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Sexual violence

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Phenomenon Of Sexual Violence During Armed Conflicts In The Twenty-First Century: Entering The Era Of Survivors As Agents Of Peace, Shayna Kushner May 2021

The Phenomenon Of Sexual Violence During Armed Conflicts In The Twenty-First Century: Entering The Era Of Survivors As Agents Of Peace, Shayna Kushner

International Relations Honors Papers

Evidence suggests the twenty-first century has witnessed a surge in armed conflicts and ethnic wars targeting marginalized communities, subjecting innocent civilians to violence and destruction. Among the tactics aimed to disrupt family and social ties within the existing communities, some armed groups and government sponsored soldiers have subjected vulnerable individuals to wartime rape and conflict-related sexual violence including physical and mental abuse. While the international community attempts to intervene militarily and judicially to quell the sexual violence, institutions and individual actors fall short of providing justice and accountability to survivors and victims of conflict-related sexual violence. Through the case studies ...


Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff May 2021

Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

#MeToo. It’s On Us. End Rape on Campus. #BeTheSwede. Dear UNL. These phrases have united people all over the world to use their voices and speak out about sexual violence. In higher education, these statements empower students to make their voices heard, and simultaneously invoke fear in campus administrators who do not want to be held accountable for the mishandling/lack of Title IX cases. Student survivor activism groups, the subject of this study, have formed at universities around the country and often use similar statements to advocate for changes they feel need to happen. Finding no previous research ...


Untested And Neglected: Clarifying The Comparator Requirement In Equal Protection Claims Based On Untested Rape Kits, Emily Jones Apr 2021

Untested And Neglected: Clarifying The Comparator Requirement In Equal Protection Claims Based On Untested Rape Kits, Emily Jones

Northwestern University Law Review

Rape kits are important tools used to store the evidence that is collected from a victim’s body and clothing following a sexual assault. Although the DNA evidence stored in rape kits is crucial to rape investigations, police departments throughout the country have routinely failed to test rape kits. This remains true despite the national funding allocated specifically for rape kit testing. This widespread neglect hinders justice and renders community members unprotected from sexual violence. The national rape kit backlog has sparked legal challenges; six lawsuits have been filed against police departments for systematically refusing to test rape kits, alleging ...


The Stability Paradox: The Two-Parent Paradigm And The Perpetuation Of Violence Against Women In Termination Of Parental Rights And Custody Cases, Judith Lewis Feb 2021

The Stability Paradox: The Two-Parent Paradigm And The Perpetuation Of Violence Against Women In Termination Of Parental Rights And Custody Cases, Judith Lewis

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Despite changing family compositions, entrenched in family law is the antiquated idea that a two-parent household, or its approximation vis-à-vis a shared custody arrangement, promotes stability and integrity and, thus, is in the best interest of the child. Yet, the concept that the two-parent household (or shared involvement of both parents in the child’s life if the parents separate) promotes stability for the family and is best for the child is a dangerous fallacy. When rape or intimate partner violence (IPV) is present, or the re-occurrence of violence remains a threat, the family unit is far from stable.

This ...


Resolutions Without Resolve: Turning Away From Un Security Council Resolutions To Address Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, Emma K. Macfarlane Feb 2021

Resolutions Without Resolve: Turning Away From Un Security Council Resolutions To Address Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, Emma K. Macfarlane

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

In 2008, the United Nations first recognized rape as a war crime with the passage of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1820. Since then, the fight against conflict-related sexual violence has become a frequent subject of Security Council Resolutions. But what, if anything, has changed? Wartime sexual violence is still prevalent today and shows no signs of slowing down. This Note argues that Security Council Resolutions are not an effective method to prevent conflict-related sexual violence. The procedural weaknesses in passing Security Council Resolutions and the structure of the Security Council itself may do more harm than good to the ...


Promoting Gender Equity And Foreign Policy Goals Through Ratifying The Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women, Raj Telwala Jan 2021

Promoting Gender Equity And Foreign Policy Goals Through Ratifying The Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women, Raj Telwala

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


He Said, She Said: Plausible Pleadings For Reverse Title Ix Claims, James Bunster Jan 2021

He Said, She Said: Plausible Pleadings For Reverse Title Ix Claims, James Bunster

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Me Too? The Invisible Older Victims Of Sexual Violence, Ruthy Lowenstein Lazar Mar 2020

Me Too? The Invisible Older Victims Of Sexual Violence, Ruthy Lowenstein Lazar

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

A review of legal research on violence against women and elder abuse reveals a disturbing picture. There is hardly any American legal research examining sexual abuse of older women and its conceptualization in legal literature and treatment in the legal system.

