensation and partnership but these have not yet been enacted in more than a few states. All of the commercial acts are …


Uniform Commercial Acts, Samuel Williston Oct 2017

Uniform Commercial Acts, Samuel Williston

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

No abstract provided.


Do We Need A Global Commercial Code?, Michael Joachim Bonell Oct 2017

Do We Need A Global Commercial Code?, Michael Joachim Bonell

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) first launched the idea of preparing a code of inter- national trade law. In 1970, the Secretariat of UNIDROIT submitted a note to the newly established United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in justification of such an initiative and indicated some of the salient features of the project. What was proposed was a veritable code in the continental sense. The proposed code included two parts: part one dealing with the law of obligations generally, and part two relating to specific kinds of commercial transactions. However, the “Progressive codification …


A Meaningful Opportunity For Release: Resentencing Hearings For Juvenile Offenders Sentenced To Life Without Parole Following Aiken V. Byars, Robert M. Dudek Apr 2017

A Meaningful Opportunity For Release: Resentencing Hearings For Juvenile Offenders Sentenced To Life Without Parole Following Aiken V. Byars, Robert M. Dudek

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Personal Property Tax Liens On The Rights Of Secured Creditors, Keith Maune Jan 2017

The Effects Of Personal Property Tax Liens On The Rights Of Secured Creditors, Keith Maune

Belmont Law Review

In most states, counties are allowed to tax personal property and may attach liens to the personal property if the taxes are not paid. However, secured creditors may already have a lien on the same personal property, which they perfected by making the appropriate filing as set forth by the Uniform Commercial Code (the “UCC”). The laws that control the relative rights of the counties and the secured creditors vary widely among states. In some states, despite a creditor’s apparent priority under the UCC, a county’s lien can override a creditor’s prior lien, even without any registration or opportunity for …


Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito Oct 2016

Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Commercial law in the United States is designed to facilitate private transactions, and thus to enforce the presumed intent of the parties, who generally are free to negotiate the terms they choose. But these contracts inevitably have gaps, both because the parties cannot anticipate every situation that might arise from their relationship, and because negotiation is not costless. When courts are faced with these gaps in a litigation context, they supply default terms to fill them. These defaults usually are set to reflect what courts believe similar parties would have agreed to if they had addressed the issue. These “majoritarian” …


Uniform Commercial Code Article 2b & The State Contract Law-Federal Intellectual Property Law Interface: Can State Statutes Even Begin To Address Copyright Preemption Of Shrink-Wrap Licenses?, Elizabeth J. Mcclure Apr 2016

Uniform Commercial Code Article 2b & The State Contract Law-Federal Intellectual Property Law Interface: Can State Statutes Even Begin To Address Copyright Preemption Of Shrink-Wrap Licenses?, Elizabeth J. Mcclure

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin Apr 2016

The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The analysis in this article suggests that there is a hierarchy of priorities in Article 9 of the UCC and that this hierarchy is relatively simple to describe. The analysis here describes this hierarchy by engaging in a two-part analysis. Part I suggests that the rules for priorities in Article 9 come out of the interaction of a number of variables, variables that are well-known to everybody who is familiar with Article 9. Part II suggests that the variables described in Part I allow us to put all of the important rules about priorities into a simple chart that shows …


Can You Ever Disclaim An Express Warranty?, Kurt M. Saunders Apr 2016

Can You Ever Disclaim An Express Warranty?, Kurt M. Saunders

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) recognizes both express warranties and implied warranties of quality in the sale of goods. Within specific limits, the UCC permits sellers to exclude or modify implied warranties. When it comes to disclaiming express warranties, however, the UCC is not so explicit. However, sellers of goods sometimes inquire about the possibility of doing so and whether such disclaimers are enforceable. This essay attempts to answer these questions.


Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton Apr 2016

Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton

Indiana Law Journal

In this Essay, Professor Burton analyzes and evaluates four commonly used standards for setting efficient default rules and standards. Based on two theoretical insights, he shows that three of them collapse upon analysis into the fourth, a Coasian standard that turns out to be a dead end. The theoretical upshot is that the Coase Theorem often is a good reason to use defaults rather than mandatory rules or standards. But neither the theorem nor reference to a transaction-costless world sustains particular defaults. To set an efficient default, the law should guide courts toward supplying terms that parties should have adopted …


Resolving Priority Disputes In Intellectual Property Collateral, Paul Heald Mar 2016

Resolving Priority Disputes In Intellectual Property Collateral, Paul Heald

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt Mar 2016

Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt

Seattle University Law Review

This Note will undertake to analyze bitcoin under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC)—two important sources of commercial law—to see whether any existing asset categories adequately protect bitcoin’s commercial viability. This Note will demonstrate that although commercial law dictates that bitcoin should—nay must—be regulated as a currency in order to sustain its existence, the very definition of currency seems to preclude that from happening. Therefore, this Note will recommend that we experiment with a new type of asset that receives currency-like treatment, specifically designed for cryptocurrencies, under which bitcoin can be categorized in order to …