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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Effect Of Legislation On Fourth Amendment Protection, Orin S. Kerr Jan 2017

The Effect Of Legislation On Fourth Amendment Protection, Orin S. Kerr

Michigan Law Review

When judges interpret the Fourth Amendment, and privacy legislation regulates the government’s conduct, should the legislation have an effect on the Fourth Amendment? Courts are split three ways. Some courts argue that legislation provides the informed judgment of a coequal branch that should influence the Fourth Amendment. Some courts contend that the presence of legislation should displace Fourth Amendment protection to prevent constitutional rules from interfering with the legislature’s handiwork. Finally, some courts treat legislation and the Fourth Amendment as independent and contend that the legislation should have no effect. This Article argues that courts should favor interpreting the Fourth …


One Stop, No Stop, Two Stop, Terry Stop: Reasonable Suspicion And Pseudoephedrine Purchases By Suspected Methamphetamine Manufacturers, Andrew C. Goetz May 2007

One Stop, No Stop, Two Stop, Terry Stop: Reasonable Suspicion And Pseudoephedrine Purchases By Suspected Methamphetamine Manufacturers, Andrew C. Goetz

Michigan Law Review

This Note attempts to inject some clarity into courts' reasonable suspicion calculus for cold medicine purchases. It argues that the key factor in analyzing such purchases is whether the purchaser or purchasers appear to be circumventing pseudoephedrine purchasing restrictions in order to obtain inordinately large quantities of pseudoephedrine. Part I provides a general background on the domestic manufacture of methamphetamine in small, clandestine laboratories. Part II then examines the interplay between outward innocence and reasonable suspicion under the Supreme Court's Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. Finally, Part III establishes a framework for identifying purchasing strategies that methamphetamine manufacturers commonly use to circumvent …


Asymmetry, Fairness, & Criminal Trials, Stephen E. Hessler Jan 2001

Asymmetry, Fairness, & Criminal Trials, Stephen E. Hessler

Michigan Law Review

Rules of criminal procedure, like all rules of legal procedure, exist to advance the goals of the corresponding substantive law. To ask whether American criminal justice - pursued through the operation of these procedural rules - is fair is to engage in a debate that has persisted since the Founding. More recently, the early twentieth century witnessed a revolution against the procedural formalism of preceding decades. Whether justified or not, the perception flourished that the legal system's dogmatic adherence to process allowed many criminals to escape punishment, and endangered society. The public statements of the era's most prominent jurists were …


Establishing Inevitability Without Active Pursuit: Defining The Inevitable Discovery Exception To The Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule, Stephen E. Hessler Oct 2000

Establishing Inevitability Without Active Pursuit: Defining The Inevitable Discovery Exception To The Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule, Stephen E. Hessler

Michigan Law Review

Few doctrines of constitutional criminal procedure generate as much controversy as the Fourth Amendment exclusionary rule. Beyond the basic mandate of the rule - that evidence obtained in violation of an individual's right to be secure against unreasonable search and seizure is inadmissible in a criminal proceeding - little else is agreed upon. The precise date of the exclusionary rule's inception is uncertain, but it has been applied by the judiciary for over eight decades. While the Supreme Court has emphasized that the rule is a "judicially created remedy," and not a "personal constitutional right," this characterization provokes argument as …


Recovering The Original Fourth Amendment, Thomas Y. Davies Dec 1999

Recovering The Original Fourth Amendment, Thomas Y. Davies

Michigan Law Review

Claims regarding the original or intended meaning of constitutional texts are commonplace in constitutional argument and analysis. All such claims are subject to an implicit validity criterion - only historically authentic assertions should matter. The rub is that the original meaning commonly attributed to a constitutional text may not be authentic. The historical Fourth Amendment is a case in point. If American judges, lawyers, or law teachers were asked what the Framers intended when they adopted the Fourth Amendment, they would likely answer that the Framers intended that all searches and seizures conducted by government officers must be reasonable given …


