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Securities Law

2015

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Is Moderation The Highest Virtue? A Comparative Study Of A Middle Way Of Control Transaction Regimes, Yueh-Ping Yang, Pin-Hsien Lee Oct 2015

Is Moderation The Highest Virtue? A Comparative Study Of A Middle Way Of Control Transaction Regimes, Yueh-Ping Yang, Pin-Hsien Lee

Yueh-Ping Yang

Comparative studies of control transaction regimes mostly compare between the Market Rule as adopted in the U.S. and the General Offer Rule ad adopted in European Union, while paying less attention to the Partial Offer Rule, a middle way model adopted in many East Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, etc. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap by highlighting the Partial Offer Rule adopted in these countries, analyzing this rule’s theoretical foundation and observing its implementation in practice. Our theoretical analyses of the Partial Offer Rule are comprised of two parts. First, by adding …


Article Iii And Seventh Amendment Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings After Dodd-Frank, Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire Sep 2015

Article Iii And Seventh Amendment Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings After Dodd-Frank, Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire

Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire

This article is a discussion of the evolution of enforcement remedies available to the United States Securities & Exchange Commission and the possibility that, with the enactment of the 2010 Dodd-Frank amendments to the securities laws, Congress encroached on Article III of and the Seventh Amendment to the Constitution. Section of 929P of Dodd-Frank, which allows the SEC to pursue monetary penalties and other forms of relief against unregulated persons in administrative proceedings, is a particular focus. The article relies on a chronological analysis of these areas of law and close case reading to reconcile the disparate and sometimes seemingly …


Choosing Among Innocents: Should Donations To Charities Be Protected From Avoidance As Fraudulent Transfers, Jeffrey Davis Aug 2015

Choosing Among Innocents: Should Donations To Charities Be Protected From Avoidance As Fraudulent Transfers, Jeffrey Davis

Jeffrey Davis

In recent years, the nation has experienced the most severe recession since the Great Depression of the 1930s. A recession is like a low tide. When the water recedes, the crabs, slugs, and urchins appear. Similarly, when the economy recedes, Ponzi schemes appear. People cut back on saving and investing, and many are forced to draw on savings and investments. Deprived of its life's blood, a positive cash flow, a Ponzi scheme dies. This explains why so many Ponzi schemes have failed recently, including the schemes of Bernard Madoff in New York, Tom Petters in Minneapolis, Robert Allen Stanford in …


Tender Offers And The Sale Of Control: An Analogue To Determine The Validity Of Target Management Defense Measures, Stuart R. Cohn Aug 2015

Tender Offers And The Sale Of Control: An Analogue To Determine The Validity Of Target Management Defense Measures, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

The hostile tender offer phenomenon has spawned wholesale defensive measures adopted by target company management. In recent years, confrontations like those of Occidental Petroleum-Mead Corporation and American Express-McGraw-Hill have resulted in target management causing the eventual withdrawal of the tender offer by employing a variety of defensive measures known colloquially as “scorched earth” tactics. The “urge to merge” among major corporations will continue to produce unsolicited, nonnegotiated tender offers at varying scales of size. Consequently, strategies and techniques have been created at a pace faster than the process of litigation, causing a discernible lag between the ingenuity of corporate management …


Stock Appreciation Rights And The Sec: A Case Of Questionable Rulemaking, Stuart R. Cohn Aug 2015

Stock Appreciation Rights And The Sec: A Case Of Questionable Rulemaking, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

A stock appreciation rights (SARs) program is a form of deferred incentive compensation. Grantees are awarded SAR-units representing an equal number of the grantor’s equity shares currently being traded in public markets. SARs provide grantees the benefit of stock ownership without equity interest, investment, or risk of loss. Stock appreciation rights programs offer various advantages over other forms of executive compensation and have grown rapidly in number. These advantages include the availability of benefits without the requirement of monetary payments, the utilization of SARs as an interest-free form of financing the purchase of stock under tandem stock option programs, the …


Securities Markets For Small Issuers: The Barrier Of Federal Solicitation And Advertising Prohibitions, Stuart R. Cohn Aug 2015

Securities Markets For Small Issuers: The Barrier Of Federal Solicitation And Advertising Prohibitions, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

How can small issuers find potential investors and stay within the confines of federal securities laws? That is a perplexing question given the very strong prohibitions against advertising and solicitation found in SEC rules and no-action letters. What the registration exemptions purport to give with one hand, i.e. ability to raise capital without the cost and delay of registration, the anti-solicitation rules take away with the other. These rules need to be lifted or modified if small businesses are to have a viable opportunity to seek potential investors.


