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Punishment

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Co-Optation Of Restorative Justice And Its Consequences For An Abolitionist Future, Alicia Virani Oct 2024

The Co-Optation Of Restorative Justice And Its Consequences For An Abolitionist Future, Alicia Virani

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article explores the ways in which RJ [restorative justice] has been co-opted, argues that RJ’s core principles can never coexist with the criminal punishment system, and analyzes how RJ co-optation is a barrier to abolitionist goals. It proceeds in three parts. In Part I, I present the fundamental principles upon which RJ processes should be based. While many scholars and practitioners have identified the lack of a consistent RJ definition by which to guide the work, I propose that there are fundamental principles that serve to guide RJ, and these are in stark contrast with the principles and realities …


Proportionalities, Youngjae Lee Apr 2024

Proportionalities, Youngjae Lee

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

“Proportionality” is ubiquitous. The idea that punishment should be proportional to crime is familiar in criminal law and has a lengthy history. But that is not the only place where one encounters the concept of proportionality in law and ethics. The idea of proportionality is important also in the self-defense context, where the right to defend oneself with force is limited by the principle of proportionality. Proportionality plays a role in the context of war, especially in the idea that the military advantage one side may draw from an attack must not be excessive in relation to the loss of …


Problem-Solving Courts And The Outcome Oversight Gap, Erin R. Collins Mar 2024

Problem-Solving Courts And The Outcome Oversight Gap, Erin R. Collins

UMKC Law Review

The creation of a specialized, “problem-solving” court is a ubiquitous response to the issues that plague our criminal legal system. The courts promise to address the factors believed to lead to repeated interactions with the system, such as addiction or mental illness, thereby reducing recidivism and saving money. And they do so effectively – at least according to their many proponents, who celebrate them as an example of a successful “evidence-based,” data-driven reform. But the actual data on their efficacy is underwhelming, inconclusive, or altogether lacking. So why do they persist?

This Article seeks to answer that question by scrutinizing …


Estate To State: Pay-To-Stay Statutes And The Problematic Seizure Of Inherited Property, Brittany L. Deitch Jan 2024

Estate To State: Pay-To-Stay Statutes And The Problematic Seizure Of Inherited Property, Brittany L. Deitch

University of Colorado Law Review

Pay-to-stay statutes allow states to recover their incarceration-related expenditures from those who are currently or have formerly been incarcerated. Mass incarceration is expensive, and states have aimed to shift this financial burden from their taxpayers and government coffers to the individuals who experience incarceration. Although pay-to-stay laws take many forms, in general, they authorize the government to seek recompense for an individual’s incarceration costs from the currently or formerly incarcerated person’s assets and income. Many states permit the seizure of inherited property to satisfy this legal financial obligation. Pay-to-stay laws have survived constitutional challenges thus far, but some state legislatures …


Preventing Undeserved Punishment, Marah Stith Mcleod Dec 2023

Preventing Undeserved Punishment, Marah Stith Mcleod

Notre Dame Law Review

Defendants should not be punished more than they deserve. Sentencing scholars describe this precept against undeserved punishment as a consensus norm in American law and culture. Yet America faces a plague of mass incarceration, and many sanctions seem clearly undeserved, often far exceeding an offender’s culpability or the seriousness of an offense. How can a society committed to desert as a limitation on legitimate sanctions allow such undeserved punishments?

Critics argue increasingly that our focus on what offenders deserve is itself part of the problem. They claim that the notion of desert is too amorphous, malleable, and arbitrary to limit …


The Security Period Disrupting The Punishment Conditioning Systems In Algerian And French Laws, Bassim Chihab Prof. Nov 2023

The Security Period Disrupting The Punishment Conditioning Systems In Algerian And French Laws, Bassim Chihab Prof.

UAEU Law Journal

The security period is one of the topics of criminal law, it was adopted by French law in 1978 It was included in the penal code which entered into force on 1/3/1994. Then other legislation followed and it was adopted in the Algerian penal code by law 06- 23, it was considered by the Gabonese penal code issued on 5/7/2019.

The security period is not a criminal penalty or an aggravating circumstance, it is based on the terms of sentence and imprisonment and targets the systems of execution of the penalty, and it is mandatory by the force of law …


Forced To Play And Forced To Pay: The Indigent Counsel Fee In Massachusetts As A Cost Of Being Charged With A Crime, Stanislaw Krawiecki May 2023

Forced To Play And Forced To Pay: The Indigent Counsel Fee In Massachusetts As A Cost Of Being Charged With A Crime, Stanislaw Krawiecki

