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Punitive damages

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Bringing Predictability To The Chaos Of Punitive Damages, W. Kip Viscusi, Benjamin J. Mcmichael Jan 2022

Bringing Predictability To The Chaos Of Punitive Damages, W. Kip Viscusi, Benjamin J. Mcmichael

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Punitive damages remain unique in the American legal system. Awarded in the civil context with none of the protections offered in criminal law, courts levy punitive damages to punish and deter. The Supreme Court of the United States has clearly stated that courts may only seek to achieve these two goals when imposing punitive damages. A closer reading of the Court's punitive damages jurisprudence, however, reveals another goal that has largely been ignored: predictability. Unlike punishment and deterrence, predictability is not a purpose for which to award punitive damages. Instead, the Court requires that, when awarded, the level of punitive …


Precise Punishment: Why Precise Punitive Damage Requests Result In Higher Awards Than Round Requests, Michael Conklin Apr 2021

Precise Punishment: Why Precise Punitive Damage Requests Result In Higher Awards Than Round Requests, Michael Conklin

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Imagine a setting where someone asks two people what the temperature is outside. The first person says it is 80 °F, while the second person says it is 78.7 °F. Research regarding precise versus round cognitive anchoring suggests that the second person is more likely to be believed. This is because it is human nature to assume that if someone gives a precise answer, he must have good reason for doing so. This principle remains constant in a variety of settings, including used car negotiations, eBay transactions, and estimating the field goal percentage of a basketball player.

This Article reports …


The Defamation Injunction Meets The Prior Restraint Doctrine, Doug Rendleman Oct 2019

The Defamation Injunction Meets The Prior Restraint Doctrine, Doug Rendleman

San Diego Law Review

This article maintains that, under defined circumstances, a judge should be able to grant an injunction that forbids the defendant’s proved defamation. It analyzes the common law of defamation, the constitutional prior restraint doctrine, the constitutional protection for defamation that stems from New York Times v. Sullivan, and injunctions and their enforcement.

In Near v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court expanded protection for expression by adding an injunction to executive licensing as a prior restraint. Although the Near court circumscribed the injunction as a prior restraint, it approved criminal sanctions and damages judgment for defamation. An injunction that forbids the defendant’s …


Hazing Laws In Louisiana: Criminal Penalty Masquerading Under The Guise Of Punitive Damages, Brittney Esie Oct 2019

Hazing Laws In Louisiana: Criminal Penalty Masquerading Under The Guise Of Punitive Damages, Brittney Esie

Journal of Civil Law Studies

No abstract provided.


The Enforcement Of Punitive Damages Awards Between United States And Europe: An Introduction For U.S. Practitioners, Maria Veronica Saladino Jan 2019

The Enforcement Of Punitive Damages Awards Between United States And Europe: An Introduction For U.S. Practitioners, Maria Veronica Saladino

The International Lawyer

This article’s objective is to introduce U.S.-based practitioners to European civil-law perspectives on whether U.S. punitive damages awards are enforceable in their jurisdictions. After a brief review concerning the birth of punitive damages within common law, valuable to better understand their cultural and legal significance, this article will outline how the prominent European jurisdictions — France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland — have dealt with the enforcement of U.S. punitive damages awards. Through each jurisdiction’s policy principles and relevant law, this article aims to afford U.S.-based practitioners initial tips and litigation strategies about how to maximize their chances of enforcing …


United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Copyright In Action: International Perspectives On Remedies, Philippa Loengard, Julia Ambros, Andrew Elliott, Daniel Lee Jul 2018

United States Response To Questionnaire Concerning Copyright In Action: International Perspectives On Remedies, Philippa Loengard, Julia Ambros, Andrew Elliott, Daniel Lee

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

ALAI-USA is the U.S. branch of ALAI (Association Littèraire et Artistique Internationale). ALAI-USA was started in the 1980's by the late Professor Melville B. Nimmer, and was later expanded by Professor John M. Kernochan.