Controlling Discretion By Administrative Regulations: The Use, Misuse, And The Nonuse Of Police Rules And Policies In Fourth Amendment Adjudication, Wayne R. Lafave Dec 1990

Controlling Discretion By Administrative Regulations: The Use, Misuse, And The Nonuse Of Police Rules And Policies In Fourth Amendment Adjudication, Wayne R. Lafave

Michigan Law Review

In assaying fourth amendment jurisprudence, it is useful to take into account available knowledge regarding the actual search and seizure practices of the police. Especially helpful is the perspective afforded by the American Bar Foundation's Survey of the Administration of Criminal Justice in the United States, which ranks as the preeminent empirical study of law enforcement procedures in this country. Despite the fact - or, more likely, because of the fact that the ABF Survey was published over twenty years ago, certain insights from that study highlight some recent and significant changes in this corpus juris inconstans .

Clearly "the …


Errors In Good Faith: The Leon Exception Six Years Later, David Clark Esseks Dec 1990

Errors In Good Faith: The Leon Exception Six Years Later, David Clark Esseks

Michigan Law Review

Given this vast literature on the good faith exception, little room appears to exist for additional commentary on the propriety of the decision, its theoretical weaknesses or strengths, or what further changes in constitutional criminal procedure it forebodes. This Note will not add to the many voices complaining of the Court's misconstrual of the grounding of the exclusionary rule, nor of its crabbed notion of deterrence. Instead, it accepts, arguendo, the propriety of the exception and its underlying purpose, and then examines the six-year experience with the revised rule. The proliferation of reported applications of the good faith exception …


An Ex Parte Order May Not Serve The Function Of A Search Warrant Under The Fourth Amendment To Authorize A Physical Intrusion In Connection With A "Search" For Conversations--People V. Grossman, Michigan Law Review Jan 1966

An Ex Parte Order May Not Serve The Function Of A Search Warrant Under The Fourth Amendment To Authorize A Physical Intrusion In Connection With A "Search" For Conversations--People V. Grossman, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

There was probable cause to believe that defendant Scandifia was implicated in a larceny of jewelry by false pretenses. Pursuant to section 813-a of the New York Code of Criminal Procedure, the Supreme Court in New York County issued an ex parte order authorizing the installation of an eavesdropping device in a service station owned by Scandifia. Shortly thereafter, police broke into the station's private office and installed a microphone. Conversations were overheard which indicated that defendant Grossman had in his possession two pistols received from Scandifia. An affidavit setting forth these conversations supplied the sole probable cause for a …


Constitutional Law-Search And Seizure-Retrospective Application Of Mapp V. Ohio, Timothy D. Wittlinger May 1964

Constitutional Law-Search And Seizure-Retrospective Application Of Mapp V. Ohio, Timothy D. Wittlinger

Michigan Law Review

On February 15, 1960, the Louisiana Supreme Court affirmed petitioner's conviction for simple burglary. The conviction was obtained through the use of evidence unlawfully seized from petitioner in violation of the fourth amendment of the United States Constitution. In December 1961 the District Court for the Parish of West Feliciana denied petitioner's writ of habeas corpus filed after the Supreme Court decision of Mapp v. Ohio, which forbade introduction at state trials of evidence seized by state officers in violation of the fourth amendment. The denial of the writ was affirmed by the Louisiana Supreme Court, and certiorari was …


Constitutional Law-Self-Incrimination- Denial Of Privilege To General Partner Holding Subpoenaed Books And Records Of Limited Partnership, Roger L. Mcmanus Jan 1964

Constitutional Law-Self-Incrimination- Denial Of Privilege To General Partner Holding Subpoenaed Books And Records Of Limited Partnership, Roger L. Mcmanus

