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Shari'a

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Anti-Secular Regulation Of Religious Difference In Egypt, Meriam Wagdy Azmi Jun 2021

The Anti-Secular Regulation Of Religious Difference In Egypt, Meriam Wagdy Azmi

Theses and Dissertations

Egyptian religious freedom activists and researchers have for decades called for more secularism to remedy the violations facing religious minorities. Those religious minorities have been subject to attacks for practicing religious rituals and suffered from lack of recognition by the government. As those activists advocated secularism, some academics critiqued it and deemed it the instigator of the very problems it claims to uproot. Saba Mahmood famously argued that secularism is a primary producer of religious tension in Egypt. In this thesis, I argue that it is not the mere regulation of religious difference as a feature of secularism that is ...


Public Interests And Their Contemporary Applications On The Family Mar 2021

Public Interests And Their Contemporary Applications On The Family

Journal Sharia and Law

This manuscript consists of an introduction, two sections and a conclusion. The first section was devoted to the definition, conditions, and reality of public interests. The following conclusions were reached.

1- A public interest was defined as an issue that was not defined or identified in the legal sources, or one which was neither approved nor rejected by legal texts.

2- Adopting public interests must be controlled by a number of conditions:

a) The public interest should be reasonable by itself. It has nothing to do with the ritual acts.

b) It should not contradict any source of legislation.

c ...


Shari'a, Financial Institutions' Auditing Manual Mar 2021

Shari'a, Financial Institutions' Auditing Manual

Journal Sharia and Law

Auditing Islamic, financial institutions by Shari'a is a relatively new industry; thus, there is an urgent need for established rules and theories in order to make it a more stable field. This research shows the extent to which the auditing industry needs to prepare an internal auditing procedure manual.

In the first section of this study, the researcher defines the term "internal auditing procedure." Then, he briefly discusses the legality of auditing and its divisions. In the second section, the researcher draws the parameters of the internal auditing procedure manual; then he mentions the most important procedures that the ...


How To Judge Shari'a Contracts: A Guide To Islamic Marriage Agreements In American Courts, Nathan B. Oman Sep 2019

How To Judge Shari'a Contracts: A Guide To Islamic Marriage Agreements In American Courts, Nathan B. Oman

Nathan B. Oman

This Article thus has two goals. The first is to show how the Muslim conception of marriage diverges from the Christian-influenced norms that dominate American law and society. Understanding this divergence provides a necessary background to Islamic mahr contracts. The second goal is to provide lawyers and judges with a doctrinal framework within our current law for analyzing these contracts and reaching sensible results in concrete cases.


Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson Apr 2019

Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper reproduces presentations made at the University of Tehran in March 2019 as part of the opening and closing remarks for a Conference on Criminal Law Development in Muslim-Majority Countries. The opening remarks discuss the challenges of codifying a Shari’a-based criminal code, drawing primarily from the experiences of Professor Robinson in directing codification projects in Somalia and the Maldives. The closing remarks apply many of those lessons to the situation currently existing in Iran. Included is a discussion of the implications for Muslim countries of Robinson’s social psychology work on the power of social influence and internalized ...


Book Review: The Concept Of State And Law In Islam. Farooq Hassan. University Press Of America, 1981., Noor Mohammad Apr 2015

Book Review: The Concept Of State And Law In Islam. Farooq Hassan. University Press Of America, 1981., Noor Mohammad

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Operating Islamic Jurisprudence In Non-Muslim Jurisdictions: Traditional Islamic Precepts And Contemporary Controversies In The United States, Mustafa R. K. Baig Jan 2015

Operating Islamic Jurisprudence In Non-Muslim Jurisdictions: Traditional Islamic Precepts And Contemporary Controversies In The United States, Mustafa R. K. Baig

Chicago-Kent Law Review

With the recent public furor in the United States regarding “Shari‘a,” studies into the content of Islamic jurisprudence concerning Muslims living under non-Muslim jurisdiction are more pertinent than ever in the U.S. context. As “anti-Shari‘a” rhetoric has increased in fervency, informed input into the debates could go some way in correcting the peddled misconceptions. The paper begins by assessing how Muslim scholars viewed a Muslim’s travel to and residence in non-Muslim lands, and the obligation to abide by the laws of the land. It will focus on the jihad (siyar) section in Islamic jurisprudence and the ...