Demise Of The Director's Duty Of Care: Judicial Avoidance Of Standards And Sanctions Through The Business Judgment Rule, Stuart R. Cohn Aug 2015

Demise Of The Director's Duty Of Care: Judicial Avoidance Of Standards And Sanctions Through The Business Judgment Rule, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

Courts love the so-called business judgment rule. It dispenses quickly and easily with derivative actions against corporate directors and officers, and other challenges to corporate conduct. Unfortunately, the business judgment rule has come to mask its underlying premise, i.e. that there must have been a business judgment made. This article examines the dominance of the business judgment rule over the underlying requirement of the duty of care and suggests reform measures that will bring the duty of care back to its appropriate role in determining the merits of management decision-making processes.


The Impact Of Securities Laws On Developing Companies: Would The Wright Brothers Have Gotten Off The Ground?, Stuart R. Cohn Aug 2015

The Impact Of Securities Laws On Developing Companies: Would The Wright Brothers Have Gotten Off The Ground?, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

Suppose the Wright brothers, to pursue their dreams of manned flight, needed outside financing. Confronted with the intimidating regulatory requirements of today 's state and federal securities laws, would they ever have gotten off the ground? With historical illustrations, this Essay presents an entertaining look at the serious problems that would be encountered today by entrepreneurs who have ideas but need capital to develop them. It analyzes the regulatory maze and prohibitions of state and federal securities laws and concludes that, in today's marketplace, the Wright brothers probably would have violated several laws to obtain essential financing for their venture.


E-Commerce, Cyber, And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman Aug 2015

E-Commerce, Cyber, And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

By now, almost without exception, every business has an internet presence, and is likely engaged in e-commerce. What are the major risks perceived by those engaged in e-commerce and electronic payment systems? What potential risks, if they become reality, may cause substantial increases in operating costs or threaten the very survival of the enterprise? This article utilizes the relevant annual report disclosures from eBay (parent of PayPal), along with other eBay and PayPal documents, as a potentially powerful teaching device. Most of the descriptive language to follow is excerpted directly from eBay’s regulatory filings. My additions include weaving these materials …


Law And Finance: The Case Of Stock Market Development In China, Zhong Zhang Dr Aug 2015

Law And Finance: The Case Of Stock Market Development In China, Zhong Zhang Dr

Zhong Zhang Dr

Having grown to one of the largest in the world in just over two decades, the stock market of China is cited as a counterexample to the significance of law for financial market development. A thorough examination of the development of China’s stock market however finds that law is actually critical to sustaining market growth and law did play a role in the growth of the market. On the other hand, the trajectory of development in China is growth first followed by law, and the improvement of law is caused by market growth. The experience of China hence suggests that …


Puzzles In Controlling Shareholder Regimes And China: Shareholder Primacy And (Quasi) Monopoly, Sang Yop Kang Aug 2015

Puzzles In Controlling Shareholder Regimes And China: Shareholder Primacy And (Quasi) Monopoly, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

Professor Mark Roe explained that the shareholder wealth maximization norm (“the norm”) is not fit for a country with a (quasi) monopoly, because the norm encourages managers to maximize monopoly rents, to the detriment of the national economy. This Article provides new findings and counter-intuitive arguments as to the tension created by the norm and (quasi) monopoly by exploring three key corporate governance concepts that Roe did not examine—(1) “controlling minority structure” (CMS), where dominant shareholders hold a fractional ownership in their controlled-corporations, (2) “tunneling” (i.e., illicit transfer of corporate wealth to controlling shareholders), and (3) Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). …


Ice Skating Up Hill: Constitutional Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings, Thomas Glassman Aug 2015

Ice Skating Up Hill: Constitutional Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings, Thomas Glassman

Thomas S Glassman

Since the inception of the Dodd-Frank Act the Securities and Exchange Commission has come under fire for its increased use of administrative proceedings in adjudicating the agency’s enforcement actions. That criticism has come to several suits in federal court claiming constitutional challenges to the system generally and most recently, the Administrative Law Judges themselves. Until June of 2015, when Hill v. the SEC took place in federal court, the Government was unbeaten in when arguing against these constitutional challenges. Hill, however found that it was likely the SEC had hired their Administrative Law Judges unconstitutionally. The SEC Administrative Law Judges …


Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella Aug 2015

Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella

Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.