Property Law And Civil Procedure--Establishing Precedent For Afha Enforcement And Revising Arkansas's Law On Punitive Damages. Watkins V. Turner, 2016 Ark. App. 158, 2016 Wl 903765, Tasha L. Strickland Apr 2018

Property Law And Civil Procedure--Establishing Precedent For Afha Enforcement And Revising Arkansas's Law On Punitive Damages. Watkins V. Turner, 2016 Ark. App. 158, 2016 Wl 903765, Tasha L. Strickland

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten Mar 2018

Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten

Michigan Law Review

It is a well-established principle that no court applies the penal laws of another sovereign. But what exactly is a penal law? According to Judge Cardozo, a penal law effects “vindication of the public justice” rather than “reparation to one aggrieved.” Although courts have historically treated punitive damages as a purely civil remedy, that attitude has shifted over time. Modern American punitive damages serve not to compensate the plaintiff but to punish the defendant on behalf of the whole community. Therefore, when courts rely on foreign substantive law to impose punitive damages, they arguably violate the well-established principle that no …


Institutional Liability For Employees’ Intentional Torts: Vicarious Liability As A Quasi-Substitute For Punitive Damages, Catherine M. Sharkey Jan 2018

Institutional Liability For Employees’ Intentional Torts: Vicarious Liability As A Quasi-Substitute For Punitive Damages, Catherine M. Sharkey

Valparaiso University Law Review

No abstract provided.


An Undetectable Constitutional Violation, Jill W. Lens Jul 2017

An Undetectable Constitutional Violation, Jill W. Lens

Jill Wieber Lens

In Philip Morris USA v. Williams, the Supreme Court mandated that lower courts implement procedural protections to ensure that the jury, when awarding punitive damages, properly considers evidence of the defendant’s harming nonparties. The jury can consider that evidence when determining the level of defendant’s reprehensibility, but punishment for causing that nonparty harm would violate the defendant’s constitutional rights.

Ten years later, this Article is the first to examine lower courts’ attempts to comply with Philip Morris. The Article first seeks to clarify how evidence of nonparty harm can demonstrate reprehensibility, a clarification necessary before courts can even begin …


Justice Thomas, Civil Asset Forfeitures, And Punitive Damages, Jill W. Lens Jul 2017

Justice Thomas, Civil Asset Forfeitures, And Punitive Damages, Jill W. Lens

Jill Wieber Lens

For centuries, governments have used civil asset forfeiture laws to seize property used in criminal activity and then use civil proceedings to take ownership of that same property. Forfeitures have caught the attention of media, John Oliver, and the Supreme Court. In March, because of waiver, the Supreme Court denied certiorari in Leonard v. Texas, a case that claimed Texas’s civil forfeiture laws violated due process. Justice Thomas agreed with the denial, but wrote separately to question the constitutionality of civil forfeiture laws. The Court has always held civil asset forfeitures to be constitutional because of their long existence, and …


Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation Colloquium, Erwin Chemerinsky, Martin A. Schwartz Jun 2017

Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation Colloquium, Erwin Chemerinsky, Martin A. Schwartz

Erwin Chemerinsky

No abstract provided.


Punitive Damages Revisited: A Statistical Analysis Of How Federal Circuit Courts Decide The Constitutionality Of Such Awards, Hironari Momioka Jun 2017

Punitive Damages Revisited: A Statistical Analysis Of How Federal Circuit Courts Decide The Constitutionality Of Such Awards, Hironari Momioka

Cleveland State Law Review

Using data from punitive damages decisions of U.S. federal circuit courts from 2004 to 2012, this paper attempts to establish empirically the following: (1) there is no apparent statistical difference between the levels of jury and judge awards; (2) U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Philip Morris (2007) or Exxon (2008) do not actually or substantially affect the level of punitive damage awards; (3) with regard to the cases involving remittitur, or reduction of awards, the Exxon decision did not radically affect the decreasing ratio of punitive to compensatory damage awards; (4) as the levels of compensatory awards go up, …


Defective Punitive Damage Awards, Jill W. Lens Mar 2017

Defective Punitive Damage Awards, Jill W. Lens

Jill Wieber Lens

Private redress theories of punitive damages recognize an individual victim’s right to be punitive. That right exists because the defendant knew its conduct would probably cause the victim a severe injury, yet the defendant still acted, willfully injuring the victim. The injured victim can seek and obtain punitive damages to punish the defendant for disrespecting her rights. 