Sex And The Shari’A: Defining Gender Norms And Sexual Deviancy In Shi’I Islam, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2015

Sex And The Shari’A: Defining Gender Norms And Sexual Deviancy In Shi’I Islam, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

This paper demonstrates that modern authoritative jurists working within the Shi’i tradition have developed their rules respecting sex regulation to serve three primary commitments. The first of these is that there is an intense and near debilitating desire on the part of human beings generally, though mostly men, for a great deal of sex. This desire must be satisfied, but it also must be tightly controlled. This is because of the second commitment, which is that excessive licentiousness is a form of secular distraction from a believer’s central obligation to worship God. Finally, and perhaps the most interesting ...


Do All Roads Lead To Islamic Radicalism? A Comparison Of Islamic Laws In India And Nigeria, Amitabha Bose Sep 2014

Do All Roads Lead To Islamic Radicalism? A Comparison Of Islamic Laws In India And Nigeria, Amitabha Bose

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Death Of Islamic Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi Sep 2014

The Death Of Islamic Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Impossible, Highly Desired Islamic Bank, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2014

The Impossible, Highly Desired Islamic Bank, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

The purpose of this Article is to explore, and explain the stubborn persistence of, a central paradox that is endemic to the retail Islamic bank as it operates in the United States. The paradox is that retail Islamic banking in the United States is impossible, and yet it remains highly desired. It is impossible because the principles that are supposed to underlie the practice of Islamic finance deal with the trading of assets and the equitable sharing of risks, profits and losses among bank, depositor and portfolio investment. It is true that much of this can be, and is, circumvented ...


Judicial Independence In Post-Conflict Iraq: Establishing The Rule Of Law In An Islamic Constitutional Democracy, David Pimentel, Brian Anderson Jan 2013

Judicial Independence In Post-Conflict Iraq: Establishing The Rule Of Law In An Islamic Constitutional Democracy, David Pimentel, Brian Anderson

David Pimentel

Contemporary Iraq is facing the full range of challenges that come with post-conflict transitional justice, including “paving the road toward peace and reconciliation” and establishing a functional state, characterized by the Rule of Law. Prospects for the establishment of an independent judiciary in Iraq are obstructed by a number of factors, including (1) how to apply the explicit recognition of the law of Islam in the Iraqi Constitution, (2) the inability to pass legislation on the Federal Courts of Iraq, leaving several provisions of the Iraqi Constitution unimplemented, and other critical elements of judicial independence unaddressed, including provisions for tenure ...


Religious Minorities And Shari’A In Iraqi Courts, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2013

Religious Minorities And Shari’A In Iraqi Courts, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

There is a rising interest in our academy in the study of constitutional states, particularly in the Islamic world, whose legal and constitutional structure is at least as a formal matter both founded on and subject to religious doctrine. For those of us interested in the Arab spring, and indeed in constitutionalism in much of the Islamic world, this work is not only valuable, but positively vital. Without it, we are unable to discuss most emerging Arab democracies in constitutional terms. In Iraq, and in Egypt after it, two of the premier Arab states which have recently seen constitutions approved ...


Is The Middle East Moving Toward Islamism After The Arab Spring? The Case Study Of The Egyptian Commercial And Financial Laws, Radwa S. Elsaman, Ahmed Eldakak Jan 2012

Is The Middle East Moving Toward Islamism After The Arab Spring? The Case Study Of The Egyptian Commercial And Financial Laws, Radwa S. Elsaman, Ahmed Eldakak

Richmond Journal of Global Law & Business

The first parliamentary elections that followed the Egyptian Revolution witnessed an unprecedented success for Islamists as they secured an overwhelming majority of seats in parliament, suggesting that they may intend to amend many laws to bring parliament into compliance with Islamic Shari’a. This article addresses legal challenges that will face the new majority if they decide to Islamize laws and regulations related to business and finance. Particularly, the article discusses Islamic money theory, trade, banking systems, consumer protection, insurance, competition, and tax systems. The article analyzes Egyptian business and finance laws to examine whether they comply with Islamic law ...


