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Race discrimination

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tackling Bias In Sport: Recognizing The Impact Of Identities, Meg Hancock --Assoc. Prof. Jan 2024

Tackling Bias In Sport: Recognizing The Impact Of Identities, Meg Hancock --Assoc. Prof.

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Studies suggest participation in organized sports--from childhood to adulthood--promotes positive physical, social, emotional, and intellectual benefits that impact individuals and their communities over a lifetime. Sports participation in early childhood and adolescence also leads to higher self-esteem, greater wage-earning potential, lower health costs, reduced chronic disease, and lower levels of depression. In adulthood, participating in sports provides social connection, personal enjoyment, and improved health. In US society, sports are often viewed as a popular, viable, and sustainable avenue for social mobility. While the benefits of sports participation are unequivocal, the visibility and influence of star athletes, along with the way …


Columbia Law School’S Era Project Releases New Policy Paper Demonstrating Race-Based Gap In Who Benefits From Sex Discrimination Laws, Center For Gender And Sexuality Law Feb 2023

Columbia Law School’S Era Project Releases New Policy Paper Demonstrating Race-Based Gap In Who Benefits From Sex Discrimination Laws, Center For Gender And Sexuality Law

Center for Gender & Sexuality Law

New York, New YorkOn February 27, 2023, Columbia Law School’s Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Project released a new policy paper showing that despite sweeping federal, state, and local laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex in virtually all significant aspects of the U.S. economy and society, white women have been the primary beneficiaries of sex equality laws, leaving women of color significantly behind.


Hair Me Out: Why Discrimination Against Black Hair Is Race Discrimination Under Title Vii, Alexis Boyd Jan 2023

Hair Me Out: Why Discrimination Against Black Hair Is Race Discrimination Under Title Vii, Alexis Boyd

American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law

In May 2010, Chastity Jones sought employment as a customer service representative at Catastrophe Management Solutions (“CMS”), a claims processing company located in Mobile, Alabama. When asked for an inperson interview, Jones, a Black woman, arrived in a suit and her hair in “short dreadlocks,” or locs, a type of natural hairstyle common in the Black community. Despite being qualified for the position, Jones would later have her offer rescinded because of her hair. CMS claimed that locs “tend to get messy” and violated the “neutral” dress code and hair policy requiring employees to be “professional and business-like.” Therefore, CMS …


Parading The Horribles: The Risks Of Expanding Religious Exemptions, Law, Rights, And Religion Project Sep 2022

Parading The Horribles: The Risks Of Expanding Religious Exemptions, Law, Rights, And Religion Project

Center for Gender & Sexuality Law

People of faith now have a constitutional right to practice their religion—even when doing so conflicts with a government law or policy — that is more rigorously protected than nearly any other right. Some states have passed bills that provide an even broader right to such “religious exemptions” from the law than provided under the U.S. Constitution. Other religious exemption bills have been introduced and await consideration.


The White Supremacist Constitution, Ruth Colker Aug 2022

The White Supremacist Constitution, Ruth Colker

Utah Law Review

The United States Constitution is a document that, during every era, has helped further white supremacy. White supremacy constitutes a “political, economic and cultural system in which whites overwhelmingly control power and material resources, conscious and unconscious ideas of white superiority and entitlement are widespread, and relations of white dominance and non-white subordination are daily reenacted across a broad array of institutions and social settings.”1 Rather than understand the Constitution as a force for progressive structural change, we should understand it as a barrier to change.

From its inception, the Constitution enshrined slavery and the degradation of Black people by …


Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu Mar 2022

Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

The Page Act of 1875 excluded Asian women immigrants from entering the United States, presuming they were prostitutes. This presumption was tragically replicated in the 2021 Atlanta Massacre of six Asian and Asian American women, reinforcing the same harmful prejudices. This Article seeks to illuminate how the Atlanta Massacre is symbolic of larger forms of discrimination, including the harms of decitizenship. These harms include limited access to full citizenship rights due to legal barriers, restricted cultural and political power, and a lack of belonging. The Article concludes that these harms result from the structure of past and present immigration laws …


Aba Model Rule 8.4(G), Discriminatory Speech, And The First Amendment, Bruce A. Green, Rebecca Roiphe Mar 2022

Aba Model Rule 8.4(G), Discriminatory Speech, And The First Amendment, Bruce A. Green, Rebecca Roiphe

Hofstra Law Review

The article focuses on American Bar Association (ABA) adopted Model Rule of Professional Conduct 8.4(g), for incivility might be used as a disciplinary standard to restrict lawyers' constitutionally protected speech. It mentions rule targets unlawful behavior including racial discrimination and sexual harassment, as well as some bad conduct that may otherwise be lawful and that might be hard to reach under existing rules, but that plainly should be sanctioned.