Attorneys, especially in-house counsel, are subject to retaliation by employers in much the same way as traditional whistleblowers, often experiencing retaliation and loss of livelihood for reporting instances of wrongdoing about their clients. Although attorney-whistleblowing undoubtedly invokes ethical concerns, attorneys who “appear and practice” before the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) are required by federal law to act as internal whistleblowers under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX”) and report evidence of material violations of the law within the organizations that they represent. An attorney’s failure to comply with these obligations will result in SEC-imposed civil penalties and disciplinary action. Recent federal …


Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg Aug 2015

Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into huge …


Limiting Leukophobia: Looking Beyond Lockup. Debunking The Strategy Of Turning White Collars Orange, Jared J. Hight Jul 2015

Limiting Leukophobia: Looking Beyond Lockup. Debunking The Strategy Of Turning White Collars Orange, Jared J. Hight

Jared J Hight

The legal and political landscape of the past 30 years has resulted in the abandonment of the utilitarian principle of parsimony as applied to white collar criminals. In response to preceding decades of minor punishments meted out for serious white collar crimes, the Federal Sentencing Commission abandoned the typical past practices of sentencing judges and instead formulated Guidelines that are wildly excessive and no longer balance the need for community safety with the need for that same community to remain economically efficient. The guiding principles of deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation have been deemphasized in a new model that focuses primarily …


Tax Significance Of Payments In Satisfaction Of Liabilities Arising Under Section 16(B) Of The Securities Exchange Act Of 1934, Lawrence Lokken Jul 2015

Tax Significance Of Payments In Satisfaction Of Liabilities Arising Under Section 16(B) Of The Securities Exchange Act Of 1934, Lawrence Lokken

Lawrence Lokken

This article examines the income tax significance to the insider of his payment in satisfaction of a liability arising under section 16(b). Such taxpayers have usually sought a deduction against ordinary income in the year of payment. When the issue was first raised, the deduction was denied. Section 16(b) liability was held to be in the nature of a penalty; allowance of the deduction, it was found, "would weaken an effective method of enforcing the sharply defined policy expressed in sectin 16(b)...." In 1961 the Internal Revenue Service modified its earlier position by ruling that section 16(b) is not a …


Mutual Recognition Based On Substituted Compliance: An Integral Component Of The Sec’S Mandate, Cheryl C. Nichols Jun 2015

Mutual Recognition Based On Substituted Compliance: An Integral Component Of The Sec’S Mandate, Cheryl C. Nichols

School of Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) must utilize mutual recognition based on substituted compliance to maintain American preeminence in the global securities market. In fact, mutual recognition based on substituted compliance facilitates the SEC’s ability to fulfill its statutory mandate-- to protect investors; maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets; and facilitate capital formation. Currently, all US investors may have access to foreign exchanges in the global securities market without the protection of the U.S. federal securities laws; at a minimum, the SEC must take action to fulfill the first prong of its statutory mandate--to protect investors. In addition, maintaining …


Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, Hussam M. Alkanbashi May 2015

Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, Hussam M. Alkanbashi

Hussam M. Alkanbashi

Cybercrime is one of the greatest threats facing the International community. Defined as criminal activity perpetrated using computers and the internet, cybercrime has developed into a trillion dollar a year industry, affecting millions of people around the world, as well as countless businesses and the governments of every nation. With nearly 431 million victims projected in 2015, cyber related crime is one of if not the most frequent, costly and pervasive crimes worldwide. This article examines and assesses the effectiveness of Saudi and American Cyber Laws in deterring the growing global threats posed by cybercrime. The article studies cyber identity …


The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee May 2015

The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee

Huhnkie Lee

No abstract provided.


Plausible Cause: Exploring The Limits Of Loss Causation In Pleading And Proving Market Fraud Claims Under Securities Exchange Act Section 10(B) And Sec Rule 10b-5, Robert N. Rapp May 2015

Plausible Cause: Exploring The Limits Of Loss Causation In Pleading And Proving Market Fraud Claims Under Securities Exchange Act Section 10(B) And Sec Rule 10b-5, Robert N. Rapp

Robert N Rapp

This article explores the critical role of loss causation in pleading and proving fraud-on-the-market claims in private actions under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and SEC Rule 10b-5 thereunder. Loss causation is a separate, essential, element of any private action under these provisions, and weighs heavily on securities fraud class actions brought under the fraud-on-the-market theory. Claims in these cases are based on a security market price said to be made artificial by reason of materially false or misleading information disseminated into an efficient market, and which resets to a correct level when a disclosure event …


Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit's Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards Mar 2015

Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit's Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards

Theodore D. Edwards

See manuscript


Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit’S Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards Mar 2015

Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit’S Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards

Theodore D. Edwards

No abstract provided.


