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Full-Text Articles in Law

Role Of “Al Waqaf” Or Entailment In Sustainable Development, Abduljabbar Al-Sabhany Mar 2021

Role Of “Al Waqaf” Or Entailment In Sustainable Development, Abduljabbar Al-Sabhany

Journal Sharia and Law

Sustainable development is the main economic goal of any Islamic society. This research aims to clarify the role of “Al Waqf” or entailment in ensuring the economic development of Islamic society and its social welfare. First, the research defines sustainable development from an Islamic view. Second, this research paper discusses the different types of Islamic entailment: philanthropic, progeny and public entailment and their role in developing the Islamic society. Thirdly, the paper discusses the investment nature of entailment. In the final section, the potential impact of entailment on social and economical life aspects is theoretically proven and the relationship between ...


Compensation, Commodification, And Disablement: How Law Has Dehumanized Laboring Bodies And Excluded Nonlaboring Humans, Karen M. Tani Jan 2021

Compensation, Commodification, And Disablement: How Law Has Dehumanized Laboring Bodies And Excluded Nonlaboring Humans, Karen M. Tani

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay reviews Nate Holdren's Injury Impoverished: Workplace Accidents, Capitalism, and Law in the Progressive Era (Cambridge University Press, 2020), which explores the changes in legal imagination that accompanied the rise of workers' compensation programs. The essay foregrounds Holdren’s insights about disability. Injury Impoverished illustrates the meaning and material consequences that the law has given to work-related impairments over time and documents the naturalization of disability-based exclusion from the formal labor market. In the present day, with so many social benefits tied to employment, this exclusion is particularly troubling.


Homeless And Helpless: How The United States Has Failed Those With Severe And Persistent Mental Illness, Ashley Gorfido Nov 2020

Homeless And Helpless: How The United States Has Failed Those With Severe And Persistent Mental Illness, Ashley Gorfido

Journal of Law and Health

The United States has failed its citizens who suffer from severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Homelessness is one of the most obvious manifestations of this failure. The combination of a lack of effective treatment, inadequate entitlement programs such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), and subpar housing options form systemic barriers that prevent people suffering from mental illness from being able to obtain adequate housing. Cultural beliefs within the United States regarding who is homeless and what homelessness means also play a significant role in the development of positively impactful social welfare programs.

Part II of this Note reviews ...


Forgetting The American Family: How The Family And Medical Leave Act Is Insufficient And What Can Be Done To Improve It, Adrianna Thrasher Sep 2020

Forgetting The American Family: How The Family And Medical Leave Act Is Insufficient And What Can Be Done To Improve It, Adrianna Thrasher

Senior Honors Theses

This research seeks to clarify the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 and explore where the Act is deficient. In addition, federal policy is compared with states that currently have a more generous paid leave program. In the interest of the effect this issue has on American global competitiveness, United States (U.S.) policy will be examined in reference to peer nations. This analytical approach aims to resolve common misconceptions surrounding federal paid family leave policy, as well as clear a path for more progressive policies overall.


The New "Essential": Rethinking Social Goods In The Age Of Covid-19, Olatunde C.A. Johnson Jan 2020

The New "Essential": Rethinking Social Goods In The Age Of Covid-19, Olatunde C.A. Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

The Covid-19 crisis has laid bare the fragility of social insurance systems in the United States and the lack of income security and basic benefits for many workers and residents. The pandemic has had a particularly grave impact on people of color and low-income individuals, while also affecting a wide array of tenants, students, and health care, service and “gig” workers. One consequence for law and policy is that addressing the social dislocations caused by the pandemic might lead to profound changes in what Americans consider essential goods for a sustainable society. This chapter examines government efforts to buttress the ...


The Law And Economics Of Redistribution, Matthew Dimick Oct 2019

The Law And Economics Of Redistribution, Matthew Dimick

Journal Articles

Should legal rules be used to redistribute income? Or should income taxation be the exclusive means for reducing income inequality? This article reviews the legal scholarship on this question. First, it traces how the most widely cited argument in favor of using taxes exclusively--Kaplow & Shavell's (1994) double-distortion argument--evolved from previous debates about whether legal rules could even be redistributive and whether law and economics should be concerned exclusively with efficiency or with distribution as well. Next, it surveys the responses to the double-distortion argument. These responses appear to have had only limited success in challenging the sturdy reputation of ...