University of Massachusetts Law Review

When indigent defendants in Massachusetts are charged with a crime and receive a court-appointed lawyer, they are also charged something else: a fee. This $150 fee is imposed on criminal defendants by the state as soon as they receive a constitutionally guaranteed "free" legal defense. The Article focuses on this inherent contradiction and identifies its far-reaching effects in undermining individuals’ constitutional protections. Massachusetts’s indigent counsel fee "chills" the right to counsel, creating a straightforward result for indigent individuals who are faced with a choice between paying for a "free" lawyer and not disclaiming their constitutional right to one. The deeper …


Penjatuhan Kebiri Kimia Bagi Pelaku Kejahatan Seksual Terhadap Anak Dalam Perspektif Falsafah Pemidanaan, Tunggal S, Nathalina Naibaho May 2023

Penjatuhan Kebiri Kimia Bagi Pelaku Kejahatan Seksual Terhadap Anak Dalam Perspektif Falsafah Pemidanaan, Tunggal S, Nathalina Naibaho

Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan

Sexual assault against children is an phenomenon that often occurs in Indonesia. The statistic shows that the number of sexual assault against children doesn't decrease significantly. Punishment is not the only way to control the number of sexual assault against children. Then, the goverment passed new regulation that regulating of chemical castration in hope of reducing the number of sexual crimes against children. However, the presence of chemical castration raises objections and differences of opinion in various circles. This research aims to determine the sentencing purpose of chemical castration and the proper sanction for imposing chemical castration in Indonesia. This …


Against Capital Punishment, Zac Bright, Ben Austin (Editor) Apr 2023

Against Capital Punishment, Zac Bright, Ben Austin (Editor)

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Capital punishment has a strong legal precedence in the United States. Capital punishment has been a penal option for those who commit conspicuously wrong acts. For such acts, the punishment seems to be proportional to the crime. In addition to the punishment’s adherence to proportionality, capital punishment mitigates problematic outcomes.

This paper advocates, however, that capital punishment should be classified as “cruel and unusual punishment.” Such violation of the eighth amendment delegitimizes capital punishment. Consequently, The Federal Death Penalty Act of 1994 should no longer be considered a valid law because of its constitutional violation.


No Sense Of Decency, Kathryn E. Miller Mar 2023

No Sense Of Decency, Kathryn E. Miller

Washington Law Review

For nearly seventy years, the Court has assessed Eighth Amendment claims by evaluating “the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.” In this Article, I examine the evolving standards of decency test, which has long been a punching bag for critics on both the right and the left. Criticism of the doctrine has been fierce but largely academic until recent years. Some fault the test for being too majoritarian, while others argue that it provides few constraints on the Justices’ discretion, permitting their personal predilections to rule the day. For many, the test is seen …


‘I Will Control Your Mind’: The International Regulation Of Brain-Hacking, Thibault Moulin Dec 2022

‘I Will Control Your Mind’: The International Regulation Of Brain-Hacking, Thibault Moulin

San Diego International Law Journal

In the near future, the use of neurotechnologies—like brain-computer interfaces and brain stimulation—could become widespread. It will not only be used to help persons with disabilities or illness, but also by members of the armed forces and in everyday life (e.g., for entertainment and gaming). However, recent studies suggested that it is possible to hack into neural devices to obtain information, inflict pain, induce mood change, or influence movements. This Article anticipates three scenarios which may be challenging in the future—i.e., brain hacking for the purpose of reading thoughts, remotely controlling someone, and inflicting pain or death—and assesses their compliance …


Countermajoritarian Criminal Law, Michael L. Smith Dec 2022

Countermajoritarian Criminal Law, Michael L. Smith

Pace Law Review

Criminal law pervades American society, subjecting millions to criminal enforcement, prosecution, and punishment every year. All too often, culpability is a minimal or nonexistent aspect of this phenomenon. Criminal law prohibits a wide range of common behaviors and practices, especially when one considers the various federal, state, and municipal levels of law restricting people’s actions. Recent scholarship has criticized not only the scope and impact of these laws but has also critiqued these laws out to the extent that they fail to live up to supermajoritarian ideals that underlie criminal justice.

This Article adds to and amplifies this criticism by …


The Informed Jury, Daniel Epps, William Ortman Apr 2022

The Informed Jury, Daniel Epps, William Ortman

Vanderbilt Law Review

The right to a criminal jury trial is a constitutional disappointment. Cases almost never make it to a jury because of plea bargaining. In the few cases that do, the jury is relegated to a narrow factfinding role that denies it normative voice or the ability to serve as a meaningful check on excessive punishment.