Repugnancy In The Arab World, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2012

Repugnancy In The Arab World, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

“Repugnancy clauses” -- those constitutional provisions that, in language that varies from nation to nation, require legislation to conform to some core conception of Islam -- are all the rage these days. This clause, a relatively recent addition to many modern constitutions, has emerged as a central focus of academic writing on Muslim state constitutions generally, and on Arab constitutions in particular. Much of the attention it has received has been enlightening and erudite. Yet one aspect of the broader repugnancy discourse that deserves some attention is an important, often de facto, temporal limitation on the effect of the clause. There appears ...


How To Judge Shari'a Contracts: A Guide To Islamic Marriage Agreements In American Courts, Nathan B. Oman Feb 2011

How To Judge Shari'a Contracts: A Guide To Islamic Marriage Agreements In American Courts, Nathan B. Oman

Faculty Publications

This Article thus has two goals. The first is to show how the Muslim conception of marriage diverges from the Christian-influenced norms that dominate American law and society. Understanding this divergence provides a necessary background to Islamic mahr contracts. The second goal is to provide lawyers and judges with a doctrinal framework within our current law for analyzing these contracts and reaching sensible results in concrete cases.


Islam & International Criminal Law: A Brief (In) Compatibility Study, Michael J. Kelly Mar 2010

Islam & International Criminal Law: A Brief (In) Compatibility Study, Michael J. Kelly

Pace International Law Review Online Companion

This paper explores why that incompatibility between Islam and international criminal law persists and considers recommendations for mitigating that dynamic. Why is this important? Primarily because the Western-influenced international criminal law apparatus and the Muslim world are likely to collide more often in the future. If a war crimes tribunal is established in Afghanistan, or if the trial of Syrian agents for the assassination of Lebanon’s former prime minister goes forward, it is imperative that Islamic societies touched by those processes feel a sense of “buy-in” or participation that is meaningful for them. Otherwise, it becomes the same old ...


Ijtihad Institutions: The Key To Islamic Democracy Bridging And Balancing Political And Intellectual Islam, Adham A. Hashish Jan 2010

Ijtihad Institutions: The Key To Islamic Democracy Bridging And Balancing Political And Intellectual Islam, Adham A. Hashish

Richmond Journal of Global Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Shari'a On The Dispute Resolution Process Set Forth In The Washington Convention, The, Andrew Smolik Jan 2010

Effect Of Shari'a On The Dispute Resolution Process Set Forth In The Washington Convention, The, Andrew Smolik

Journal of Dispute Resolution

This article will provide an overview of Shari'a law with respect to arbitration. Section I provides an overview of principles of Shari'a and its development. Section II discusses Islamic jurisprudence and the different schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Section III provides a discussion of the different schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Section IV provides a history of arbitration in the Middle East from the period before Muhammad to today. Section V gives a brief overview of the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention). Sections VI and VI discuss issues regarding ...


The Death Of Islamic Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2010

The Death Of Islamic Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

That lawmaking in many modern Muslim nation states appears to give rather short shrift to shari’a, seemingly ignoring it in all areas save the law of the family and replacing it elsewhere with European transplanted law, has been discussed. That the Muslim world is replete with political institutions and leaders that seek a greater role than this for the shari’a in the affairs of the state is obvious to anyone even faintly familiar with the region.

However, left undiscussed is the fact that the Islamist, who derives his authority precisely on the basis of returning sovereignty to God ...


Ornamental Repugnancy: Identitarian Islam And The Iraqi Constitution, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2010

Ornamental Repugnancy: Identitarian Islam And The Iraqi Constitution, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

Nearly six years after the enactment of Iraq’s final constitution, the Federal Supreme Court of Iraq has yet to render a single ruling respecting the conformity of any law to the “settled rulings of Islam” despite being empowered to do precisely that under Article 2 of the Iraqi Constitution. This so-called repugnancy clause is swiftly devolving from a matter that was of some importance during constitutional negotiations into one that is more symbolic than real – an assertion of identity, primarily of the Islamic variety (though when combined with Article 92, to some extent of the Shi’i Islamic variety ...


Dream Palaces Of Law: Western Constructions Of The Muslim Legal World, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2009

Dream Palaces Of Law: Western Constructions Of The Muslim Legal World, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

Western distortions of the Muslim East nearly always take the same form, irrespective of who in the West is doing the distorting. One common theme can be generally gleaned from any projections of the Muslim East in the West, in any Western country, among nearly every community, including, and perhaps especially, our own academic community. This is the perception of the near ubiquitous role of Islam and, more germane to my remarks, Islamic law, of a historic, medieval kind, in governing the legal order of Muslim states, including Iraq, in a manner that can be entirely distorting. In these brief ...