Product Differentiation, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2019

Product Differentiation, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The literature applying the economics of product differentiation to intellectual property has been called the most important development in the economic analysis of IP in years. Relaxing the assumption that products are homogeneous yields new insights by explaining persistent features of IP markets that the traditional approaches cannot, challenging the extent to which IP allows rightsholders to earn monopoly profits, allowing for sources of welfare outside of price-quantity space, which in turn opens up new dimensions along which intellectual property can compete. It also allows for equilibria with different welfare characteristics, making the tendency towards systematic underproduction more contingent and ...


...And Trade, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2019

...And Trade, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

This short essay, part of a symposium on Gregory Shaffer’s Retooling Trade Agreements for Social Inclusion, argues that the normal science of trade law lacks the tools to confront trade law’s greatest current challenges. Instead, breaking out of trade law’s two-step politics, with its division of “growing the pie” and distributing its slices, and responding to new challenges of climate change, the digital economy, and artificial intelligence will require a new politics built on and designed to build new shared narratives embodying new policy paradigms.


A (Partial) Defense Of Section 501(C)(4)'S “Catchall” Nature, Lloyd Histoshi Mayer Mar 2018

A (Partial) Defense Of Section 501(C)(4)'S “Catchall” Nature, Lloyd Histoshi Mayer

Journal Articles

Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(4) provides exemption from federal income tax for “social welfare” organizations. The vagueness of this term and the failure of the Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service to interpret it in a manner that would significantly limit that vagueness has led some commentators to criticize this section’s “catchall” nature. While much scholarly attention has been paid to this criticism with respect to the most visible section 501(c)(4) organizations, particularly those involved in political campaign activity and lobbying, almost no attention has been paid to the many less common types of section ...


Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos Dec 2017

Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

The 2016 election has had significant consequences for American social welfare policy. Some of these consequences are direct. By giving unified control of the federal government to the Republican Party for the first time in a decade, the election has potentially empowered conservatives to ram through a bill to repeal the Affordable Care Act—the landmark “Obamacare” law that marked the most significant expansion of the social welfare state since the 1960s. Other consequences are more indirect. Both the election result itself, and Republicans’ actions since, have spurred a renewed debate within the left-liberal coalition regarding the politics of social ...


Side By Side: Revitalizing Urban Cores And Ensuring Residential Diversity, Andrea J. Boyack Oct 2017

Side By Side: Revitalizing Urban Cores And Ensuring Residential Diversity, Andrea J. Boyack

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Immanent Rationality Of Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Apr 2017

The Immanent Rationality Of Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Michigan Law Review

Review of What’s Wrong with Copying? by Abraham Drassinower.


The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton Phd, Shannon L. Dick M.S. Jan 2017

The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton Phd, Shannon L. Dick M.S.

Dr. Debra Bolton

This multi-lingual/multi-cultural study was called, Community Assets Processt, by the groups that “commissioned” it: Finnup Foundation, Finney County K-State Research & Extension, Western Kansas Community Foundation, Finney County United Way, Finney County Health Department, United Methodist Community Health Center (UMMAM), Center for Children and Families, Garden City Recreation Commission, and the Garden City Cultural Relations Board, because we intend for this to be an ongoing discussion. An objective, for those promoting the study, was to connect foundation, state, and federal funding with activities or services that addressed the true needs of people living in Finney County. The group was looking for data that would offer insights on ways to address the needs of diverse audiences through human services agencies, County Extension, the schools, churches, and other entities working with community members of Finney County. Initially, an online survey was sent to directors of Finney County’s human service organization/agencies and schools. Directors were asked what sorts of data were required to help them quantify the needs of their client/customer bases. It was from those responses that the committee designed the survey instrument. The objective of the resulting survey instrument was to gather data that would: Identify resources available in Finney County (a Minority-majority county) Identify services needed in the community Capture information regarding well-being of people in Finney County Feature General Demographic (gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income) Length of years lived in Finney County Primary and secondary languages spoken at home (the survey was conducted in four (4) languages) Educational needs Health questions (insurance, health conditions, mental health, medical care, etc.) Social and health needs; and Questions to measure community engagement and social involvement Target individuals and groups of varying ages, socio-economic backgrounds, ethnic backgrounds, and religious affiliations. Target survey respondents 18 years or older Keep survey respondents’ identities confidential since the study was approved by Kansas State University’s Institutional Review Board for compliance in Research with Human Subjects. Data were gathered from about 1% of Finney County’s population through surveys and focus groups conducted in four languages better to understand the ...


