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Flunked Out: A Comparative Look At State Educational Code, Title Vi Of The Civil Rights Act, And Slavery Education, Emory French-Folsom, Maryn Rolfson Apr 2020

Flunked Out: A Comparative Look At State Educational Code, Title Vi Of The Civil Rights Act, And Slavery Education, Emory French-Folsom, Maryn Rolfson

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

In 2017, a mock slave auction was held in a 5th grade classroom at

South Orange Elementary School in New Jersey, which included the

‘sale’ of a black child by white students. A few weeks after this incident,

students from another elementary school in the same district

made posters advertising the sale of African American slaves, which

were displayed in school hallways. Wisconsin 4th graders in 2018

were given a homework assignment which asked them to explain

“three good reasons for slavery.”


Stop Punishing Our Kids: How Title Vii Can Protect Children Of Color In Public School’S Discipline Practices, Lizette Rodriguez Mar 2020

Stop Punishing Our Kids: How Title Vii Can Protect Children Of Color In Public School’S Discipline Practices, Lizette Rodriguez

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

Section I of this comment considers the evolution of education in the United States and how American society dealt with racial discrimination in public schools in the past, and how those facts and decisions differ from the issues that students of color are facing today. Section II explains the Equal Protection Clause (EPC) and analyzes the seminal cases that demonstrate the power of the EPC and when it is appropriate to use it. Section III introduces Title VII and walks through violations of disparate impact discrimination and disparate treatment discrimination. Section IV explains what the Department of Education’s Civil ...


Modern-Day Apartheid In Missouri: How Massey V. Normandy Schools Collaborative Overlooks De Facto Segregation Created By Missouri's School Accreditation Classification System, Kyla Vick Jan 2020

Modern-Day Apartheid In Missouri: How Massey V. Normandy Schools Collaborative Overlooks De Facto Segregation Created By Missouri's School Accreditation Classification System, Kyla Vick

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The Missouri School Transfer Statute allows students in unaccredited districts the option to transfer to a school in an accredited district at the expense of the unaccredited district. In Massey v. Normandy Schools Collaborative, the Court of Appeals for the Eastern District of Missouri held that the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education exceeded its authority when it classified the Normandy School district as a state-oversight district when it had previously been classified as unaccredited. However, the decision in Massey does not go far enough as the effect of these Missouri public education policies is a modern-day apartheid school ...


Latino Education In Texas: A History Of Systematic Recycling Discrimination, Albert H. Kauffman Oct 2019

Latino Education In Texas: A History Of Systematic Recycling Discrimination, Albert H. Kauffman

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Denial Of Tax Exempt Status For Racially Discriminatory Schools, Bob Jones University V. U.S., Margaret K. Cassidy Jul 2015

Denial Of Tax Exempt Status For Racially Discriminatory Schools, Bob Jones University V. U.S., Margaret K. Cassidy

Akron Law Review

The extent to which the government may deny tax-exempt status in order to further its goal of eliminating racial discrimination is a question of paramount importance. The United States Supreme Court recently addressed this question in the case of Bob Jones University v. U.S., a consolidated action which involved a conflict between two established public policies: racial equality and religious freedom. The Court held that this nation's policy of racial equality overrides any interest that an educational and religious institution may have in promoting racial discrimination.


Towards An Outcrit Pedagogy Of Anti-Subordination In The Classroom, Sheila I. Velez Martinez Apr 2015

Towards An Outcrit Pedagogy Of Anti-Subordination In The Classroom, Sheila I. Velez Martinez

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article discusses how traditional teaching practices can reinforce systemic discrimination, exclusion, subordination and oppression within the classroom in particular detriment to women and students of color. The Article traces the discussions about pedagogy in Outcrit literature and proposes that Outcrit scholars teaching techniques within the classroom should reflect anti-subordination praxis in teaching. Drawing from the work of Paulo Freire, Derrick Bell and others, the Article proposes that teaching from an anti-subordination perspective requires a praxis of collaborative, non-hierarchical teaching that calls for an epistemological shift. A pedagogy that frees the student to think independently and leads to an experience ...


Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John Powell, Stephen Menendian Mar 2015

Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John Powell, Stephen Menendian

john a. powell

This Article investigates the potential ramifications of Fisher v. Texas and the future of race-conscious university admissions. Although one cannot predict the ultimate significance of the Fisher decision, its brief and pregnant statements of law portends an increasingly perilous course for traditional affirmative action programs. Part I explores the opinions filed in Fisher, with a particular emphasis on Justice Kennedy’s opinion on behalf of the Court. We focus on the ways in which the Fisher decision departs from precedent, proscribes new limits on the use of race in university admissions, and tightens requirements for narrow tailoring. Part II investigates ...


Place, Not Race: Affirmative Action And The Geography Of Educational Opportunity, Sheryll Cashin Jul 2014

Place, Not Race: Affirmative Action And The Geography Of Educational Opportunity, Sheryll Cashin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Ultimately, I argue that one important response to the demise of race-based affirmative action should be to incorporate the experience of segregation into diversity strategies. A college applicant who has thrived despite exposure to poverty in his school or neighborhood deserves special consideration. Those blessed to come of age in poverty-free havens do not. I conclude that use of place, rather than race, in diversity programming will better approximate the structural disadvantages many children of color actually endure, while enhancing the possibility that we might one day move past the racial resentment that affirmative action engenders. While I propose substituting ...


The Quixtoic Search For Race-Neutral Alternatives, Michael E. Rosman Jul 2014

The Quixtoic Search For Race-Neutral Alternatives, Michael E. Rosman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Supreme Court has stated that the narrow-tailoring inquiry of the Equal Protection Clause’s strict scrutiny analysis of racially disparate treatment by state actors requires courts to consider whether the defendant seriously considered race-neutral alternatives before adopting the race-conscious program at issue. This article briefly examines what that means in the context of race-conscious admissions programs at colleges and universities. Part I sets forth the basic concepts that the Supreme Court uses to analyze race-conscious decision-making by governmental actors and describes the role of “race-neutral alternatives” in that scheme. Part II examines the nature of “race-neutral alternatives” and identifies ...


Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John A. Powell, Stephen Menendian Jul 2014

Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John A. Powell, Stephen Menendian

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article investigates the potential ramifications of Fisher v. Texas and the future of race-conscious university admissions. Although one cannot predict the ultimate significance of the Fisher decision, its brief and pregnant statements of law portends an increasingly perilous course for traditional affirmative action programs. Part I explores the opinions filed in Fisher, with a particular emphasis on Justice Kennedy’s opinion on behalf of the Court. We focus on the ways in which the Fisher decision departs from precedent, proscribes new limits on the use of race in university admissions, and tightens requirements for narrow tailoring. Part II investigates ...


Thinking Hard About 'Race-Neutral' Admissions, Richard H. Sander, Aaron Danielson Jan 2014

Thinking Hard About 'Race-Neutral' Admissions, Richard H. Sander, Aaron Danielson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Our exploration is organized as follows. In Part I, we sympathetically consider the very difficult dilemmas facing higher education leaders. Understanding the often irreconcilable pressures that constrain university administrators is essential if we are to envision the plausible policies they might undertake. In Part II, we draw on a range of data to illustrate some of the “properties” of admissions systems and, in particular, the ways in which race, SES, and academic preparation interact dynamically both within individual schools and across the educational spectrum. Partly because the questions we examine here have been so little studied, ideal data does not ...


Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland Apr 2013

Article: No Child Left Behind: Why Race-Based Achievement Goals Violate The Equal Protection Clause, Ayriel Bland

Ayriel Bland

In 2002, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed under President George W. Bush with the goal of increasing academic proficiency for all children in the United States by 2014. Yet, many states struggled to meet this goal and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education allowed states to apply for waivers and bypass the 2014 deadline. Some states implemented waivers though race-based achievement standards. For example, Florida in October 2012, established that by 2018, 74 percent of African American and 81 percent of Hispanic students had to be proficient in math and reading, in comparison to 88 ...


Diversity As A Dead-End , Kenneth B. Nunn Mar 2012

Diversity As A Dead-End , Kenneth B. Nunn

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


How Strictly Scrutinized?: Examining The Educational Benefits The Court Relied Upon In Grutter, Patrick M. Garry Mar 2012

How Strictly Scrutinized?: Examining The Educational Benefits The Court Relied Upon In Grutter, Patrick M. Garry

Pepperdine Law Review

In Grutter v. Bollinger, the Court recognized student body diversity as a compelling state interest that justified the use of racial preferences in selecting applicants for admission to public university law schools. Normally, any state action reviewed under a strict scrutiny approach is destined for invalidation. But in Grutter, the Court bucked the trend and upheld the race-based admissions policy against a racial discrimination challenge brought under the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. Given the rarity of a state action surviving strict scrutiny review, it is instructive to examine the nature of the diversity interest recognized by the Court ...