This Article attempts to fill the abovementioned gap and to bring the hidden issue of sexual violence against older women to light. Scholars writing on rape, violence against women, and elder abuse tend to analyze age and gendered sexual violence separately from each other, without accounting for their interplay. This Article proposes a conceptual framework of sexual abuse of ...


Victim Impact Statements And Corporate Sex Crimes, Erin L. Sheley Jan 2020

Victim Impact Statements And Corporate Sex Crimes, Erin L. Sheley

Faculty Scholarship

This Article argues that more frequently including victim impact statements during the sentencing phase of corporate criminal trials would help lay foundation for legislative reforms geared towards punishing corporations on the occasions where genuinely corporate misconduct, such as that of USAG and the Weinstein Company, can be said to have caused sexual offenses. The Article proceeds in three Parts. First, I argue that criminal enforcement against corporations is generally untethered from harm to victims, and that this thwarts one of the most coherent justifications for the existence of corporate criminal liability. Next, I argue that a focus on victim narratives ...


Standing In Between Sexual Violence Victims And Access To Justice: The Limits Of Title Ix, Hannah Brenner Johnson Jan 2020

Standing In Between Sexual Violence Victims And Access To Justice: The Limits Of Title Ix, Hannah Brenner Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

Sexual violence proliferates across communities, generally, and is especially prevalent in places like colleges and universities. As quasi-closed systems, colleges and universities are governed by their own internal norms, policies, and federal laws, like Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which address how sex discrimination must be handled in institutions of higher education that are in receipt of federal funds. Title IX focuses on all facets of sex discrimination including reporting, investigation, adjudication, and prevention. When schools are accused of failing to adequately respond to reports of sexual misconduct on their campuses, Title IX has been interpreted by ...


Critical Reviews Of Flawed Research On Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Nov 2019

Critical Reviews Of Flawed Research On Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Sudden, Forced, And Unwanted Kisses In The #Metoo Era: Why A Kiss Is Not “Just A Kiss” Under Italian Sexual Violence Law, Rachel A. Van Cleave Sep 2019

Sudden, Forced, And Unwanted Kisses In The #Metoo Era: Why A Kiss Is Not “Just A Kiss” Under Italian Sexual Violence Law, Rachel A. Van Cleave

Publications

#MeToo reports have revealed a significant number of forced kisses typically by men in positions of authority. Previous scholarship in the US has viewed such instances as to rare or too minor to be worthy of criminal sanctions. Indeed, there are no such reported criminal cases involving adults. However, in Italy, the Supreme Court of Cassazione has upheld sexual violence convictions for such forced kisses. This article analyzes these cases and investigates the types of considerations the Italian Supreme Court includes in its evaluation of these situations. This article also suggests specific aspects of US laws that could benefit from ...


Film Review: The Uncondemned, Jessica M. Adach Jun 2019

Film Review: The Uncondemned, Jessica M. Adach

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Film Review of The Uncondemned


Establishing The Mens Rea Of Genocide Within "Sub-Intentions": A Study Of Systematic Sexual Violence In Myanmar And Bosnia, Perry Joseph Zirpoli May 2019

Establishing The Mens Rea Of Genocide Within "Sub-Intentions": A Study Of Systematic Sexual Violence In Myanmar And Bosnia, Perry Joseph Zirpoli

Senior Theses

The aim of this study is to investigate how sexual violence rises to the level of genocide. The thesis puts the ongoing conflict in Myanmar between the Rohingya and Buddhist majority into discussion with the Bosnian conflict between Serbs and Bosnian Muslims during the Yugoslav Wars. In discussing the nature of these two conflicts, this thesis will provide evidence that sexual violence can rise to the level of genocide when it is used to interfere with the free reproduction of a group. The thesis will demonstrate that sexual violence was perpetrated in these conflicts with overall intent to homogenize the ...


Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas Apr 2019

Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas

Articles

As a disciplinarian of international organizations, reputation has serious shortcomings. Even though international organizations have strong incentives to maintain a good reputation, reputational concerns will sometimes fail to spur preventive or corrective action. Organizations have multiple audiences, so efforts to preserve a “good” reputation may pull organizations in many different directions, and steps taken to preserve a good reputation will not always be salutary. Recent incidents of sexual violence by UN peacekeepers in the Central African Republic illustrate these points.


What Italian Sexual Violence Law Can Teach Us Law In The #Metoo Era, Rachel A. Van Cleave Mar 2019

What Italian Sexual Violence Law Can Teach Us Law In The #Metoo Era, Rachel A. Van Cleave

Publications

On International Women’s Day, with women facing challenges on equal pay, reproductive rights, sexual harassment and violent sexual assault, the topic of sudden, forced and unwanted kisses initially seems trivial, unworthy of consideration. However, Alva Johnson’s recent civil complaint against Donald Trump for kissing her on the side of her mouth, raises the question of whether such conduct should be criminal in the United States.