A Better Calculus For Regulators: From Cost-Benefit Analysis To The Social Welfare Function, Matthew D. Adler Jan 2017

A Better Calculus For Regulators: From Cost-Benefit Analysis To The Social Welfare Function, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship

The “social welfare function” (SWF) is a powerful tool that originates in theoretical welfare economics and has wide application in economic scholarship, for example in optimal tax theory and environmental economics. This Article provides a comprehensive introduction to the SWF framework. It then shows how the SWF framework can be used as the basis for regulatory policy analysis, and why it improves upon cost-benefit analysis (CBA).

Two types of SWFs are especially plausible: the utilitarian SWF, which sums individual well-being numbers, and the prioritarian SWF, which gives extra weight to the well-being of the worse off. Either one of these ...


Inefficient Inequality, Shi-Ling Hsu Oct 2016

Inefficient Inequality, Shi-Ling Hsu

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

For the past several decades, much American lawmaking has been animated by a concern for economic efficiency. At the same time, broad concerns over wealth and income inequality have roiled American politics, and still loom over lawmakers. It can be reasonably argued that a tension exists between efficiency and equality, but that argument has had too much purchase over the past few decades of lawmaking. What has been overlooked is that inequality itself can be allocatively inefficient when it gives rise to collectively inefficient behavior. Worse still, some lawmaking only masquerades as being efficiency-promoting; upon closer inspection, some of this ...


Liberalism, Philanthropy, And Praxis: Realigning The Philanthropy Of The Republic And The Social Teaching Of The Church, Rob Atkinson May 2016

Liberalism, Philanthropy, And Praxis: Realigning The Philanthropy Of The Republic And The Social Teaching Of The Church, Rob Atkinson

Fordham Law Review

This Article seeks a common ground for theists of the Abrahamist religious faiths and agnostics in the Socratic philosophical tradition on the role that the liberal state should play in advancing the two coordinate aims of traditional philanthropy: helping society’s least well off and advancing the highest forms of human excellence. It focuses particularly on Abrahamists who are orthodox Catholics and Socratics who are left-liberals, distinguishing their broad views on the liberal state’s proper philanthropic role from the far narrower views of libertarians and other right-liberals. It concludes that adherents of Catholic Social Teaching and advocates of secular ...


Regulating Employment-Based Anything, Brendan S. Maher Apr 2016

Regulating Employment-Based Anything, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

Benefit regulation has been called “the most consequential subject to which no one pays enough attention.” It exhausts judges, intimidates legislators, and scares off theorists. That need not be so. Reality is less complicated than advertised.

Governments often consider intervention if markets fail to make some socially desirable Good X — such as education, health care, home mortgages, or pensions, for example — sufficiently available. One obvious fix is for the government to provide the good itself. A less obvious intervention is for the government to regulate employment-based (EB) arrangements that provide Good X as a benefit to employees and their families ...


The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton Phd, Shannon L. Dick M.S. Jan 2016

The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton Phd, Shannon L. Dick M.S.

NPP eBooks

This multi-lingual/multi-cultural study was called, Community Assets Processt, by the groups that “commissioned” it: Finnup Foundation, Finney County K-State Research & Extension, Western Kansas Community Foundation, Finney County United Way, Finney County Health Department, United Methodist Community Health Center (UMMAM), Center for Children and Families, Garden City Recreation Commission, and the Garden City Cultural Relations Board, because we intend for this to be an ongoing discussion.

An objective, for those promoting the study, was to connect foundation, state, and federal funding with activities or services that addressed the true needs of people living in Finney County. The group was looking for data that would offer insights on ways to address the needs of diverse audiences through human services agencies, County Extension, the schools, churches, and other entities working with community members of Finney County.