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara Mar 2015

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery to …


Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii Mar 2015

Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

Broker-dealers, unlike investment advisers, are not regulated as fiduciaries when providing investment advice, even though broker-dealers are holding themselves out as financial advisors and offering virtually identical services to investors. The lack of consistent regulation of financial service providers arises from the structure in which advice historically has been delivered. Financial services regulation since the Great Depression has developed along roughly dual tracks: laws governing the sale of financial products, which may or may not require that the products be suitable for the customer, and laws governing investment advice, which impose a fiduciary requirement on the adviser to act solely …


Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg Feb 2015

Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

Title III of the JOBS Act of 2012, which attempts to encourage entrepreneurship by allowing startups and small business to sell stock to the general public over the Internet through “crowdfunding,” is completely backwards. Its ceiling should be a floor—the $1 million limit should be inverted. By capping startups at raising $1 million from crowdfunding, the JOBS Act does not address the private equity gap, a fundamental problem in startup markets, and exposes unsophisticated investors to risk and fraud. This Article presents a regulatory framework premised on “bridgefunding,” an approach that this article develops to protect new investors by encouraging …


Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson Feb 2015

Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson

Jonathan C. Lipson

Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code presumes that managers will remain in possession and control of a corporate debtor. This presents an obvious agency problem: these same managers may have gotten the company into trouble in the first place. The Bankruptcy Code thus includes checks and balances in the reorganization process, one of which is supposed to be an “examiner,” a private individual appointed to investigate and report on the debtor’s collapse.

We study their use in practice. Extending prior research, we find that examiners are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that they should be “mandatory” in large cases ($5 …


Buying Voice: Financial Rewards For Whistleblowing Lawyers, Nancy J. Moore, Kathleen Clark Feb 2015

Buying Voice: Financial Rewards For Whistleblowing Lawyers, Nancy J. Moore, Kathleen Clark

Nancy J Moore

“Buying Voice: Financial Incentives for Whistleblowing Lawyers”

Kathleen Clark and Nancy J. Moore

Abstract

The federal government relies increasingly on whistleblowers to ferret out fraud, and has awarded whistleblowers over $4 billion under the False Claims Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform and Consumer Protection Act. May lawyers ethically seek whistleblower rewards under these federal statutes? A handful of lawyers have tried to do so as FCA qui tam relators. They have not yet succeeded, but several court decisions suggest that they might be able to do so under confidentiality exceptions to state ethics law, which several courts have …


Securities Fraud Damages Under The Pslra, Mohammed A. Misbah Feb 2015

Securities Fraud Damages Under The Pslra, Mohammed A. Misbah

Mohammed A Misbah

The United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act ("PSLRA") implemented several substantive changes affecting certain cases brought under the federal securities laws. It was designed to reduce the number of “frivolous” securities lawsuits filed in federal courts. Prior to the PSLRA, a securities fraud case could proceed with minimal evidence and use pre-trial discovery to search for more evidence that strongly suggested a deliberate fraud. Under the PSLRA plaintiffs need such evidence simply in order to commence an action. This article seeks to explain what evidence is required of a plaintiff in a security fraud case, in order to defeat …


The Vanishing Supervisor, James A. Fanto Feb 2015

The Vanishing Supervisor, James A. Fanto

James A. Fanto

This Article begins with two stories that are emblematic of related trends in broker-dealers: the importance of compliance officers and the significance of technology for the oversight of brokers and their activities. The stories also point to the lessening role of the supervisor who is “on the ground” in the branches of these firms. The diminished position of the mid-level supervisor is surprising, even shocking, in the federal regulation of broker-dealers. The history of this regulation reveals that Congress, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”) like the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) sought to prevent broker …


Take It Or Leave It: Unconscionability Of Mandatory Pre-Dispute Arbitration Agreements In The Securities Industry, William Alan Nelson Ii Feb 2015

Take It Or Leave It: Unconscionability Of Mandatory Pre-Dispute Arbitration Agreements In The Securities Industry, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

The pervasive use of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration agreements in the securities industry is a relatively new phenomenon. However, research reflects that an overwhelming majority of retail brokerage and investment advisory agreements include language requiring that all disputes between the customer and the broker-dealer / investment adviser be resolved through arbitration – most often with Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Dispute Resolution. Thus, only in rare instances can an investor open either a brokerage or investment advisory account without agreeing to submit to mandatory pre-dispute arbitration.

The enclosed article is the first to focus on the fairness of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration …