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Full-Text Articles in Law

Safeguarding The Pandemic Agreement From Disinformation, Alexandra Finch, Kevin A. Klock, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi, Sarah A. Wetter May 2024

Safeguarding The Pandemic Agreement From Disinformation, Alexandra Finch, Kevin A. Klock, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi, Sarah A. Wetter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Complicating the negotiation of a global pandemic treaty has been a sustained disinformation campaign worldwide to undermine the agreement by making and amplifying spurious assertions about what it intends to accomplish and how it will do so. Central to the disinformation campaign are erroneous claims about national sovereignty and forcible takings of pandemic countermeasures. Further, legitimate and unfounded unease concern weakened intellectual property (IP) and speech rights. Having followed the negotiations and provided technical assistance to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) leadership, we set the record straight in several key areas.


Updating The Caroline Doctrine: A Relic In An Age Of Hypersonic Weapons, David S. Jonas, Tyler Breeden Jan 2024

Updating The Caroline Doctrine: A Relic In An Age Of Hypersonic Weapons, David S. Jonas, Tyler Breeden

American University International Law Review

The United States dropped “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, bringing an end to World War II and killing between 110,000 and 210,000 people. Japan surely needed much more than rock and roll to help them—especially since Japan had no nuclear weapons of their own to deter the United States from attacking with nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons technology has evolved considerably in the years since 1945, when only the United States possessed nuclear weapons. Nine states now have or are suspected of having them, and at least one other state appears to …


Reclaiming Sacred Homelands: Asserting Treaty Rights And The Path Towards Restoration Of The Badger-Two Medicine, Sarah Greenberg Dec 2023

Reclaiming Sacred Homelands: Asserting Treaty Rights And The Path Towards Restoration Of The Badger-Two Medicine, Sarah Greenberg

American Indian Law Journal

“In order for law to have an influence in the lives of ordinary people, it must have something to do with the emotional feelings of justice, it must speak to our basic humanity, and it must give us common sense directions as to what behavior and beliefs are right and wrong"


Treaties As A Tool For Native American Land Reparations, Hannah Friedle May 2023

Treaties As A Tool For Native American Land Reparations, Hannah Friedle

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

"The only compensation for land is land."1

Hundreds of treaties signed. Hundreds of treaties broken. The juvenile United States grew in size as independent Native nations ceded their territory through treaties. Thirsting for more land, the United States broke its promises and continued its manifest destiny westward. And what of tribes’ treaty rights to land? Some Native nations received financial compensation for treaty violations. But money is crumbs to many whose traditional homelands are still colonized.

Tribes are entitled to the land promised to them under treaties—instruments supposedly carrying the force of federal law. Land reparations are a partial …


Internally Displaced Persons: Ordeals And Analyses Of The Possible Regimes Of Legal Protection Frameworks, Olawale Ogunmodimu Mar 2023

Internally Displaced Persons: Ordeals And Analyses Of The Possible Regimes Of Legal Protection Frameworks, Olawale Ogunmodimu

St. Mary's Law Journal

This present global community is complicated because of anxiety and uncertainty. It is thoroughly interconnected yet intricately partitioned. Pivotally, one could argue that the centrality to this global anxiety is identity and belonging. People want to identify with and belong to a political system, territory, and culture. It seems that there is a present world that mirrors the political emergence of the interwar period that had nationalism on the rise. There is hostility to non-citizens globally, whether as refugees, internally displaced peoples (IDPs), or immigrants seeking to join new political communities. This Article explains the difficulties that ensue from being …


Jurisdiction Over Non-Eu Defendants: The Brussels I Article 79 Review, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2023

Jurisdiction Over Non-Eu Defendants: The Brussels I Article 79 Review, Ronald A. Brand

Book Chapters

When the original EU Brussels I Regulation on Jurisdiction and the Recognition of Judgments was “recast” in 2011, the Commission recommended that the application of its direct jurisdiction rules apply to all defendants in Member State courts, and not just to defendants from other Member States. This approach was not adopted, but set for reconsideration through Article 79 of the Brussels I (Recast) Regulation, which requires that the European Commission report in 2022 on the possible application of the direct jurisdiction rules of the Regulation to all defendants. Without such a change, the Recast Regulation continues to allow each Member …


Features Of The Demise Of The Theory Of Sovereign Acts In The Field Of Judicial Review Over Enforcement Of International Treaties, Sofiane Abdelli Judge Nov 2022

Features Of The Demise Of The Theory Of Sovereign Acts In The Field Of Judicial Review Over Enforcement Of International Treaties, Sofiane Abdelli Judge

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

The theory of Sovereign Acts (acts of state) is a real departure from the principle of legitimacy and the state's submission to the law. The French Council of State invented this theory only to protect its existence and competence from the government's reaction on the eve of the return of the monarchy, it was only to fortify some of its acts from its control and to courtesy the government through its rulings.