Parents Involved And The Meaning Of Brown: An Old Debate Renewed, Jonathon L. Entin Jan 2008

Parents Involved And The Meaning Of Brown: An Old Debate Renewed, Jonathon L. Entin

Seattle University Law Review

This Article examines some of the jurisprudential roots of the racial discrimination debate, tracing the issue back to Brown and its immediate aftermath but finding the seeds of the disagreement in the ambiguities of the first Justice Harlan's celebrated dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson. The tensions between the two approaches did not matter in Plessy because segregation was impermissible under either theory, but the two approaches pointed in opposite directions in Parents Involved. Part II offers an overview of the Seattle and Louisville policies that were struck down in Parents Involved. Part III examines the various opinions in ...


Brown At 50: Reconstructing Brown'S Promise, Taunya Lovell Banks Jan 2004

Brown At 50: Reconstructing Brown'S Promise, Taunya Lovell Banks

Faculty Scholarship

Today the measure of equal education for black children often is the racial composition of the school population rather than the quality of education received. Increasingly educational achievement for children of all races is tied to socioeconomic status. Since whites as a group are more affluent than non-whites, race and class tend to get conflated leaving uninformed people to conclude that racial integration alone is the measure of equal educational opportunities for black and other non-white children. Legal scholars writing about equal educational opportunities tend to focus either on ways to achieve racial integration or funding equality. Few scholars explore ...


An Essay On The Professional Responsibility Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Emily Calhoun Jan 2002

An Essay On The Professional Responsibility Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Emily Calhoun

Articles

No abstract provided.


Direct Measures: An Alternative Form Of Affirmative Action, Daria Roithmayr Jan 2001

Direct Measures: An Alternative Form Of Affirmative Action, Daria Roithmayr

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

Part I of this essay sets out in detail the direct measures affirmative action program. This section also compares the program to other alternative affirmative action program experiments undertaken by various educational institutions. Parts II and III discuss the constitutionality of a direct measures program.


In The Title Ix Race Toward Gender Equity, The Black Female Athlete Is Left To Finish Last: The Lack Of Access For The “Invisible Woman", Tonya M. Evans Jan 1998

In The Title Ix Race Toward Gender Equity, The Black Female Athlete Is Left To Finish Last: The Lack Of Access For The “Invisible Woman", Tonya M. Evans

Law Faculty Scholarship

Although each of us is defined by race and gender, those of us who are neither white nor male often experience invisibility as a result of our dual subordinate status.... Black women have been disproportionately located at the lower end of the economic hierarchy and, therefore, have been unable to afford private golf, swimming, or tennis lessons. Overt racial discrimination prevented black women from gaining access to the sports participated in by white women. To the extent that the main thrust of solutions to gender inequity and a lack of adherence to Title IX mandates has been the addition of ...


Trial And Error: The Detroit School Segregation Case, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Trial And Error: The Detroit School Segregation Case, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Trial and Error: The Detroit School Segregation Case by Eleanor P. Wolf


The Limits Of Litigation: Putting The Education Back Into Brown V. Board Of Education, T. Alexander Aleinikoff Mar 1982

The Limits Of Litigation: Putting The Education Back Into Brown V. Board Of Education, T. Alexander Aleinikoff

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Shades of Brown: New Perspectives on School Desegregation edited by Derrick Bell


Affirmative Action: Quotas And Traditional University Standards With Particular Emphasis On The Role Of The Department Chairman, William D. Wheeler Oct 1973

Affirmative Action: Quotas And Traditional University Standards With Particular Emphasis On The Role Of The Department Chairman, William D. Wheeler

IUSTITIA

The higher educational institution is often an exclusive citadel. Students are selected after close scrutiny of past achievements. Teachers as merchants of ideas, virtues, and cosmic thoughts are invited to membership only after certain academic passports have been acquired. These eligibility criteria are established by the faculty who, presumably, are the only ones capable of assessing reasonable standards for those seeking admission. Colleges and universities are closed sub-communities. They practice discrimination while giving lip service to liberal thought, knowledge, and enlightenment. It comes, therefore, as little surprise to clear thinkers that the house of intellect leads the parade of culprits ...