Michigan Law Review

A special agent of the Internal Revenue Service sought enumerated books and records of four New York limited partnerships in connection with petitioner's tax liability for prior years. A subpoena duces tecum was issued directing petitioner to produce the records, which were in his possession as general partner. Petitioner, his son, and his son-in-law were the general partners of each limited partnership involved, with limited partners ranging from twenty-five to 119 in number and capitalization from 225,000 dollars to 2,740,000 dollars. The partnerships, together with a management company, were housed in a single office with a staff of one secretary. …


Betts V. Brady Twenty Years Later: The Right To Counself And Due Process Values, Yale Kamisar Dec 1962

Betts V. Brady Twenty Years Later: The Right To Counself And Due Process Values, Yale Kamisar

Michigan Law Review

I am quite distressed by talk that the landmark case of Mapp v. Ohio "suggests by analogy" that the Court may now overrule Betts v. Brady. For whether one talks about the fourth or the sixth amendment, there is much to be said for Justice Harlan's dissenting views in Mapp. "[W]hatever configurations ... have been developed in the particularizing federal precedents" should not be "deemed a part of 'ordered liberty,' and as such ... enforceable against the States .... [W]e would not be true to the Fourteenth Amendment were we merely to stretch the general principle [ of …


The Constitution And Contempt Of Court, Ronald Goldfarb Dec 1962

The Constitution And Contempt Of Court, Ronald Goldfarb

Michigan Law Review

Few legal devices find conflict within the lines of our Constitution with the ubiquity of the contempt power. These conflicts involve issues concerning the governmental power structure such as the separation of powers and the delicate balancing of federal-state relations. In addition, there are civil rights issues attributable to the conflict between the use of the contempt power and such vital procedural protections as the right to trial by jury, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy, and indictment-to name only the most recurrent and controversial examples. Aside from these problems, there are other civil liberties issues, such as those involving freedom …


Some Problems Of Evidence Before The Labor Arbitrator, R. W. Fleming Dec 1961

Some Problems Of Evidence Before The Labor Arbitrator, R. W. Fleming

Michigan Law Review

Legal rules of evidence do not, of course, apply before the labor arbitrator. This is not surprising since such rules were developed in connection with jury trials, and do not apply strictly in any tribunal but a jury-court. The whole theory of the arbitration tribunal is that it is composed of experts who repeatedly inquire into a relatively homogeneous kind of cases. Exclusionary rules are hardly required as a precautionary measure. Indeed, as the late Harry Shulman said in his classic Oliver Wendell Holmes lecture at Harvard in 1955, "The more serious danger is not that the arbitrator will hear …


Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Duty Of Home Owner To Permit Housing Inspection Without A Warrant, Joseph J. Schneider Jan 1961

Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Duty Of Home Owner To Permit Housing Inspection Without A Warrant, Joseph J. Schneider

Michigan Law Review

A Dayton, Ohio, city ordinance authorized housing inspectors to inspect any dwelling, without requiring a search warrant, for the purpose of safeguarding the public health and safety. Acting in compliance with the requirements of this ordinance, city housing inspectors requested admittance to appellant's home in order to conduct a health inspection. Appellant refused to permit the inspectors to enter and inspect his home without a search warrant, and was therefore arrested and confined for violating the ordinance. Discharge of appellant in habeas corpus proceedings was reversed by the Ohio Court of Appeals. On appeal to the United States Supreme Court, …


Search And Seizure - Suppression Of Evidence - Judicial Attitude Toward Enforcement, John B. Waite May 1960

Search And Seizure - Suppression Of Evidence - Judicial Attitude Toward Enforcement, John B. Waite

Michigan Law Review

The "numbers game" is today the most profitable of the wide-spread gambling rackets. And like all organized gambling it is a focal source and the financial support of far more serious crimes. At the same time it is one of the most difficult forms of crime for the police to control. It needs no costly installations which the police can confiscate or destroy. Unlike "house" gambling it cannot practically be harassed out of business. It can be operated by one man alone, if he survives failure to pay off for lack of capital; or by a syndicate with capital enough …


Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Admissibility In A Federal Court Of Evidence Illegally Obtained By State Officers, Robert J. Paley Mar 1959

Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Admissibility In A Federal Court Of Evidence Illegally Obtained By State Officers, Robert J. Paley

Michigan Law Review

In response to a call from a citizen whose suspicions had been aroused by the actions of the defendant and a companion, Maryland police unlawfully arrested the companion and searched the premises occupied by him and the defendant. & a result of this search, money was found which had been stolen in the District of Columbia. Although the search was illegal under Maryland law and in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment, this money was used as evidence to convict the defendant of housebreaking and larceny in the District of Columbia federal court. On appeal, held, conviction reversed and remanded …


Criminal Procedure - Searches And Seizures - Admissibility Of Evidence Obtained Through Unlawful Search And Seizure, Neil Flanagin S.Ed. Jan 1956

Criminal Procedure - Searches And Seizures - Admissibility Of Evidence Obtained Through Unlawful Search And Seizure, Neil Flanagin S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Defendants were prosecuted and convicted of conspiring to engage in horserace bookmaking and related offenses. The police had secured evidence of defendants' activities by concealing a listening device in premises occupied by them and also by unauthorized and forcible searches. The trial court admitted the evidence so obtained, notwithstanding the fact that the police action in securing it was clearly in violation of both federal and state constitutions and statutes. After conviction, the trial court denied defendants' motion for a new trial. On appeal, held, reversed, three justices dissenting. Evidence obtained in violation of the defendants' constitutional rights is …


Criminal Procedure - Availablity Of Federal Court Injunction To Prevent Federal Officer From Testifying In State Court As To Illegally-Obtained Evidence, Edward C. Hanpeter Jan 1956

Criminal Procedure - Availablity Of Federal Court Injunction To Prevent Federal Officer From Testifying In State Court As To Illegally-Obtained Evidence, Edward C. Hanpeter

Michigan Law Review

Prosecution of petitioner in federal court for the unlawful acquisition of marihuana failed when the court granted petitioner's motion to suppress the marihuana as evidence because it was obtained by a search based on an invalid search warrant. The federal officer who had seized the marihuana then swore to a complaint before a state judge, and a warrant for petitioner's arrest for violation of state law issued. While awaiting trial, petitioner filed a motion in federal district court to enjoin the federal officer from testifying in the state court. The district court denied the injunction, and the court of appeals …


Judge And The Crime Burden, John Barker Waite Dec 1955

Judge And The Crime Burden, John Barker Waite

Michigan Law Review

One does not happily charge the judiciary with responsibility for the country's burden of crime, but the responsibility does in fact exist. Judges, though they may not encourage crime, interfere with its prevention in various ways. They deliberately restrict police efficiency in the discovery of criminals. They exempt from punishment many criminals who are discovered and whose guilt is evident. More seriously still, they so warp and alter the public's attitude toward crime and criminals as gravely to weaken the country's most effective crime preventive.


Criminal Law - Scope Of Lawful Search And Seizure Without Warrant When Incident To Arrest, Richard M. Adams S.Ed. Jun 1955

Criminal Law - Scope Of Lawful Search And Seizure Without Warrant When Incident To Arrest, Richard M. Adams S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Acting on information that defendants were engaged in the "numbers racket" in violation of the Michigan gambling laws, police officers picked up three of the defendants in an automobile, took them to the police station, and proceeded to the home of their accomplice, Abbey Clay. On being admitted to the residence, the officers placed Abbey Clay under arrest and, despite her objections, promptly searched the L-shaped room in which they were standing when the arrest was made. Although the officers did not have a search warrant, they looked through defendant's pocketbook, magazine rack, and a cardboard box which was in …


Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Evidence Of Prior Search As Bearing On Credibility Of Defendant's Testimony, Ira A. Brown, Jr. Nov 1954

Constitutional Law - Search And Seizure - Evidence Of Prior Search As Bearing On Credibility Of Defendant's Testimony, Ira A. Brown, Jr.