However, the orientations of the State Council in its early stages have known many transformations, especially in the area of limiting the effects of the implementation of that …


Theorizing Responsibility In The Investor State Dispute Resolution System, Kristen Boon Jul 2022

Theorizing Responsibility In The Investor State Dispute Resolution System, Kristen Boon

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

The Investor-State Dispute System (“ISDS”) permits investors to sue states when their investments are injured. The system was designed to protect investors and impose responsibilities on states; it is uncontroversial to say that the ISDS system is one-sided. But a chorus of voices is now asking: should investors have responsibilities too? The narrative is one of injustice, driven by the perception that states have signed on to a system that has left them with large financial exposure to investors. This viewpoint has been reinforced, in the eyes of some, by the influence of big business, and by state losses …


Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons Jul 2022

Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons

Washington and Lee Law Review

Rurality intersects with other identities, power dynamics, and structural inequalities—including those related to gender, race, disability, and age—to create unique patterns of human rights deprivations, violations, and challenges in rural spaces. Therefore, accurately assessing human rights and duties in rural spaces requires attention to the dynamics of rurality in a particular context, the unique nature of diverse rural identities and livelihoods, the systemic forces operating in and on those spaces, and the intersections with other forms of structural discrimination and inequality.

Although much of the work of the U.N. treaty bodies has in fact addressed human rights situations in rural …


A Hague Parallel Proceedings Convention: Architecture And Features, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand Jul 2022

A Hague Parallel Proceedings Convention: Architecture And Features, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

In Paul Herrup and Ronald A. Brand, A Hague Convention on Parallel Proceedings, 63 Harvard International Law Journal Online 1(2022), available at https://harvardilj.org/2022/02/a-hague-convention-on-parallel-proceedings/ and https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3894502, we argued that the Hague Conference on Private International Law should not undertake a project to require or prohibit exercise of original jurisdiction in national courts. Rather, the goal of current efforts should be to improve the concentration of parallel litigation in a “better forum,” in order to achieve efficient and complete resolution of disputes in transnational litigation. The Hague Conference is now taking this path. As the Experts Group and Working Group …


Incomplete International Investment Law -- Applying The Incomplete Contract Theory, Tae Jung Park May 2022

Incomplete International Investment Law -- Applying The Incomplete Contract Theory, Tae Jung Park

University of Cincinnati Law Review

There is a puzzle in the field of international investment law: many negotiating countries fail to complete their International Investment Agreements (“IIA”) and postpone the renegotiations for completion as well. The literature on IIAs has neglected to consider the existence, causes, and solutions of this phenomenon. This study employs the incomplete contract theory to explain the causes and solutions surrounding this phenomenon.


Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn Mar 2022

Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

The central goal of a federal system is for local government units to retain degrees of independence, specifically over matters of importance to that local unit. A logical corollary to that independence is the ability for local units to negotiate and contract with other local units on matters of importance. Therefore, it is not surprising that almost every federal system allows, either implicitly or explicitly, member states to form binding compacts with other states, the union government, or municipalities.1 Some federal democracies even allow member states to compact with foreign governments. Furthermore, almost every federal constitution includes a provision outlining …


Power, Exit Costs, And Renegotiation In International Law, Timothy Meyer Jan 2022

Power, Exit Costs, And Renegotiation In International Law, Timothy Meyer

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have long understood that the instability of power has ramifications for compliance with international law. Scholars have not, however, focused on how states’ expectations about shifting power affect the initial design of international agreements. In this paper, I integrate shifting power into an analysis of the initial design of both the formal and substantive aspects of agreements. I argue that a state expecting to become more powerful over time incurs an opportunity cost by agreeing to formal provisions that raise the cost of exiting an agreement. Exit costs - which promote the stability of legal rules - have distributional …


The Political Economy Of Wto Exceptions, Timothy Meyer Jan 2022

The Political Economy Of Wto Exceptions, Timothy Meyer

Faculty Scholarship

In a bid to save the planet from rising temperatures, the European Union is introducing a carbon border adjustment mechanism—essentially a levy on imports from countries with weak climate rules. The United States, Canada, and Japan are all openly mulling similar proposals. The Biden Administration is adopting new Buy American rules, while countries around the world debate new supply chain regulations to address public health issues arising from COVID-19 and shortages in critical components like computer chips. These public policy initiatives—addressing the central environmental, public health, and economic issues of the day—all likely violate World Trade Organization (WTO) rules governing …


The Illegally Traded Elephant In The Room: Species Terrorism & Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade, Áine Dillon Dec 2021

The Illegally Traded Elephant In The Room: Species Terrorism & Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade, Áine Dillon

Pace International Law Review

The illegal wildlife trade has been a dilemma for decades

and remains prevalent globally – international intervention is

required now. While most countries participate in the Convention

on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild

Fauna and Flora (“CITES”), not all countries have the same approaches

to combating the illegal wildlife trade. Unique approaches

can be beneficial because each illegally traded species

requires a different response, and countries with limited resources

can also participate. However, the lack of a unified response

hinders the global fight against the illegal wildlife trade.

While traditional methods to combat crime, such as passing

laws, …


Ute Indian Tribe Of The Uintah & Ouray Reservation V. U.S. Dep't Of Interior, Valan Anthos Dec 2021

Ute Indian Tribe Of The Uintah & Ouray Reservation V. U.S. Dep't Of Interior, Valan Anthos

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation brought 16 claims against federal agencies and the State of Utah for alleged mismanagement of water resources held in trust and for alleged discrimination in water allocation. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed several of the claims as time-barred and others as lacking a proper statutory basis to create an enforceable trust duty. The remaining claims were transferred to the United States District Court of the District of Utah because the events occurred in Utah and most of the parties reside there.


Securing Secrets: The Need For A Treaty Addressing State-Sponsored Economic Espionage, Jaylin Johnson Sep 2021

Securing Secrets: The Need For A Treaty Addressing State-Sponsored Economic Espionage, Jaylin Johnson

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Features Of The Demise Of The Theory Of Sovereign Acts In The Field Of Judicial Review Over Enforcement Of International Treaties, Sofiane Abdelli Judge, Phd Jul 2021

Features Of The Demise Of The Theory Of Sovereign Acts In The Field Of Judicial Review Over Enforcement Of International Treaties, Sofiane Abdelli Judge, Phd

UAEU Law Journal

The theory of Sovereign Acts (acts of state) is a real departure from the principle of legitimacy and the state's submission to the law. The French Council of State invented this theory only to protect its existence and competence from the government's reaction on the eve of the return of the monarchy, it was only to fortify some of its acts from its control and to courtesy the government through its rulings.

However, the orientations of the State Council in its early stages have known many transformations, especially in the area of limiting the effects of the implementation of that …


Is Climate Change A Threat To International Peace And Security?, Mark Nevitt Jun 2021

Is Climate Change A Threat To International Peace And Security?, Mark Nevitt

Michigan Journal of International Law

The climate-security century is here. Both the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) and the U.S. Fourth National Climate Assessment (“NCA”) recently sounded the alarm on climate change’s “super-wicked” and destabilizing security impacts. Scientists and security professionals alike reaffirm what we are witnessing with our own eyes: The earth is warming at a rapid rate; climate change affects international peace and security in complex ways; and the window for international climate action is slamming shut.


Against Balancing: Revisiting The Use/Regulation Distinction To Reform Liability And Compensation Under Investment Treaties, Jonathan Bonnitcha, Emma Aisbett Apr 2021

Against Balancing: Revisiting The Use/Regulation Distinction To Reform Liability And Compensation Under Investment Treaties, Jonathan Bonnitcha, Emma Aisbett

Michigan Journal of International Law

Investment treaties generate mutual benefits for host states and foreign investors to the extent that they discipline opportunistic conduct by host states. Investment treaties do not necessarily generate mutual benefits insofar as they constrain states’ ability to respond to new information or to change their policy priorities. In a companion paper, we use the tools of law and economics to formalize and clarify the relationship between problems of opportunism on the one hand, and new information and shifts in policy priorities on the other. On this basis, we develop a proposal to reform the legal principles that govern liability and …


State Succession In Respect Of Treaties And Notifications: A Bottleneck Approach, Aymeric Hêche Jan 2021

State Succession In Respect Of Treaties And Notifications: A Bottleneck Approach, Aymeric Hêche

UAEU Law Journal

Nowadays, State succession in respect of treaties is mainly concerned with separation and dismemberment of States. According to the 1978 Vienna Convention on the topic, the predecessor’s treaties automatically bind the Successor State (article 34 of the said Convention). In practice, successor States are not officially bound until they issue a notification of succession. Except upon submission of a notification, the depositary does not list the Successor State as a party. The scope of this article is to highlight the central position of notifications in the succession process. Given the major role played by notifications, it is worth questioning notifications …