One simple change could situate the jury where it belongs, at the center of the criminal process. The most important thing juries do in criminal cases is authorize state punishment. But today, when a jury returns a guilty verdict, it authorizes punishment without any idea …


What’S The Deference? Interpreting The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines After Kisor, Liam Murphy Apr 2022

What’S The Deference? Interpreting The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines After Kisor, Liam Murphy

Vanderbilt Law Review

For more than three decades, the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines have constrained the punishment doled out by federal judges, limiting discretion that was once nearly unlimited and bringing standardization to the penological decisionmaking process. For twice as long, the Supreme Court has constrained judges in a different way—by requiring that administrative agencies receive deference when they interpret the meaning of their own regulations. At the convergence of these two domains sits “commentary,” or interpretive notes the U.S. Sentencing Commission appends to the otherwise congressionally approved Guidelines. In Stinson v. United States, the Court made clear that commentary should be reviewed and …


Parameters Spring 2022, Usawc Press Mar 2022

Parameters Spring 2022, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


On "Broken Nest: Deterring China From Invading Taiwan" And Authors' Response, Eric Chan Mar 2022

On "Broken Nest: Deterring China From Invading Taiwan" And Authors' Response, Eric Chan

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


From The Editor, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii Mar 2022

From The Editor, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


“Incorrigibility Is Inconsistent With Youth”: The Supreme Court’S Missed Opportunity To Cure The Contradiction Implicit In Discretionary Jlwop Sentencing, Ana Ionescu Feb 2022

“Incorrigibility Is Inconsistent With Youth”: The Supreme Court’S Missed Opportunity To Cure The Contradiction Implicit In Discretionary Jlwop Sentencing, Ana Ionescu

University of Miami Law Review

The juvenile life without parole (“JLWOP”) caselaw is based in part on the science underlying adolescent brain development. Numerous research studies have examined the behaviors and brain processes of adolescents. Courts have relied on these findings in reaching some of its most important decisions affecting juveniles implicated in the criminal justice system. The latest of those decisions came in 2021 with the Jones v. Mississippi case before the United States Supreme Court. The Court held that a sentencing court is not required to make a specific finding of permanent incorrigibility before sentencing the juvenile defendant to life without parole. This …


Forced Prison Labor: Punishment For A Crime?, Wafa Junaid Jan 2022

Forced Prison Labor: Punishment For A Crime?, Wafa Junaid

Northwestern University Law Review

The Thirteenth Amendment’s prohibition of involuntary servitude carves out an exception to its protections that allows the use of forced labor as “punishment for a crime” when an individual is “duly convicted.” Courts have interpreted this language as placing a categorical bar on Thirteenth Amendment claims alleged by individuals who are incarcerated. Yet, a consistent understanding of the term “punishment” that draws from the term’s use in the Eighth Amendment’s Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause supports a narrower interpretation of the Thirteenth Amendment’s punishment exception. This Note argues that individuals cannot be denied Thirteenth Amendment protections unless they are explicitly …


Restorative Justice: Uplifting Human Rights For The Marginalized, Vulnerable, Victimized, And The United States As A Whole, Meghana Vodela Jan 2022

Restorative Justice: Uplifting Human Rights For The Marginalized, Vulnerable, Victimized, And The United States As A Whole, Meghana Vodela

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


When Jail & Prison Sentences Become Death Sentences: How Willfully Exposing Incarcerated Persons To Covid-19 Amounts To Cruel & Unusual Punishment, Arielle Aboulafia Jan 2022

When Jail & Prison Sentences Become Death Sentences: How Willfully Exposing Incarcerated Persons To Covid-19 Amounts To Cruel & Unusual Punishment, Arielle Aboulafia

Human Rights Brief

Eric Warner called his older brother Hank from San Quentin State Prison almost every Sunday. Though the prison only allowed the brothers to speak for fifteen minutes each week, the two spoke about their lives. In June 2021, Eric stopped calling, and Hank became worried. Hank tried to get in touch with the prison. However, his calls were met with a dead-end voicemail each time. He recalls that he “knew, by not hearing anything, that something was not good.” The following month, prison personnel returned Hank’s calls and told him that his brother Eric had been hospitalized. Later that month, …


Breaking The Cultural Cycle Of Sexual Harassment In The Professional Sports Industry: Time To Step Up Prevention & Punishment, Lauren Sullivan Jan 2022

Breaking The Cultural Cycle Of Sexual Harassment In The Professional Sports Industry: Time To Step Up Prevention & Punishment, Lauren Sullivan

Saint Louis University Law Journal

The National Football League’s Washington Football Team, now known as the Washington Commanders, faces an abundant amount of franchise issues, but its toxic workplace environment full of sexual harassment towers above the rest. This is just the most recent example of a professional sports team mistreating its women employees. Year after year, sexual harassment allegations resurface, revealing a contemplation of whether the current “solutions” for curbing sexual harassment in the professional sports industry are effective.