This Article is the first to apply private redress theories of punitive damages to claims involving a defective product. This application is unexpectedly difficult because of the importance of evidence of harm to nonparties in establishing defect, and because the defendant’s knowledge of …


Civil Law Pulsations Along The Latin American Periphery, Ángel R. Oquendo Feb 2017

Civil Law Pulsations Along The Latin American Periphery, Ángel R. Oquendo

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The civil law system shows its true face as it travels from the Continental European core to the Latin American periphery. Many of the principal institutions have found a home and thrived in the new and radically different environment. One can best study them there by contemplating how they have preserved some of their most basic features despite having transformed themselves into something else.

The notion of the civil law tradition and that of codification have themselves undergone this dialectic of transformation and preservation. So have the traditional approach to contractual interpretation and to third-party agreements and the common proscriptions …


Improving The Effectiveness Of South Korean Product Liability Including Punitive Damages: A Comparative Analysis Between The United States And South Korea, Minsung Kim Jan 2017

Improving The Effectiveness Of South Korean Product Liability Including Punitive Damages: A Comparative Analysis Between The United States And South Korea, Minsung Kim

Maurer Theses and Dissertations

As South Korean Product Liability Act was revised to adopt the U.S. doctrine of punitive damages, there is a theoretical necessity of reviewing the relations between the theory of product liability and the U.S. doctrine of punitive damages. The theory of product liability is closely related to the strict liability but the doctrine of punitive damages has been developed to regulate malicious misconducts. Due to the different basic concepts, the strict liability and malicious misconducts, the theory of product liability might not include the doctrine of punitive damages. In addition to the compatibility issue, functions of the punitive damages are …


Shrinkage Estimation In The Adjudication Of Civil Damage Claims, Hillel J. Bavli, Yang Chen Jan 2017

Shrinkage Estimation In The Adjudication Of Civil Damage Claims, Hillel J. Bavli, Yang Chen

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Recent papers have highlighted the use of claim aggregation as a tool for reducing the unpredictability of legal outcomes. Specifically, it has been argued that sampling methods can be used in the class action context, and comparable-case guidance – information regarding awards in comparable cases as guidance for determining damage awards – can be used in the individual-claim context, to reduce variability and improve the accuracy of awards. In this paper, we examine a third form of claim aggregation based on a statistical method called “shrinkage estimation,” which is used to aggregate information and thereby improve estimation. We examine the …


Capping Incentives, Capping Innovation, Courting Disaster: The Gulf Oil Spill And Arbitrary Limits On Civil Liability, Andrew F. Popper Nov 2016

Capping Incentives, Capping Innovation, Courting Disaster: The Gulf Oil Spill And Arbitrary Limits On Civil Liability, Andrew F. Popper

Andrew Popper

Limiting liability by establishing an arbitrary cap on civil damages is bad public policy. Caps are antithetical to the interests of consumers and at odds with the national interest in creating incentives for better and safer products. Whether the caps are on non-economic loss, punitive damages, or set for specific activity, they undermine the civil justice system, deceiving juries and denying just and reasonable compensation for victims in a broad range of fields. This Article postulates that capped liability on damages for offshore oil spills may well have been an instrumental factor contributing to the recent Deepwater Horizon catastrophe in …


It Is Time For Washington State To Take A Stand Against Holmes's Bad Man: The Value Of Punitive Damages In Deterring Big Business And International Tortfeasors, Jackson Pahlke Nov 2016

It Is Time For Washington State To Take A Stand Against Holmes's Bad Man: The Value Of Punitive Damages In Deterring Big Business And International Tortfeasors, Jackson Pahlke

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In Washington State, tortfeasors get a break when they commit intentional torts. Instead of receiving more punishment for their planned bad act, intentional tortfeasors are punished as if they committed a mere accident. The trend does not stop in Washington State—nationwide, punitive damage legislation inadequately deters intentional wrongdoers through caps and outright bans on punitive damages. Despite Washington State’s one hundred and twenty-five year ban on punitive damages, it is in a unique and powerful position to change the way courts across the country deal with intentional tortfeasors. Since Washington has never had a comprehensive punitive damages framework, and has …


Digital Photography And The Internet, Rethinking Privacy Law, Jim Barr Coleman Oct 2016

Digital Photography And The Internet, Rethinking Privacy Law, Jim Barr Coleman

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Why Don’T Punitive Damages Punish Or Deter? Beyond The Constitution Toward An Economic Solution, Paige Griffith Oct 2016

Why Don’T Punitive Damages Punish Or Deter? Beyond The Constitution Toward An Economic Solution, Paige Griffith

Montana Law Review

No abstract provided.