Initially, an online survey was sent to directors of Finney County’s human service organization/agencies and schools. Directors were asked what sorts of data were required to help them quantify the needs of their client/customer bases. It was from those responses that the committee designed the survey instrument. The objective of the resulting survey instrument was to gather data that would:

  • Identify resources available in Finney County (a Minority-majority county)
  • Identify services needed in the community
  • Capture information regarding well-being of people in Finney County
  • Feature
    • General Demographic (gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income)
    • Length of years lived in Finney County
    • Primary and secondary languages spoken at home (the survey was conducted in four (4) languages)
    • Educational needs
    • Health questions (insurance, health conditions, mental health, medical care, etc.)
    • Social and health needs; and
    • Questions to measure community engagement and social involvement
  • Target individuals and groups of varying ages, socio-economic backgrounds, ethnic backgrounds, and religious affiliations.
  • Target survey respondents 18 years or older
  • Keep survey respondents’ identities confidential since the study was approved by Kansas State University’s Institutional Review Board for compliance in Research with Human Subjects.

Data were gathered from about 1% of Finney County’s population through surveys and focus groups conducted in four languages better to understand the ...


Reimagining The Risk Of Long-Term Care, Allison K. Hoffman Jan 2016

Reimagining The Risk Of Long-Term Care, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

U.S. law and policy on long-term care fail to address the insecurity American families face due to prolonged illness and disability — a problem that grows more serious as the population ages and rates of disability rise. This Article argues that, even worse, we have focused on only part of the problem. It illuminates two ways that prolonged disability or illness can create insecurity. The first arises from the risk of becoming disabled or sick and needing long-term care, which could be called “care-recipient” risk. The second arises out of the risk of becoming responsible for someone else’s care ...


Parens Patriae: From Chancery To The Juvenile Court, Doug Rendleman Sep 2015

Parens Patriae: From Chancery To The Juvenile Court, Doug Rendleman

Doug Rendleman

Not available.


Copyright As Charity, Brian L. Frye Jul 2015

Copyright As Charity, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Copyright and charity law are generally considered distinct and unrelated bodies of law. But they are actually quite similar and complement each other. Both copyright and charity law are intended to increase social welfare by solving market and government failures in public goods caused by free riding. Copyright solves market and government failures in works of authorship by providing an indirect subsidy to marginal authors, and charity law solves market and government failures in charitable goods by providing an indirect subsidy to marginal donors. Copyright and charity law complement each other by solving market and government failures in works of ...


Should The Irs Never "Target" Taxpayers? An Examination Of The Irs Tea Party Affair, Philip Hackney May 2015

Should The Irs Never "Target" Taxpayers? An Examination Of The Irs Tea Party Affair, Philip Hackney

Philip T. Hackney

This article is part of a symposium held at Valparaiso University Law School entitled "Money in Politics: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly."

In 2013, the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration faulted the Internal Revenue Service for the appearance of impartiality because it used names and policy positions such as “Tea Party” and conservative ideology to pick applications for tax-exempt status for greater scrutiny. The Inspector General's review came after members of Congress accused the Service of "targeting" conservative organizations. This Article finds the Inspector General's claim lacks a firm foundation. The use of names to ...


Abolish Anonymous Reporting To Child Abuse Hotlines, Dale Margolin Cecka Feb 2015

Abolish Anonymous Reporting To Child Abuse Hotlines, Dale Margolin Cecka

Catholic University Law Review

All states allow the public to anonymously report suspicions of child abuse or neglect to a toll free central phone number. An extensive examination of the policy and practices behind anonymous reporting hotlines indicates that they are widely unregulated and susceptible to abuse. The possible repercussions of an anonymous phone call create costs to the family and society which do not outweigh the potential benefit of allowing anonymous public reports. Under the guise of protecting children, the law has developed in such a way that it infringes on the fundamental rights of parents and children. At the same time, anonymous ...


Equity By The Numbers: Measuring Poverty, Inequality, And Injustice, Matthew D. Adler Jan 2015

Equity By The Numbers: Measuring Poverty, Inequality, And Injustice, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship

Can we measure inequity? Can we arrive at a number or numbers capturing the extent to which a given society is equitable or inequitable? Sometimes such questions are answered with a “no”: equity is a qualitative, non-numerical consideration.