Current remedies, both in a legal and societal context, have inhibited efforts by women for equal treatment from the teams who employ them. When allegations …


Informed Consent: Disclosure Of The Presentence Investigation Report Before A Guilty Plea, George D. Bell Jul 2021

Informed Consent: Disclosure Of The Presentence Investigation Report Before A Guilty Plea, George D. Bell

University of Miami Law Review

The Constitution bestows upon all accused persons the right to a trial by jury, the right to confront accusers, the right to remain silent, and the right to be presumed innocent. The law requires waiver of these rights to be done voluntarily, with the fullest possible knowledge of material consequences. Punishment is possibly the most material consequence of a guilty plea, yet criminal defendants who pleaded guilty are forced to relinquish their rights before punishment is determined. Our jurisprudence of due process prohibits this kind of practice, but it is routine in Federal court. For a guilty plea to comport …


Making Executioners Out Of Pharmacists: Why South Carolina Should Not Adopt A Lethal Injection Secrecy Statute, Elizabeth T. French Jul 2021

Making Executioners Out Of Pharmacists: Why South Carolina Should Not Adopt A Lethal Injection Secrecy Statute, Elizabeth T. French

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Restorative Retributivism, Brian M. Murray Jun 2021

Restorative Retributivism, Brian M. Murray

University of Miami Law Review

The current criminal justice moment is ripe for discussion of first principles. What the criminal law is, what it should do, and why society punishes is as relevant as ever as communities reconsider the reach of the criminal law and forms of punishment like incarceration. One theory recently put forth—reconstructivism—purports to offer a descriptive and normative theory of the criminal law and punishment while critiquing the ills of the American system. It comprehends the criminal law and punishment as functional endeavors, with the particular goal of restitching or “reconstructing” the social fabric that crime disrupts. In particular, reconstructivism is a …


The Doctrinal Punishment Of Lapidation : Suspicions And Rebuttals-Dr. Mahmoud Abu Lail, Professor Mahmoud Ahmed Abu Leil Apr 2021

The Doctrinal Punishment Of Lapidation : Suspicions And Rebuttals-Dr. Mahmoud Abu Lail, Professor Mahmoud Ahmed Abu Leil

UAEU Law Journal

This paper deals with the proof of legitimacy of stonning as a punishment for adultery. (The paper describes the different punishments for adultery in Islam) ranging from imprisonment and harm to lashing and alienation of the non-married, and stonning of the married. The Paper traces proofs of the legitimacy of stonning in the sayings and actions of Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon Him). This kind of punishment has been convayed by more than thirty of the Prophet’s companions. So it is considered to be an abstract sequence, and thus a conclusive eviden. Moreover, unanimous acceptance of _ the legitimacy of …


Precise Punishment: Why Precise Punitive Damage Requests Result In Higher Awards Than Round Requests, Michael Conklin Apr 2021

Precise Punishment: Why Precise Punitive Damage Requests Result In Higher Awards Than Round Requests, Michael Conklin

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Imagine a setting where someone asks two people what the temperature is outside. The first person says it is 80 °F, while the second person says it is 78.7 °F. Research regarding precise versus round cognitive anchoring suggests that the second person is more likely to be believed. This is because it is human nature to assume that if someone gives a precise answer, he must have good reason for doing so. This principle remains constant in a variety of settings, including used car negotiations, eBay transactions, and estimating the field goal percentage of a basketball player.

This Article reports …


Lengthy Minimum Parole Requirements: A Denial Of Hope, Heather Walker Apr 2021

Lengthy Minimum Parole Requirements: A Denial Of Hope, Heather Walker

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Using the Eighth Amendment, which prohibits cruel and unusual punishment, the Supreme Court has made sweeping changes to juvenile sentencing in the last fifteen years. The Court has stated that mandatory life sentences without the possibility of parole and life sentences without the possibility of parole for non-homicide offenders are unconstitutional. Nevertheless, there are still unanswered questions in juvenile sentencing. One under-researched aspect of this is the role that lengthy minimum parole requirements play in the constitutionality of juvenile sentencing. This type of sentencing lacks express legislative support, it does not have a legitimate penological justification, and it denies juveniles …


Can Prosecutors End Mass Incarceration?, Rachel E. Barkow Apr 2021

Can Prosecutors End Mass Incarceration?, Rachel E. Barkow

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Charged: The New Movement to Transform American Prosecution and End Mass Incarceration. by Emily Bazelon.


The European Convention For The Prevention Of Torture And Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment Or Punishment: Genesis Of An Exemplary Model Of International Control On Human Rights, Giovanni Distefano Mar 2021

The European Convention For The Prevention Of Torture And Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment Or Punishment: Genesis Of An Exemplary Model Of International Control On Human Rights, Giovanni Distefano

UAEU Law Journal

The 26 June 1987, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted the “European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment”, which entered eventually into force two years later. Being closely intertwined with the European Convention of Human Rights (1950), the Torture Convention establishes a parallel monitoring system ensuring the respect of the subjective rights contained therein. In addition to the 1950 Convention, it introduces an absolutely novel mechanism aimed to address in a preventive and effective way the needs related to the protection of human dignity and other core human rights …