Dhimmitude And Disarmament, David B. Kopel Jan 2008

Dhimmitude And Disarmament, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Under shari'a law, non-Muslims, known as dhimmi, have been forbidden to possess arms, and to defend themselves from attacks by Muslims. The disarmament is one aspect of the pervasive civil inferiority of non-Muslims, a status known as dhimmitude. This Essay examines the historical effects of the shari'a disarmament, based on three books by Bat Ye'or, the world's leading scholar of dhimmitude. As Ye'or details, the disarmament had catastrophic consequences, extending far beyond the direct loss of the dhimmi's ability to defend themselves. The essay concludes by observing how pretend gun-free zones on college campuses ...


Of Neocolonialism, Common Law And Uncodifiable Shari’A: A Reply To Professor An-Na’Im, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar Apr 2007

Of Neocolonialism, Common Law And Uncodifiable Shari’A: A Reply To Professor An-Na’Im, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In an earlier article -- Robinson et al., Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & the Freedom to Invent New Forms, http://ssrn.com/abstract=941443 -- the authors report the challenges and opportunities that arose during their commission by the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of the Maldives to produce the first modern comprehensive criminal code based upon Shari'a. In this brief essay they respond to published criticisms of that project, which asserted, among other things, that Shari'a cannot be codified, that it should not be codified, that the project was a shameful exercise in neocolonialism, that the ...


Jurisprudential Schizophrenia: On Form And Function In Islamic Finance, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2007

Jurisprudential Schizophrenia: On Form And Function In Islamic Finance, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Haider Ala Hamoudi

No abstract provided.


Muhammad's Social Justice Or Muslim Cant: Langdellianism And The Origins Of Islamic Finance, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2007

Muhammad's Social Justice Or Muslim Cant: Langdellianism And The Origins Of Islamic Finance, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Haider Ala Hamoudi

Though it is advertised and promoted as the bulwark of an alternative economic system based on populist Muslim notions of social justice and fairness, Islamic finance as a practice has failed to meet these objectives. The causes of that failure and the question of whether alternative approaches are possible are the subject of this Article.

The failure of Islamic finance to provide that which it promotes is the direct consequence of the application of an Islamic logic driven interpretive system through which rules are derived, which its adherents claim was formalized and systematized by the early jurist Muhammad Ibn Idris ...


Money Laundering Amidst Mortars: Legislative Process And State Authority In Post-Invasion Iraq, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2007

Money Laundering Amidst Mortars: Legislative Process And State Authority In Post-Invasion Iraq, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Haider Ala Hamoudi

No abstract provided.


Human Rights And The Global Economy : The Promises And Failures Of Globalization, Hope Lewis Dec 2006

Human Rights And The Global Economy : The Promises And Failures Of Globalization, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

No abstract provided.


Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer Nov 2006

Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Program and the Republic of the Maldives, a small Muslim country with a constitutional democracy, commissioned this project to craft the country's first system of codified penal law and sentencing guidelines. This Article describes the special challenges and opportunities encountered while drafting a penal code based on Shari'a (Islamic law). On the one hand, such comprehensive codification is more important and more likely to bring dramatic improvements in the quality of justice than in many other societies, due in large part to the problems of assuring fair notice and fair adjudication in the uncodified ...


Final Report Of The Maldivian Penal Law & Sentencing Codification Project: Text Of Draft Code (Volume 1) And Official Commentary (Volume 2), Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group -- University Of Pennsylvania Jan 2006

Final Report Of The Maldivian Penal Law & Sentencing Codification Project: Text Of Draft Code (Volume 1) And Official Commentary (Volume 2), Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group -- University Of Pennsylvania

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Programme and the Government of the Maldives commissioned the drafting of a penal code based upon existing Maldivian law, which meant primarily a codification of Shari'a. This is the Final Report of that codification project. A description of the process that produced this Report and the drafting principles behind it, as well as a discussion of the special challenges of codifying Islamic criminal law, are contained in an article at http://ssrn.com/abstract=941443.