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Full-Text Articles in Law

Everyone’S A Little Bit Racist? Reconciling Implicit Bias And Title Vii, Christopher Cerullo Oct 2013

Everyone’S A Little Bit Racist? Reconciling Implicit Bias And Title Vii, Christopher Cerullo

Fordham Law Review

Since its enactment as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII’s main purpose has been to end all forms of employment discrimination. Through a flexible judicial interpretation of Title VII that reached newly discovered forms of discrimination, and through occasional intervention by Congress to update the statute, Title VII has been largely successful in reducing and remedying instances of overt discrimination in the workplace. However, more recently, social scientists have analyzed and applied the results of Harvard’s Implicit Association Test to recognize a new form of discrimination characterized by a subconscious decisionmaking process based on intuition and …


Colorblind Constitutionalism, Randall Kennedy Oct 2013

Colorblind Constitutionalism, Randall Kennedy

Fordham Law Review

No abstract provided.


Domestic Counterinsurgency: How Counterinsurgency Tactics Combined With Laws Were Deployed Against Blacks Throughout U.S. History, William Y. Chin Jul 2013

Domestic Counterinsurgency: How Counterinsurgency Tactics Combined With Laws Were Deployed Against Blacks Throughout U.S. History, William Y. Chin

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

Long before the United States engaged in counterinsurgency overseas in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States engaged in counterinsurgency domestically against blacks. The history of America is a history of enduring conflict between black insurgents and white counterinsurgents. This conflict began centuries ago with the forced transport of enslaved blacks to America’s shores. From the beginning, whites employed all levers of national power including laws to suppress black resistance. The laws became counterinsurgency weapons launched against blacks in an internal conflict lasting generations.


Civil Rights Litigation From The October 2007 Term, Martin A. Schwartz Jun 2013

Civil Rights Litigation From The October 2007 Term, Martin A. Schwartz

Martin A. Schwartz

No abstract provided.


Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland Apr 2013

Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland

Ayriel Bland

In 2002, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed under President George W. Bush with the goal of increasing academic proficiency for all children in the United States by 2014. Yet, many states struggled to meet this goal and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education allowed states to apply for waivers and bypass the 2014 deadline. Some states implemented waivers though race-based achievement standards. For example, Florida in October 2012, established that by 2018, 74 percent of African American and 81 percent of Hispanic students had to be proficient in math and reading, in comparison to 88 percent …


In The Interests Of Justice: Human Rights And The Right To Counsel In Civil Cases, Martha F. Davis Apr 2013

In The Interests Of Justice: Human Rights And The Right To Counsel In Civil Cases, Martha F. Davis

Touro Law Review

This report examines the international human rights treaties binding on the United States as well as other non-binding international human rights documents to ascertain the status of the right to counsel in civil cases, the so-called "Civil Gideon" right. The United Nations treaty monitoring bodies responsible for the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination have both indicated that legal assistance may be required to ensure fairness in civil cases. The Charter of the Organization of American States, to which the United States is a party, goes farther …


Saint Francis College V. Al-Khazraji: Cosmetic Surgery Or A Fresh Breadth For Section 1981? , Barbara A. Bayliss Jan 2013

Saint Francis College V. Al-Khazraji: Cosmetic Surgery Or A Fresh Breadth For Section 1981? , Barbara A. Bayliss

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Shelby V. Holder: Brief Of Professor Patricia A. Broussard And Famu College Of Law Students As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondents, Patricia A. Broussard, Sabrina Collins, Stacy Hane, Akunna Olumba Jan 2013

Shelby V. Holder: Brief Of Professor Patricia A. Broussard And Famu College Of Law Students As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondents, Patricia A. Broussard, Sabrina Collins, Stacy Hane, Akunna Olumba

Amicus Briefs

Shelby County, Alabama v. Eric H. Holder, Jr., In the Supreme Court of the United States, Brief of Professor Patricia A. Broussard, Sabrina Collins, Stacy Hane, Akunna Olumba and Named Students and Organizations of Florida A & M University College of Law as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