Commemorating The Forgotten Intersection Of The Fifteenth And Nineteenth Amendments, Taunya Lovell Banks Jan 2022

Commemorating The Forgotten Intersection Of The Fifteenth And Nineteenth Amendments, Taunya Lovell Banks

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

The women’s rights movement, throughout its history, defined its priorities with reference to white middle- or upper- class women. Thus “discrimination that affected all women” included the right of owning property but not [B]lack women’s voting rights.

This year we commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment’s ratification. I use the term commemorate instead of celebrate because it is important to remember that this anniversary is also a time to reflect on the lost opportunities to advance equality for all one hundred years ago. This reflection seems especially appropriate in a presidential election year rife with accusations …


Cognitive Decline And The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2022

Cognitive Decline And The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Cognitive decline will increasingly become a workplace concern because of three intersecting trends. First, the American population is aging. In 2019, 16.5 percent of the population, or fifty-four million people, were age 65 and over, and the number is expected to increase to seventy-eight million by 2025. Dementia is not uncommon among older adults, and by the age of eighty-five, between twenty-five and fifty percent of individuals suffer from this condition. Second, individuals are postponing retirement and prolonging their working lives. For example, about a quarter of physicians are over sixty-five, as are fifteen percent of attorneys. The average age …


Studying The Relationship Between Ethnic Identity And Resiliency: A Broad Approach, Mary Zheng May 2021

Studying The Relationship Between Ethnic Identity And Resiliency: A Broad Approach, Mary Zheng

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Ethnic minorities in the United States face prejudice and racial discrimination, causing feelings of distress. However, ethnic minorities have shown an ability to overcome these negative experiences. Racial identity has been associated with more adjustments and higher functioning for ethnic minorities. To gain a clearer understanding of this phenomenon, we included White people in this study to gain an accurate picture of how resiliency operates differently for people of color and Whites and if it is indeed distinct between the two groups. The purpose of this project is to find and examine the link between ethnic identity and resiliency in …


Affirmative Action And The Criminal Law, Paul Butler Jan 2021

Affirmative Action And The Criminal Law, Paul Butler

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Race-Conscious Jury Selection, Anna Offit Jan 2021

Race-Conscious Jury Selection, Anna Offit

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Among the central issues in scholarship on the American jury is the effect of Batson v. Kentucky (1986) on discriminatory empanelment. Empirical legal research has confirmed that despite the promise of the Batson doctrine, both peremptory strikes and challenges for cause remain tools of racial exclusion. But these studies, based on post facto interviews, transcript analysis, and quantitative methods offer little insight into Batson’s critical impact on real-time decision-making and strategy in voir dire. If we increasingly know what kinds of juries are produced in the post-Batson world, we know very little about how they are produced.

This Article addresses …


The Constitution In Context: The Continuing Significance Of Racism, T. Alexander Aleinikoff Jan 2021

The Constitution In Context: The Continuing Significance Of Racism, T. Alexander Aleinikoff

University of Colorado Law Review

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex. Many Title VII cases have arisen when an applicant's or employee's non-conformity with an employer's policy barring certain hairstyles or clothing has resulted in an adverse employment action, such as a denial or termination of employment. Generally, courts have not deemed an adverse employment action resulting from an applicant's or employee's non-conformity with an employment policy banning the display of mutable characteristics commonly associated with a particular racial or ethnic group a violation of Title VII's proscription …


Racializing Environmental Justice, Eric K. Yamamoto, Jen-L W. Lyman, Susan K. Serrano Jan 2021

Racializing Environmental Justice, Eric K. Yamamoto, Jen-L W. Lyman, Susan K. Serrano

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Lawyers For White People?, Jessie Allen Jan 2021

Lawyers For White People?, Jessie Allen

Articles

This article investigates an anomalous legal ethics rule, and in the process exposes how current equal protection doctrine distorts civil rights regulation. When in 2016 the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct finally adopted its first ever rule forbidding discrimination in the practice of law, the rule carried a strange exemption: it does not apply to lawyers’ acceptance or rejection of clients. The exemption for client selection seems wrong. It contradicts the common understanding that in the U.S. today businesses may not refuse service on discriminatory grounds. It sends a message that lawyers enjoy a professional prerogative to discriminate against …


Recent Developments, Peyton Hildebrand Aug 2020

Recent Developments, Peyton Hildebrand

Arkansas Law Review

The Eighth Circuit upheld preliminary injunctive relief in favor of the plaintiffs who challenged Arkansas's anti-loitering law for violating their free speech rights. Though Arkansas claimed that it would not enforce the anti-loitering statute against "'polite' and 'courteous' beggars like [plaintiffs]," because the law's plain language applied to the plaintiffs' intended activities, they had an objectively reasonable fear of prosecution.' Thus, they had a constitutional injury as required for standing.