Debunking The Myth Of Universal Male Privilege, Jamie R. Abrams Feb 2019

Debunking The Myth Of Universal Male Privilege, Jamie R. Abrams

Jamie R. Abrams

Existing legal responses to sexual assault and harassment in the military have stagnated or failed. Current approaches emphasize the prevalence of sexual assault and highlight the masculine nature of the military’s statistical composition and institutional culture. Current responses do not, however, incorporate masculinities theory to disentangle the experiences of men as a group from men as individuals. Rather, embedded within contestations of the masculine military culture is the unstated assumption that the culture universally privileges or benefits the individual men that operate within it. This myth is harmful because it tethers masculinities to military efficacy, suppresses the costs of ...


Critiquing Matter Of A-B-: An Uncertain Future In Asylum Proceedings For Women Fleeing Intimate Partner Violence, Theresa A. Vogel Jan 2019

Critiquing Matter Of A-B-: An Uncertain Future In Asylum Proceedings For Women Fleeing Intimate Partner Violence, Theresa A. Vogel

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The #MeToo movement has brought renewed attention to the impact of gender inequality on our society’s ability to provide protection to women from physical and sexual violence, including intimate partner violence. Despite advances in legal protections and increased resources to prevent, prosecute, and bring an end to intimate partner violence, in the absence of true efforts to combat gender inequality as a whole, intimate partner violence will continue to pervade our society. The discussion of gender inequality’s impact on the treatment of intimate partner violence must expand beyond the violence that occurs in the United States to gender ...


The "Uncanny Valley" And The Verisimilitude Of Sexual Offenders--Part I: An "Ethorobotic" Perspective, Michael T. Flannery Jan 2019

The "Uncanny Valley" And The Verisimilitude Of Sexual Offenders--Part I: An "Ethorobotic" Perspective, Michael T. Flannery

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article is the first in a series of three articles in which I explain the cycle of misperception of sexual offenders that has encouraged the unconstitutional application of sexual offender laws, including civil commitment laws, in a false effort to quell public fear, protect children, and reduce sexual victimization. In this first Article of the series, I propose that this cycle of misperception and the resistance to the release of civilly committed sexual offenders may be, in part, the product of a novel phenomenon known as the “uncanny valley” effect.


"I Wanted Them To Be Punished Or At Least Ask Us For Forgiveness”: Justice Interests Of Female Victim-Survivors Of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence And Their Experiences With Gacaca, Judith Rafferty Dec 2018

"I Wanted Them To Be Punished Or At Least Ask Us For Forgiveness”: Justice Interests Of Female Victim-Survivors Of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence And Their Experiences With Gacaca, Judith Rafferty

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Survivors of human rights abuses need to experience a sense of justice to support their individual recovery. Women who have experienced conflict-related sexual violence have specific justice interests that are distinct from those of survivors of other abuses. This article focuses on justice interests of Rwandan women who experienced sexual violence during the genocide in Rwanda and who had their cases tried in gacaca community courts between 2008 and 2012. The article discusses two justice interests that emerged during interviews with 23 Rwandan women about their gacaca experience. These interests include the punishment of perpetrators and perpetrators taking responsibility for ...


The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers Aug 2018

The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers

Pace International Law Review

This Article analyzes the difficulties African male victims of sexual violence experience when seeking asylum in homophobic host countries and the lack of attention they receive from international and national governments and organizations. It concludes by recommending that male victims of sexual violence be able to seek asylum in host countries due to lack of medical care that they receive in their countries on account of imputed homosexual status.


What About #Ustoo?: The Invisibility Of Race In The #Metoo Movement, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Jun 2018

What About #Ustoo?: The Invisibility Of Race In The #Metoo Movement, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

Women involved in the most recent wave of the #MeToo movement have rightly received praise for breaking long-held silences about harassment in the workplace. The movement, however, has also rightly received criticism for both initially ignoring the role that a woman of color played in founding the movement ten years earlier and in failing to recognize the unique forms of harassment and the heightened vulnerability to harassment that women of color frequently face in the workplace. This Essay highlights and analyzes critical points at which the contributions and experiences of women of color, particularly black women, were ignored in the ...


Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab May 2018

Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab

Michigan Journal of International Law

Seven years have passed since revolution broke out in Syria in March of 2011. During those six years, hundreds of thousands of Syrians lost their lives, millions of Syrians were internally displaced or left the country seeking refuge, and a beautiful and diverse country was hijacked and terrorized by civil war. Every day in Syria, people are detained, tortured, raped, and killed. Attacks on homes, hospitals, markets, and schools are common occurrences. At this stage of the conflict, there is little doubt that it is the most horrific and dire humanitarian crisis since World War II. The conflict began as ...


The Price Is (Not) Right: Mandatory Arbitration Of Claims Arising Out Of Sexual Violence Should Not Be The Price Of Earning A Living, Nicolette Sullivan Jan 2018

The Price Is (Not) Right: Mandatory Arbitration Of Claims Arising Out Of Sexual Violence Should Not Be The Price Of Earning A Living, Nicolette Sullivan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

As demonstrated by the #MeToo movement, current attempts to curtail systemic sexual violence in the workplace have fallen flat: approximately sixty million US workers are subject to mandatory arbitration clauses, which employers tend to bury deep within the fine print of employment contracts. These clauses, often coupled with confidentiality agreements, have provided offenders--and their employers--with a mechanism to escape liability and public scrutiny. Under the existing judicial framework, whether a court will allow victims of workplace sexual violence to escape binding arbitration remains unclear. Congress attempted to address this uncertainty by proposing the Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Harassment Act ...


Cedaw, The Islamic State, And Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, Christine Gibbons Jan 2018

Cedaw, The Islamic State, And Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, Christine Gibbons

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Tales of the Islamic State (ISIL) and the group's brutality shocked the world for several years. Now, however, ISIL has been nearly defeated. As ISIL has lost territorial control, the world has learned more details about its cruel enslavement system, including the severe sexual violence that ISIL inflicted on the Yazidis. Now, many advocates are calling for justice for the Yazidis and other victims of ISIL's sexual violence. This Note uses the case of the Yazidis to examine the strengths and limits of the international framework for addressing conflict-related sexual violence. In particular, this Note examines the history ...


Bystander No More? Improving The Federal Response To Sexual Violence In Indian Country, Sarah Deer Aug 2017

Bystander No More? Improving The Federal Response To Sexual Violence In Indian Country, Sarah Deer

Utah Law Review

For better or worse, the federal government has taken responsibility for providing for the protection of Native people. So long as the federal government refuses to allow tribes to govern themselves completely and independently, it is imperative that the federal government enact policies empowering Native survivors of sexual assault. The federal government must do more to protect tribal members from sexual predators, to safeguard reservations not only from career criminals but also to ensure that federal agencies like the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Services do not hire men with a history of violence against women or ...


Gendered Lived Experiences In Urban Cape Town: Urban Infrastructure As Equal Opportunity, Social Justice, And Crime Prevention, Becky Jacobs May 2017

Gendered Lived Experiences In Urban Cape Town: Urban Infrastructure As Equal Opportunity, Social Justice, And Crime Prevention, Becky Jacobs

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Pattern Of Criminalizing The Unknown Crime Of Rape In Global Scale, Sahar Jalili Apr 2017

The Evolution Of Pattern Of Criminalizing The Unknown Crime Of Rape In Global Scale, Sahar Jalili

SJD Dissertations

Rape is a crime globally condemned, yet it's one of the most controversial crimes at the time. What this research did was to gather the information of countries' rape laws in their penal codes from all over the world and create a pattern of how countries on a global scale criminalize rape and how far they have changed in the past century. The goal was to produce a rape criminalization map of the world to show which elements are playing the main factors and which factors are missing, how close countries define rape and how different their reactions are ...


New Uri Journal Explores Sexual Exploitation, G. Wayne Miller, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Apr 2017

New Uri Journal Explores Sexual Exploitation, G. Wayne Miller, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

With large global reach already, the journal Dignity is first of its kind in the world. A new journal devoted to the broad examination of sexual exploitation, violence and slavery has been launched by a prominent University of Rhode Island professor and researcher Donna M. Hughes. Since its debut last year, the first-of-its-kind online journal Dignity has been a global success, with people from more than 100 countries downloading articles, according to URI. 


Uri Professor Launches Online Journal About Sexual Exploitation, Violence, Slavery, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Apr 2017

Uri Professor Launches Online Journal About Sexual Exploitation, Violence, Slavery, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Sexual exploitation and violence are rampant throughout the world, and academics are rightly pushing the issue into the public eye through their research and articles. University of Rhode Island professor Donna M. Hughes is at the forefront of the movement with the launch of an online academic journal, “Dignity,” dedicated to publishing papers about sexual exploitation, violence and slavery. The journal is the first academic journal in the world to address global sexual exploitation and well on its way to success.