South Carolina's 'Evolutionary Process', Ellen D. Katz Jan 2013

South Carolina's 'Evolutionary Process', Ellen D. Katz

Articles

When Congress first enacted the Voting Rights Act (VRA) in 1965, public officials in South Carolina led the charge to scrap the new statute. Their brief to the Supreme Court of the United States described the VRA as an “unjustified” and “arbitrary” affront to the “Equality of Statehood” principle, and a “usurp[ation]” of the State’s legislative and executive functions. Not surprisingly, the Warren Court was unpersuaded and opted instead to endorse broad congressional power to craft “inventive” remedies to address systematic racial discrimination and to “shift the advantage of time and inertia from the perpetrators of evil to its victims.” …


A Cure Worse Than The Disease?, Ellen D. Katz Jan 2013

A Cure Worse Than The Disease?, Ellen D. Katz

Articles

The pending challenge to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act insists the statute is no longer necessary. Should the Supreme Court agree, its ruling is likely to reflect the belief that section 5 is not only obsolete but that its requirements do more harm today than the condition it was crafted to address. In this Essay, Professor Ellen D. Katz examines why the Court might liken section 5 to a destructive treatment and why reliance on that analogy in the pending case threatens to leave the underlying condition unaddressed and Congress without the power to address it.


The Changing Nature Of The Dominant Justifications That Legitimated The Oppression Of African-Americans In The United States, Kevin D. Brown Jan 2013

The Changing Nature Of The Dominant Justifications That Legitimated The Oppression Of African-Americans In The United States, Kevin D. Brown

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The original justifications for the oppression of both African–Americans in the United States and Dalits in India were drawn from the religious systems of thought of both societies. However, over the centuries, the basic justifications for the oppression of African–Americans changed, while the primary rationale for the oppression of Dalits still remains rooted in religion. This essay sketches out the dominant forms that made and continue to make the oppression of African–Americans appear to be part of the natural order of things. It shows how the primary justifications for the oppression of Blacks changed over time. In so doing, this …


What Was Wrong With The Record?, Ellen D. Katz Jan 2013

What Was Wrong With The Record?, Ellen D. Katz

Articles

Shelby County v. Holder offers three reasons for why the record Congress amassed to support the 2006 reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act (VRA) was legally insufficient to justify the statute's continued regional application: (1) the problems Congress documented in 2006 were not as severe as those that prompted it to craft the regime in 1965; (2) these problems did not lead Congress to alter the statute's pre-existing coverage formula; and (3) these problems did not exclusively involve voter registration and the casting of ballots.


Shelby County V. Holder: Why Section 2 Matters, Ellen D. Katz Jan 2013

Shelby County V. Holder: Why Section 2 Matters, Ellen D. Katz

Articles

Editor’s Note: Professor Ellen D. Katz writes and teaches about election law, civil rights and remedies, and equal protection. She and the Voting Rights Initiative at Michigan Law filed a brief as amicus curiae in Shelby County v. Holder, on which the U.S. Supreme Court heard oral arguments February 27. Here, she examines why Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act bears consideration in the case, which involves a challenge to Section 5 of the act.


Blocking The Ballot: Why Florida’S New Voting Restrictions Demonstrate A Need For Continued Enforcement Of The Voting Rights Act Preclearance Requirement, Michael Ellement Jan 2013

Blocking The Ballot: Why Florida’S New Voting Restrictions Demonstrate A Need For Continued Enforcement Of The Voting Rights Act Preclearance Requirement, Michael Ellement

Catholic University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Did Booker Increase Sentencing Disparity? Why The Evidence Is Unpersuasive, Sonja B. Starr Jan 2013

Did Booker Increase Sentencing Disparity? Why The Evidence Is Unpersuasive, Sonja B. Starr

Articles

The Sentencing Commission’s recent report on the effects of United States v.Booker makes a number of very worri- some claims.The most alarming is that the gap in sen- tences between otherwise similar Black and White men has nearly quadrupled: from 4.5 percent before Booker, to 15 percent after it, to 19.5 percent after United States v. Kimbrough and United States v.Gall. 1 The Commission further claims that interjudge disparity has increased in two-thirds of the federal districts, and that interdistrict variation has also increased.2 If its findings were accurate, and if these changes could be causally attributed to Booker and …