Michigan Law Review

In 1952 petitioner was indicted in a federal court, charged with illegal sales of narcotics. During direct examination by his counsel, petitioner denied ever having had possession of narcotics. On cross-examination by the government, petitioner repeated his denial and continued to do so even when the government questioned him, over his objection, concerning a heroin capsule unlawfully seized in his home in 1950. Evidence of the unlawful seizure in 1950 had been ruled inadmissible in an earlier trial. Petitioner's denials were squarely in conflict with an affidavit he had filed at the earlier trial. In rebuttal, the government introduced testimony …


Arrest - Stopping And Questioning As An Arrest - Reasonable Suspicion From Facts Disclosed By Questioning As Justification, Robert Meisenholder Dec 1938

Arrest - Stopping And Questioning As An Arrest - Reasonable Suspicion From Facts Disclosed By Questioning As Justification, Robert Meisenholder

Michigan Law Review

After arrest of the defendant on mere suspicion without probable cause, the arresting officers on searching the car in which he was driving found two guns. The defendant complained on appeal, after conviction for carrying concealed weapons in an automobile, of the denial of his motion before trial to suppress the evidence. Held, it was error to refuse to suppress the guns as evidence because, the arrest being unlawful, the subsequent search and seizure was unlawful. Had the officers stopped and questioned the defendant, and had such questioning disclosed facts to establish a reasonable suspicion that the defendant was …


Intoxicating Liquors-Statutory Construction-Forfeiture Of Conveyance Nov 1932

Intoxicating Liquors-Statutory Construction-Forfeiture Of Conveyance

Michigan Law Review

Cars in which liquor was imported were seized by the government. The operators were prosecuted for violation of the customs laws, and the government attempted to declare forfeiture of the cars under the customs laws. Lienors whose rights are not recognized under these laws intervened and claimed that forfeiture could be declared only under the National Prohibition Act which saves the rights of lienors. Held, in General Motors Acceptance Corp. v. United States, that forfeiture may be declared either under customs laws or the National Prohibition Act.


Arrest For Crime -The Law's "Crazy Business" Jun 1932

Arrest For Crime -The Law's "Crazy Business"

Michigan Law Review

In the Wilbur Day case, the facts as presented by Time indicate that Day was in truth guilty of the felony for which he was arrested. Under the statute, therefore, the arrest was lawful and the case should not have been dismissed. The defendant's attorney appears, unfortunately, to have misled the trial judge.


Constitutional Law-Due Process-Police Power-Junk Yards Mar 1931

Constitutional Law-Due Process-Police Power-Junk Yards

Michigan Law Review

The City of Ashland, Kentucky, acting under a specific power to license and regulate junk yards granted to it by the legislature under section 3058-2 Ky. Stat. (Carroll, 1922) passed an ordinance requiring applicants for licenses to operate junk yards within the city of Ashland. "to make and execute with the Clerk of the City of Ashland, Kentucky, a permit signed by the applicant providing that the Police Department * * * may inspect and search the said shop or place of business." The appellant complied with all other requirements, but refused to execute the permit: Because the clerk would …


The Criminal's Right Of Privacy Jun 1929

The Criminal's Right Of Privacy

Michigan Law Review

The dissent of Mr. Justice Brandeis in the famed wire tapping case has been of especial interest to those who are acquainted with his article in the Harvard Law Review in 1890 on "The Right of Privacy." The law has witnessed few more fascinating developments than the engrafting of this latter concept into the formula of justice, few more conspicuous examples of creative juristic effort. Concerning it Dean Pound has said: "What may almost be called the classical example (of creative activity) is the paper on the Right of Privacy in which Mr. Justice Brandeis, then at the bar, was …


Recent Important Decisions May 1928

Recent Important Decisions

Michigan Law Review

A collection of recent important court decisions.


Recent Important Decisions Dec 1926

Recent Important Decisions

Michigan Law Review

A collection of recent important court decisions.


Recent Important Decisions Dec 1925

Recent Important Decisions

Michigan Law Review

A collection of recent important court decisions.