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Unfair competition

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Full-Text Articles in Law

No Peeking: Addressing Pretextual Inspection Demands By Competitor-Affiliated Shareholders, Lin (Lynn) Bai, Sean Meyer Jan 2024

No Peeking: Addressing Pretextual Inspection Demands By Competitor-Affiliated Shareholders, Lin (Lynn) Bai, Sean Meyer

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

This article exposes how Delaware private companies are vulnerable to pretextual inspections under the guise of valuation by shareholders who are affiliated with competitors of the companies. The Delaware Court of Chancery’s 2020 decision in Woods v. Sahara Enterprises, Inc., which deviated from established law by switching the initial burden of proof of the shareholder’s motive to the target company, exacerbated this vulnerability. This article argues for reversing that decision and proposes changes in multiple areas of law to help companies fend off prying competitors who abuse statutory shareholder inspection rights for unfair advantages in competition.


The Morality Of Monopolization Law, Sandeep Vaheesan May 2022

The Morality Of Monopolization Law, Sandeep Vaheesan

William & Mary Law Review Online

Congress enacted the Sherman Act in 1890 and prohibited, among other practices, monopolization. To prove monopolization, the government and other plaintiffs must show that a firm both possessed monopoly power and engaged in bad conduct. In interpreting the spare language of the statute, the courts have identified many practices that constitute monopolization, including below-cost pricing, refusals to deal with rivals, and tying. In general, however, they have failed to explain why these practices are unfair and restricted by law. Judges have instead applied labels such as "anticompetitive" without articulating normative foundations for their decisions. A close examination of the case …


Navigating The Identity Thicket: Trademark's Lost Theory Of Personality, The Right Of Publicity, And Preemption, Jennifer E. Rothman Jan 2022

Navigating The Identity Thicket: Trademark's Lost Theory Of Personality, The Right Of Publicity, And Preemption, Jennifer E. Rothman

All Faculty Scholarship

Both trademark and unfair competition laws and state right of publicity laws protect against unauthorized uses of a person’s identity. Increasingly, however, these rights are working at odds with one another, and can point in different directions with regard to who controls a person’s name, likeness, and broader indicia of identity. This creates what I call an "identity thicket" of overlapping and conflicting rights over a person’s identity. Current jurisprudence provides little to no guidance on the most basic questions surrounding this thicket, such as what right to use a person’s identity, if any, flows from the transfer of marks …


Edward S. Rogers, The Lanham Act, And The Common Law, Jessica Litman Jan 2022

Edward S. Rogers, The Lanham Act, And The Common Law, Jessica Litman

Book Chapters

This book chapter is a deep dive into the story of Edward Sidney Rogers's authorship of the legislation that became the Lanham Act. Because Rogers believed that Congress lacked the power to alter the substantive law of trademark and unfair competition, he crafted draft legislation that focused on registration and other procedural details rather than substantive rights and defenses. He sought to advance two incompatible goals: he hoped to preserve the robust common law of unfair competition while requiring, or at least encouraging, all trademark owners to register their marks. Both the supporters and the opponents of the bills that …


A Storm Is Brewing: How Federal Ambivalence Regarding Below-Cost Pricing Turns A Blind Eye To Monopoly Risk In The Beer Market, Daniel Croxall May 2021

A Storm Is Brewing: How Federal Ambivalence Regarding Below-Cost Pricing Turns A Blind Eye To Monopoly Risk In The Beer Market, Daniel Croxall

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

Large beer manufacturers, known colloquially as “Big Beer,” have been steadily losing market share to small, independent craft breweries. Big Beer wants it market share back, and in some cases will go to great lengths to try to defend its dominance—even anticompetitive conduct. Below-cost pricing is one avenue that presents a risk to independent craft breweries. This Article examines how Big Beer can manipulate the beer market in its favor by engaging in predatory pricing. Further, this Article proposes a solution that could be implemented on a nation-wide scale to curtail Big Beer’s anticompetitive activities with respect to pricing.


United States Food Law Update: Food Allergy Labels, Reaching Organic Equivalence, Misbranding Litigation And Regulatory Takings, A. Bryan Endres, Michaela N. Tarr Jan 2021

United States Food Law Update: Food Allergy Labels, Reaching Organic Equivalence, Misbranding Litigation And Regulatory Takings, A. Bryan Endres, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The start of 2009 found the nation transitioning to a new presidential administration, speculating on the impact new appointees to the executive branch may have on regulatory priorities and monitoring a bill' making its way through Congress that seeks a substantial overhaul of the food regulatory system. This version of the Food Law Update will analyze two major developments in food allergy labeling: finalization of rules requiring the labeling of Cochineal extract/ carmine and an analysis of the proposed "gluten-free" product labels. The update next discusses the execution of an equivalency agreement between the United States and Canada with respect …


The Lost Unfair Competition Law, Christine Farley Jan 2020

The Lost Unfair Competition Law, Christine Farley

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The accepted metaphor that trademark law is a species of the genus of unfair competition law distorts both the actual history and the relationship between the two. Tracing the development of the law reveals a related sequence of significant events, some of which have been forgotten. This back-story suggests that a particularly innovative treaty incorporated by reference into the Lanham Act was meant to be the vehicle for unfair competition protection. As a result of this lost law, unfair competition law remains an enigma today.


Valuing The Freedom Of Speech And The Freedom To Compete In Defenses To Trademark And Related Claims In The United States, Jennifer E. Rothman Jan 2020

Valuing The Freedom Of Speech And The Freedom To Compete In Defenses To Trademark And Related Claims In The United States, Jennifer E. Rothman

All Faculty Scholarship

This book chapter appears in the CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK ON INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE TRADEMARK LAW, edited by Jane C. Ginsburg & Irene Calboli (Cambridge Univ. Press 2020). The Chapter provides an overview of the defenses to trademark infringement, dilution, and false endorsement claims that serve the goals of free expression and fair competition. In particular, the Chapter covers the defenses of genericism, functionality, descriptive and nominative fair use, the Rogers test, statutory exemptions to dilution claims, and the questions of whether and how an independent First Amendment defense applies in light of recent Supreme Court decisions.

In addition to providing a …


Property And Equity In Trademark Law, Mark Mckenna Jan 2019

Property And Equity In Trademark Law, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

This essay, delivered as the Nies Lecture at Marquette Law School, focuses on changes in the doctrinal structure of trademark law over the course of the last century — specifically with respect to the relationship between trademark law’s limits and the broader common law of unfair competition. Changes in that relationship, I will argue, meaningfully increased trademark law's emphasis on property — what the plaintiff owns — and deemphasized legal rules that focused on the defendant’s conduct.


Non-Traditional Trademarks: The Error Costs Of Making An Exception The Rule, Glynn Lunney Dec 2018

Non-Traditional Trademarks: The Error Costs Of Making An Exception The Rule, Glynn Lunney

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last sixty years, courts and the USPTO have engaged in an ill-advised expansion of trademark subject matter. Where once only words or emblems attached to a product could serve as a trademark, today a product’s design or packaging itself may receive such protection. This expansion was and is a mistake. There may indeed be rare cases where a product’s design or packaging conveys brand-specific information and could receive protection without impairing competitor’s ability to offer substitutes. Such cases are the exception and not the rule, however. Extending the strong legal presumptions and property-like protection trademark law provides to …


The Dtsa At One: An Empirical Study Of The First Year Of Litigation Under The Defend Trade Secrets Act, David S. Levine, Christopher B. Seaman Jan 2018

The Dtsa At One: An Empirical Study Of The First Year Of Litigation Under The Defend Trade Secrets Act, David S. Levine, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

This article represents the first comprehensive empirical study of the Defend Trade Secrets Act (“DTSA”), the law enacted by Congress in 2016 that created a federal civil cause of action for trade secret misappropriation. The DTSA represents the most significant expansion of federal involvement in intellectual property law in at least 30 years. In this study, we examine publicly-available docket information and pleadings to assess how private litigants have been utilizing the DTSA. Based upon an original dataset of nearly 500 newly-filed DTSA cases in federal court, we analyze whether the law is beginning to meet its sponsors’ stated goals …


The Erie/Sears/Compco Squeeze: Erie’S Effects On Unfair Competition And Trade Secret Law, Sharon Sandeen Jan 2018

The Erie/Sears/Compco Squeeze: Erie’S Effects On Unfair Competition And Trade Secret Law, Sharon Sandeen

Faculty Scholarship

On the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the Supreme Court's famous decision in Erie Railroad v. Tompkins, this article explores the consequences of that decision on the development of unfair competition law in the United States. It details efforts by lawyers and legislators to grapple with those consequences and provides an overview of the evolution of unfair competition law in the U.S. since Erie, with a particular focus on trade secret law.


Free Trade, Fair Trade, And Selective Enforcement, Timothy Meyer Jan 2018

Free Trade, Fair Trade, And Selective Enforcement, Timothy Meyer

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan Aug 2017

The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan

Srividhya Ragavan

The following is a law review interview with Professor Srividhya Ragavan on the issues in interpretation of data exclusivity provisions under the TRIPS Agreement, and the impact of data exclusivity on generic drugs.


The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan Apr 2017

The Significance Of The Data Exclusivity And Its Impact On Generic Drugs, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

The following is a law review interview with Professor Srividhya Ragavan on the issues in interpretation of data exclusivity provisions under the TRIPS Agreement, and the impact of data exclusivity on generic drugs.


Trademarks: German Manufacturer’S Deliberate Infringement Of Domestic Trademark Sufficient To Support Injunctive Relief, But Not Supportive Of Award For Damages, Kimley R. Johnson Dec 2016

Trademarks: German Manufacturer’S Deliberate Infringement Of Domestic Trademark Sufficient To Support Injunctive Relief, But Not Supportive Of Award For Damages, Kimley R. Johnson

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Infringicus Maximus! An Exploration Of Motion Picture Title Protection In An International Film Industry Through The Legal Battles Of Harry Potter, Emily Kathryn Tyler Sep 2016

Infringicus Maximus! An Exploration Of Motion Picture Title Protection In An International Film Industry Through The Legal Battles Of Harry Potter, Emily Kathryn Tyler

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Applied Arts Under Ip Law: The Uncertain Border Between Beauty And Usefulness, June M. Besek, Robert E. Bishop, Jane C. Ginsburg, Philippa Loengard, Nathalie Russell Jul 2016

United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Applied Arts Under Ip Law: The Uncertain Border Between Beauty And Usefulness, June M. Besek, Robert E. Bishop, Jane C. Ginsburg, Philippa Loengard, Nathalie Russell

Faculty Scholarship

ALAI-USA is the U.S. branch of ALAI (Association Littèraire et Artistique Internationale). ALAI-USA was started in the 1980's by the late Professor Melville B. Nimmer, and was later expanded by Professor John M. Kernochan.


Making Sense Of Georgia's State Law Protections For Trademarks And Trade Secrets, Elizabeth R. Calhoun Apr 2016

Making Sense Of Georgia's State Law Protections For Trademarks And Trade Secrets, Elizabeth R. Calhoun

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


California Fair Trade: Antitrust And The Politics Of “Fairness” In U.S. Competition Policy, Laura Phillips Sawyer Apr 2016

California Fair Trade: Antitrust And The Politics Of “Fairness” In U.S. Competition Policy, Laura Phillips Sawyer

Scholarly Works

In the decades before World War II, U.S. antitrust law was anything but settled. Considerable pressure for antitrust revision came from the states. A perhaps unlikely leader, Edna Gleason, organized California’s retail pharmacists and coordinated trade networks to monitor and enforce Resale Price Maintenance (RPM) contracts, a system of price-fixing, then known as “fair trade.” Progressive jurists, including Louis Brandeis and institutional economist E. R. A. Seligman, supported RPM as a protection to independent proprietors. The breakdown of legal and economic consensus regarding what constituted “unfair competition” allowed businesspeople to act as intermediaries between heterodox economic thought and contested antitrust …


Toward More Universal Protection Of Intangible Cultural Property, Cathryn A. Berryman Mar 2016

Toward More Universal Protection Of Intangible Cultural Property, Cathryn A. Berryman

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Dilution, An Idea Whose Time Has Gone; Brand Equity As Protectable Property, The New/Old Paradigm, Jerre B. Swann, Theodore H. Davis Jr. Mar 2016

Dilution, An Idea Whose Time Has Gone; Brand Equity As Protectable Property, The New/Old Paradigm, Jerre B. Swann, Theodore H. Davis Jr.