Adding Insult To Death: Why Punitive Damages Should Not Be Imposed Against A Deceased Tortfeasor's Estate In Ohio, Alec A. Beech Jun 2016

Adding Insult To Death: Why Punitive Damages Should Not Be Imposed Against A Deceased Tortfeasor's Estate In Ohio, Alec A. Beech

Akron Law Review

A majority of jurisdictions in the United States have determined, either statutorily or judicially, that punitive damages cannot be imposed against deceased tortfeasors. However, a recent Ohio appellate court held to the contrary. In Whetstone v. Binner, the Ohio Fifth District Court of Appeals adopted the minority view when it held that punitive damages could be imposed against a decedent’s estate. This Comment takes the position that Whetstone was incorrectly decided. Specifically, this Comment argues that the longstanding purposes of punitive damages are not furthered when such damages are imposed against estates and that Ohio law supports this conclusion.


The Latest Word From The Supreme Court On Punitive Damages, Leon D. Lazer Mar 2016

The Latest Word From The Supreme Court On Punitive Damages, Leon D. Lazer

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Roots Of Punitive Damages At Common Law: A Longer History, Jason Taliadoros Jan 2016

The Roots Of Punitive Damages At Common Law: A Longer History, Jason Taliadoros

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article aims to revisit the historical development of the doctrine of exemplary or punitive damages. Punitive damages are anomalous in that they lie in both tort and crime, a matter that has led to much criticism by modern commentators. Yet, a definitive history of punitive damages does not exist to explain this anomaly. The main contribution of this Article, then, is to begin such a history by way of a meta-narrative. It identifies and links the historically significant moments that led to punitive damages, beginning with the background period of classical Roman law, its renewed reception in Western Europe …


Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman Dec 2015

Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman

Doug Rendleman

No abstract provided.


Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman Dec 2015

Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman

Doug Rendleman

No abstract provided.


Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman Dec 2015

Measurement Of Restitution: Coordinating Restitution With Compensatory Damages And Punitive Damages, Doug Rendleman

Doug Rendleman

No abstract provided.


Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation Colloquium, Erwin Chemerinsky, Martin A. Schwartz Oct 2015

Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation Colloquium, Erwin Chemerinsky, Martin A. Schwartz

Martin A. Schwartz

No abstract provided.


Remedies: A Guide For The Perplexed, Doug Rendleman Sep 2015

Remedies: A Guide For The Perplexed, Doug Rendleman

Doug Rendleman

Remedies is one of a law student’s most practical courses. Remedies students and their professors learn to work with their eyes on the question at the end of litigation: what can the court do for the successful plaintiff? Remedies develops students’ professional identities and broadens their professional horizons by reorganizing their analysis of procedure, torts, contracts, and property around choosing and measuring relief - compensatory damages, punitive damages, an injunction, specific performance, disgorgement, and restitution. This article discusses the law-school course in Remedies - the content of the Remedies course, the Remedies classroom experience, and Remedies outside the classroom through …


Tortious Liability For Bad Faith Refusal To Pay, Jeffrey Schobert Jul 2015

Tortious Liability For Bad Faith Refusal To Pay, Jeffrey Schobert

Akron Law Review

In Hoskins v. Aetna Life Ins. Co., the Ohio Supreme Court imposed on insurers a good faith duty in any refusal to pay claims made by their insured. Its decision placed Ohio among a growing number of jurisdictions that have recognized this good faith duty. The court adopted its rationale by relying heavily on existing insurance case law in the refusal-to-settle third-party claims type actions. The court defined the standard of good faith in terms of a reasonable justification by the insurer in refusing to pay a claim "because it believed there was no coverage of the claim." The …