While The Water Is Stirring: Sojourner Truth As Proto-Agonist In The Fight For (Black) Women’S Rights, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2020

While The Water Is Stirring: Sojourner Truth As Proto-Agonist In The Fight For (Black) Women’S Rights, Lolita Buckner Inniss

Publications

This Essay argues for a greater understanding of Sojourner Truth’s little-discussed role as a proto-agonist (a marginalized, long-suffering forerunner as opposed to a protagonist, a highly celebrated central character) in the process that led up to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Though the Nineteenth Amendment failed to deliver on its promise of suffrage for black women immediately after its enactment, black women were stalwarts in the fight for the Amendment and for women’s rights more broadly, well before the ratification of the Amendment and for many years after its passage. Women’s rights in general, and black women’s rights in …


Genetic Race? Dna Ancestry Tests, Racial Identity, And The Law, Trina Jones, Jessica L. Roberts Jan 2020

Genetic Race? Dna Ancestry Tests, Racial Identity, And The Law, Trina Jones, Jessica L. Roberts

Faculty Scholarship

Can genetic tests determine race? Americans are fascinated with DNA ancestry testing services like 23andMe and AncestryDNA. Indeed, in recent years, some people have changed their racial identity based upon DNA ancestry tests and have sought to use test results in lawsuits and for other strategic purposes. Courts may be similarly tempted to use genetic ancestry in determining race. In this Essay, we examine the ways in which DNA ancestry tests may affect contemporary understandings of racial identity. We argue that these tests are poor proxies for race because they fail to reflect the social, cultural, relational, and experiential norms …


Race, Space, And Surveillance: A Response To #Livingwhileblack: Blackness As Nuisance, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2020

Race, Space, And Surveillance: A Response To #Livingwhileblack: Blackness As Nuisance, Lolita Buckner Inniss

Publications

This article is an invited response to an American University Law Review article titled “#LivingWhileBlack: Blackness as Nuisance” that has been widely discussed in the news media and in academic circles.


Digital Internment, Margaret Hu Jan 2020

Digital Internment, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

In Korematsu, Hirabayashi, and the Second Monster, Eric L. Muller explores whether Korematsu v. United States is dead post-Trump v. Hawaii, and whether by failing to strike down Hirabayashi v. United States, the “mother” of Korematsu and a “second monster” lives on. This brief response Essay contends that answering these questions first demands grasping how Trump v. Hawaiifailed to fully address the program implemented by the Muslim Ban–Travel Ban: Extreme Vetting. Extreme Vetting can be characterized as a form of “digital internment” through a complex web of cybersurveillance, administrative-imposed restraints, and “identity-management” rationales that are …


Brief Of Amici Curiae Employment Law Professors In Support Of Respondents, Sandra F. Sperino Sep 2019

Brief Of Amici Curiae Employment Law Professors In Support Of Respondents, Sandra F. Sperino

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

This Court should not interpret section 1981 to require proof of but-for causation, given that statute’s text, history, and purpose. Although Comcast invokes the canon of statutory construction that Congress intends statutory terms to have their settled common-law meaning, that canon does not apply here. Section 1981 has no statutory text that reflects a common-law understanding of causation. Indeed, in 1866, when Congress enacted the predecessor to section 1981, there was no well-settled common law of tort at all. Rather, just as courts have read 42 U.S.C. § 1982, which shares common text, history and purpose, this Court should read …


Brief Of Amici Curiae Professors Of Law In Support Of Petitioner, Barbara Allen Babcock, Jeffrey Bellin, Darryl K. Brown, Robert P. Burns, James E. Coleman Jr., Lisa Kern Griffin, Robert P. Mosteller, Deborah Tuerkheimer, Neil Vidmar, Jessica L. West Sep 2019

Brief Of Amici Curiae Professors Of Law In Support Of Petitioner, Barbara Allen Babcock, Jeffrey Bellin, Darryl K. Brown, Robert P. Burns, James E. Coleman Jr., Lisa Kern Griffin, Robert P. Mosteller, Deborah Tuerkheimer, Neil Vidmar, Jessica L. West

Jeffrey Bellin

No abstract provided.