Interpretive Entrepreneurs, Melissa J. Durkee Jan 2021

Interpretive Entrepreneurs, Melissa J. Durkee

Scholarly Works

Private actors interpret legal norms, a phenomenon I call "interpretive entrepreneurship." The phenomenon is particularly significant in the international context, where many disputes are not subject to judicial resolution and there is no official system of precedent. Interpretation can affect the meaning of laws over time. For this reason, it can be a form of "post hoc" international lawmaking, worth studying alongside other forms of international lobbying and norm entrepreneurship by private actors. The Article identifies and describes the phenomenon through a series of case studies that show how, why, and by whom it unfolds. The examples focus on entrepreneurial …


Interpretive Entrepreneurs, Melinda (M.J.) Durkee Jan 2021

Interpretive Entrepreneurs, Melinda (M.J.) Durkee

Scholarship@WashULaw

Private actors interpret legal norms, a phenomenon I call “interpretive entrepreneurship.” The phenomenon is particularly significant in the international context, where many disputes are not subject to judicial resolution and there is no official system of precedent. Interpretation can affect the meaning of laws over time. For this reason, it can be a form of “post hoc” international lawmaking, worth studying alongside other forms of international lobbying and norm entrepreneurship by private actors. The Article identifies and describes the phenomenon through a series of case studies that show how, why, and by whom it unfolds. The examples focus on entrepreneurial …


A Hague Convention On Parallel Proceedings, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

A Hague Convention On Parallel Proceedings, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The Hague Conference on Private International Law has engaged in a series of projects that, if successful, could provide the framework for critical aspects of trans-national litigation in the Twenty-first Century. Thus far, the work has resulted in the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements and the 2019 Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters. Work now has begun to examine the need, desirability and feasibility of additional instruments in the area, with discussions of an instrument that would either require or prohibit the exercise of jurisdiction by national courts, and …


A Legal Legacy That Opens The Way To Justice In Challenging Places And Times, Stephen J. Rapp Jan 2021

A Legal Legacy That Opens The Way To Justice In Challenging Places And Times, Stephen J. Rapp

FIU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The Hague Judgments Convention, completed on July 2, 2019, is built on a list of “jurisdictional filters” in Article 5(1), and grounds for non-recognition in Article 7. If one of the thirteen jurisdictional tests in Article 5(1) is satisfied, the judgment may circulate under the Convention, subject to the grounds for non-recognition found in Article 7. This approach to Convention structure is especially significant for countries considering ratification and implementation. A different structure was suggested in the initial Working Group stage of the Convention’s preparation which would have avoided the complexity of multiple rules of indirect jurisdiction, each of which …


Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements With The Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, Nathan Lobel Nov 2020

Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements With The Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, Nathan Lobel

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Policy makers and other stakeholders are currently asking fundamental questions about whether and to what extent international investment agreements (IIAs) are consistent with and are helping to advance sustainable development objectives at home and abroad.

A 2019 paper from CCSI examines the alignment of IIAs with the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, arguing that while FDI will play an important role in advancing development outcomes, existing treaties must be reformed and future IIAs reimagined in order to achieve deep alignment with the sustainable development goals.

The paper proposes that IIAs should be designed and evaluated with respect to their ability to …


International Tax: Tax Treaties, Kim Brooks Sep 2020

International Tax: Tax Treaties, Kim Brooks

OER Texts

This compendium of materials is designed to support the study of tax treaties around the world.


Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt Sep 2020

Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt

Law Librarian Scholarship

In our increasingly globalized world, a legal issue outside of American domestic law can pop up in a variety of circumstances. Commercial transactions, marriage and custody issues, immigration statuses, and more may involve the law of another nation or be governed by an international treaty. This article outlines some resources to help you tackle foreign, comparative, and international legal issues, whenever they arise.


Litigating For The Homeland: An Indian Treaty Framework To Climate Litigation In The Wake Of Juliana, Evan Neustater Sep 2020

Litigating For The Homeland: An Indian Treaty Framework To Climate Litigation In The Wake Of Juliana, Evan Neustater

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Climate change is an increasingly pressing issue on the world stage. The federal government, however, has largely declined to address any problems stemming from the effects of climate change, and litigation attempting to force the federal government to take action, as highlighted by Juliana v. United States, has largely failed. This Note presents the case for a class of plaintiffs more likely to succeed than youth plaintiffs in Juliana—federally recognized Indian tribes. Treaties between the United States and Indian nations are independent substantive sources of law that create enforceable obligations on the federal government. The United States maintains a …