This Article offers a different perspective. The difficulty with equity measurement is not the impossibility of quantification, but the overabundance of possible metrics. There currently exist at least four families of equity-measurement frameworks, used by scholars and, to some extent, governments: inequality metrics (such as the Gini coefficient), poverty metrics, social-gradient metrics (such as the concentration index), and equity-regarding social welfare functions ...


Restricting Testamentary Freedom: Ex Ante Versus Ex Post Justifications, Daniel B. Kelly Jul 2014

Restricting Testamentary Freedom: Ex Ante Versus Ex Post Justifications, Daniel B. Kelly

Daniel B Kelly

The organizing principle of American succession law — testamentary freedom — gives decedents a nearly unrestricted right to dispose of property. After surveying the justifications for testamentary freedom, I examine the circumstances in which it may be socially beneficial for courts to alter wills, trusts, and other gratuitous transfers at death: imperfect information, negative externalities, and intergenerational equity. These justifications correspond with many existing limitations on the freedom of testation. Yet, disregarding donor intent to maximize the donees’ ex post interests, an increasingly common justification for intervention, is socially undesirable. Doing so ignores important ex ante considerations, including a donor’s happiness ...


Judicial Independence And Social Welfare, Michael D. Gilbert Feb 2014

Judicial Independence And Social Welfare, Michael D. Gilbert

Michigan Law Review

Judicial independence is a cornerstone of American constitutionalism. It empowers judges to check the other branches of government and resolve cases impartially and in accordance with law. Yet independence comes with a hazard. Precisely because they are independent, judges can ignore law and pursue private agendas. For two centuries, scholars have debated those ideas and the underlying tradeoff: independence versus accountability. They have achieved little consensus, in part because independence raises difficult antecedent questions. We cannot decide how independent to make a judge until we agree on what a judge is supposed to do. That depends on one’s views ...


A Response To Professor Leff’S Tax Planning 'Olive Branch' For Marijuana Dealers, Philip Hackney Jan 2014

A Response To Professor Leff’S Tax Planning 'Olive Branch' For Marijuana Dealers, Philip Hackney

Articles

Professor Benjamin Leff argues in a forthcoming article entitled Tax Planning for Marijuana Dealers that a tax-exempt social welfare organization described in Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(4) may sell medical marijuana without putting its exempt status in jeopardy. He argues that (1) the “public policy” doctrine applicable to charitable organizations under section 501(c)(3) does not apply to social welfare organizations, and (2) a social welfare organization may consider “community” law and ignore federal law in considering whether its activity meets the idea of social welfare. I argue that Leff is wrong and that the public policy ...


The Social Value Of Mortality Risk Reduction: Vsl Vs. The Social Welfare Function Approach, Matthew D. Adler, James K. Hammitt, Nicolas Treich Jan 2014

The Social Value Of Mortality Risk Reduction: Vsl Vs. The Social Welfare Function Approach, Matthew D. Adler, James K. Hammitt, Nicolas Treich

Faculty Scholarship

We examine how different welfarist frameworks evaluate the social value of mortality risk reduction. These frameworks include classical, distributively unweighted cost–benefit analysis—i.e., the “value per statistical life” (VSL) approach—and various social welfare functions (SWFs). The SWFs are either utilitarian or prioritarian, applied to policy choice under risk in either an “ex post” or “ex ante” manner. We examine the conditions on individual utility and on the SWF under which these frameworks display sensitivity to wealth and to baseline risk. Moreover, we discuss whether these frameworks satisfy related properties that have received some attention in the literature ...


Administrative Savings From Synchronizing Social Welfare Programs And Tax Provisions, Jonathan Barry Forman Apr 2013

Administrative Savings From Synchronizing Social Welfare Programs And Tax Provisions, Jonathan Barry Forman

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland Apr 2013

Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland

Ayriel Bland

In 2002, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed under President George W. Bush with the goal of increasing academic proficiency for all children in the United States by 2014. Yet, many states struggled to meet this goal and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education allowed states to apply for waivers and bypass the 2014 deadline. Some states implemented waivers though race-based achievement standards. For example, Florida in October 2012, established that by 2018, 74 percent of African American and 81 percent of Hispanic students had to be proficient in math and reading, in comparison to 88 ...