Brief For Amici Curiae Professors Of Law In Support Of Petitioner, Barbara Allen Babcock, Jeffrey Bellin, Robert P. Burns, Sherman J. Clark, James E. Coleman Jr., Lisa Kern Griffin, Robert P. Mosteller, Deborah Tuerkheimer, Neil Vidmar Sep 2019

Brief For Amici Curiae Professors Of Law In Support Of Petitioner, Barbara Allen Babcock, Jeffrey Bellin, Robert P. Burns, Sherman J. Clark, James E. Coleman Jr., Lisa Kern Griffin, Robert P. Mosteller, Deborah Tuerkheimer, Neil Vidmar

Jeffrey Bellin

No abstract provided.


“We Are Still Citizens, Despite Our Regrettable Past” Why A Conviction Should Not Impact Your Right To Vote, Jaime Hawk, Breanne Schuster Aug 2019

“We Are Still Citizens, Despite Our Regrettable Past” Why A Conviction Should Not Impact Your Right To Vote, Jaime Hawk, Breanne Schuster

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Situational Context Of Police Use Of Deadly Force: A Comparison Of Black And White Subjects Of Fatal Police Shootings, Shana Lynn Meaney Ruess Jul 2019

Situational Context Of Police Use Of Deadly Force: A Comparison Of Black And White Subjects Of Fatal Police Shootings, Shana Lynn Meaney Ruess

Dissertations and Theses

Police use of deadly force is an understudied yet deeply important issue in our society. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in public concern over use of deadly force, particularly when that force is used against people of color. Due to the relative low frequency of deadly force incidents, little is known about when such force is used, or who it is used on. Recent studies have found a racial disparity between white and black subjects of deadly force, with black subjects significantly over represented as a proportion of the population. This study further expands our understanding of police …


'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda C. Mcclain May 2019

'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

Today, many take it for granted that discriminating against women in the marketplace is illegal and morally wrong. Roberts v. United States Jaycees (1984) remains a foundational case on government’s compelling interest in prohibiting sex (or gender) discrimination in public accommodations, even in the face of First Amendment claims of freedom of association and expression. Curiously, Jaycees seems comparatively neglected by legal scholars, if measured by the cases included in the various collections of “law stories” or “rewritten opinions” projects. Looking back at the Jaycees litigation reveals the parties wrestling over the reach of public accommodations law and the force …


Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Iv, 1907-1925 Feb 2019

Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Iv, 1907-1925

Japanese Pamphlets

Ten politically oriented pamphlets published between 1907 to 1925 that set forth largely anti-Japanese contentions against those residing in the United States and California. The White population continued to be concerned about the mixing of races and wanted additional laws that not only excluded the Japanese who were living in the United States (including children born in the United States) from citizenship but also from leasing or owning land. The arguments found in the first three volumes of pamphlets continued on into Volume IV including a V.H. McClatchy’s 1925 pamphlet entitled: “Guarding the Immigration Gates: What Has Been Done; What …


Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Iii, 1918-1925 Feb 2019

Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Iii, 1918-1925

Japanese Pamphlets

Twenty-two politically oriented pamphlets published between 1906 to 1914 that set forth the pros and cons of Japanese continuing to reside in the United States and California. The White population was particularly concerned about the mixing of races and wanted laws that not only excluded the Japanese who were living in the United States (including children born in the United States) from citizenship but also from leasing or owning land. Those who were anti-Japanese described the Japanese as an inferior race incapable of assimilating into the White population and includes a pamphlet entitled “Preliminary Report of the Mental Capacity of …


Japanese Pamphlets, Volume I, 1906-1914 Feb 2019

Japanese Pamphlets, Volume I, 1906-1914

Japanese Pamphlets

Nineteen politically oriented pamphlets published between 1906 to 1914 that set forth the pros and cons of Japanese continuing to reside in the United States and California. The White population was particularly concerned about the mixing of races and wanted laws that not only excluded the Japanese who were living in the United States (including children born in the United States) from citizenship but also from leasing or owning land. Those who were anti-Japanese described the Japanese as an inferior race incapable of assimilating into the White population. The pamphlets in this volume also include responses from the Japan Society …


Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Ii, 1912-1920 Feb 2019

Japanese Pamphlets, Volume Ii, 1912-1920

Japanese Pamphlets

Twenty-nine politically oriented pamphlets published between 1912-1929 set forth the pros and cons of Japanese continuing to reside in the United States and California. The White population was particularly concerned about the mixing of races and wanted laws that not only excluded the Japanese who were living in the United States (including children born in the United States) from citizenship but also from leasing or owning land. Arguments used against the Japanese living in America included claims of surreptitious entries (e.g., being smuggled in through Mexico), Japanese use of “Picture Prides, Japanese efforts to control the soil, Japanese use of …