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Crossing The Line: The Collegiate Licensing Company's Overindulgent Attempt To Limit Small Businesses' Online Marketing Techniques Based On Frivolous Claims Of Trademark Infringement, Lauren T. Warbington Mar 2016

Crossing The Line: The Collegiate Licensing Company's Overindulgent Attempt To Limit Small Businesses' Online Marketing Techniques Based On Frivolous Claims Of Trademark Infringement, Lauren T. Warbington

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Passing The Virtual Buck: How The Ninth Circuit Used Contributory Trademark Law To Expand Liability For Web Hosts, Alessandra Backus Mar 2016

Passing The Virtual Buck: How The Ninth Circuit Used Contributory Trademark Law To Expand Liability For Web Hosts, Alessandra Backus

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Copy Game For High Score: The First Video Game Lawsuit, William K. Ford Feb 2016

Copy Game For High Score: The First Video Game Lawsuit, William K. Ford

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Dtsa: A Federal Tort Of Unfair Competition In Aerial Reconnaissance, Broken Deals, And Employment, Stephen Y. Chow Jan 2016

Dtsa: A Federal Tort Of Unfair Competition In Aerial Reconnaissance, Broken Deals, And Employment, Stephen Y. Chow

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

This Essay critiques the creation by the 114th Congress of a federal private right of action under the Defend Trade Secrets Act for the state unfair competition cause of trade secret misappropriation hitherto applied mostly to breaches of express or implied confidential relationships between businesses or with employees. The proposed insertion of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act definition of “misappropriation,” including acquisition by “improper means” exemplified by state commercial mores’ expectation of privacy from aerial reconnaissance, into the Economic Espionage Act framework of theft of a more narrowly defined “trade secret” of a defined “owner,” including such actions abroad by …


By Any Other Name: Image Advertising And The Commercial Speech Doctrine In Jordan V. Jewel, Kelly Miller Oct 2015

By Any Other Name: Image Advertising And The Commercial Speech Doctrine In Jordan V. Jewel, Kelly Miller

Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review

This Comment focuses on the commercial speech doctrine as applied to modern advertising strategies, specifically, corporate image advertising. It centers on the recent litigation between basketball superstar Michael Jordan and a Chicago-area grocery chain, Jewel-Osco. When Michael Jordan was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame, Jewel-Osco was invited to submit a congratulatory ad for a commemorative issue of Sports Illustrated devoted exclusively to Jordan’s career and accomplishments. Because Jordan had spent the bulk of his storied professional basketball career with the Chicago Bulls, the ad seemed a natural fit. Jordan, who did not give permission for his name to …


Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest Aug 2015

Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest

Sean Pager

INFRINGEMENT AS UNFAIR COMPETITION: A BLUEPRINT FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE?

Sean A. Pager Michigan State University College of Law

Eric Priest University of Oregon School of Law

ABSTRACT

This Article examines a new approach to address persistent regulatory failures in global supply chains. In a series of recent cases, unfair competition actions have been brought in U.S. court against foreign manufacturers who infringe software overseas under the theory that the cost savings from infringement confers an unfair advantage in U.S. markets. While this theory has been advanced in the intellectual property context, the same approach could work to target abuses in …


False Light Invasion Of Privacy In Docudramas: The Oxymoron Which Must Be Solved, Matthew Stohl Jul 2015

False Light Invasion Of Privacy In Docudramas: The Oxymoron Which Must Be Solved, Matthew Stohl

Akron Law Review

According to Giardello, boxing historians, and even Rubin “Hurricane” Carter, himself, the opening sequence of The Hurricane — which purports to tell the “true story” of Carter’s unjust imprisonment — was not only far from being accurate, it was a complete falsity. In reality, the fight was a lopsided Giardello victory, to the delight of the 6,000 fans in attendance.

Joey Giardello, who knew nothing of the movie until the day he saw it in the theater, filed suit on February 16, 2000 against Universal Pictures claiming that the film inaccurately portrayed him as a weak fighter and the beneficiary …


Transformation: The Bright Line Between Commercial Publicity Rights And The First Amendment, W. Mack Webner, Leigh Ann Lindquist Jul 2015

Transformation: The Bright Line Between Commercial Publicity Rights And The First Amendment, W. Mack Webner, Leigh Ann Lindquist

Akron Law Review

The Right of Publicity provides to each and every person the right to use his or her persona for his or her benefit and provides a cause of action to stop the unauthorized use of that persona for commercial purposes.

This right is one of the many provided by the laws of unfair competition. Infringement of this right has become a frequently pleaded count made by attorneys who are trying to protect their clients from the unauthorized use of the client’s persona for commercial purposes. While the genesis of the right has been commonly thought to be a splintering from …