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2008

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Porn Air, Timothy Zick Sep 2008

Porn Air, Timothy Zick

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


10th Annual Open Government Summit: The Access To Public Records Act & The Open Meetings Act, 2008, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island Aug 2008

10th Annual Open Government Summit: The Access To Public Records Act & The Open Meetings Act, 2008, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


The Microsoft-Yahoo Merger: Yes, Privacy Is An Antitrust Concern, Robert H. Lande Feb 2008

The Microsoft-Yahoo Merger: Yes, Privacy Is An Antitrust Concern, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

Privacy and antitrust? Isn't antitrust only supposed to be concerned with price? Well, no. Antitrust is actually about consumer choice, and price is only one type of choice. The ultimate purpose of the antitrust laws is to help ensure that the free market will bring to consumers everything they want from competition. This starts with competitive prices, of course, but consumers also want an optimal level of variety, innovation, quality, and other forms of non-price competition. Including, in the Google-Doubleclick and Microsoft-Yahoo transactions, privacy protection.


Confidentiality: An Expectation In Health Care, Anita L. Allen Jan 2008

Confidentiality: An Expectation In Health Care, Anita L. Allen

All Faculty Scholarship

The practice of confidentiality has continued in an era of increased, voluntary openness about medical information in everyday life. Indeed the number and variety of state and federal laws mandating confidentiality by medical professionals has increased in the last dozen years. Moreover, personal injury suits alleging breach of confidentiality or invasion of privacy, along with suits asserting evidentiary privileges, reflect the reality that expectations of confidentiality of medical records and relationships remain strong.


Random Drug Testing, Henry L. Chambers, Jr. Jan 2008

Random Drug Testing, Henry L. Chambers, Jr.

Law Faculty Publications

Random drug testing coexists uneasily with a general Fourth Amendment right to be free of suspicionless government searches. Typically, a governmental search is accompanied by a warrant supported by individualized suspicion, that is, probable cause. Random drug testing involves a search without any particularized suspicion that the subject of the search has used drugs.


Privacy And Funeral Protests, Christina E. Wells Jan 2008

Privacy And Funeral Protests, Christina E. Wells

Faculty Publications

This article examines the free speech implications of funeral protest statutes. Enacted in response to the Westboro Baptist Church, whose members protest at funerals to spread their antigay message, such statutes restrict a broad array of peaceful expressive activity. This Article focuses on the states’ interest underlying these statutes - protecting mourners’ right to be free from unwanted intrusions while at funeral services. Few would argue against protecting funeral services from intrusive protests. These statutes, however, go far beyond that notion and protect mourners from offensive, rather than intrusive, protests. As such, they do not conceive of privacy as protection …


Federal Search Commission? Access, Fairness, And Accountability In The Law Of Search, Oren Bracha, Frank Pasquale Jan 2008

Federal Search Commission? Access, Fairness, And Accountability In The Law Of Search, Oren Bracha, Frank Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

Should search engines be subject to the types of regulation now applied to personal data collectors, cable networks, or phone books? In this article, we make the case for some regulation of the ability of search engines to manipulate and structure their results. We demonstrate that the First Amendment, properly understood, does not prohibit such regulation. Nor will such interventions inevitably lead to the disclosure of important trade secrets.

After setting forth normative foundations for evaluating search engine manipulation, we explain how neither market discipline nor technological advance is likely to stop it. Though savvy users and personalized search may …


Natural Law - A Libertarian View, Anthony D'Amato Jan 2008

Natural Law - A Libertarian View, Anthony D'Amato

Faculty Working Papers

What follows from the following two propositions? Legal positivism views law as a command writ large. The commander is the person or group with the most power. Answer: this pernicious mind-set is responsible for our abandonment of personal liberty. For there can be no limit to the imagination and will power of the commander. The plenary jurisdiction of the commander paves the way for Big Government to move in and regulate every aspect of our lives and our privacy. The world wasn't always like this. Prior to the servility that positivism has induced, there was a now-forgotten secular natural law …


"Carhart", Constitutional Rights, And The Psychology Of Regret, Chris Guthrie Jan 2008

"Carhart", Constitutional Rights, And The Psychology Of Regret, Chris Guthrie

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In "Gonzales v. Carhart", the Supreme Court upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. In so doing, the Court used the prospect of regret to justify limiting choice. Relying on empirical evidence documenting the four ways in which regret actually operates, this Article argues that the Court's analysis reflects a fundamental misunderstanding of the psychology of regret. By exposing the Court's misunderstanding of this emotion, this article seeks to minimize the most significant risk posed by the Carhart decision: that states will use the prospect of regret to justify additional constraints not only on the abortion right but also on other …


Improving Privacy Protection, But By How Much?, Steve Coughlan Jan 2008

Improving Privacy Protection, But By How Much?, Steve Coughlan

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The discussion of reasonable expectation of privacy in R. v. M. (A.) is extremely useful. In the wake of Tessling, many courts had effectively reduced the protection offered by s. 8 based on two arguments: that what was detected was an emanation in the public domain similar to heat coming from a house, and that what was discovered merely related to informational privacy and was not part of the biographical core of such data. Justice Binnie's decision puts paid the notion that either of these arguments is a trump card. He suggests that generalizing about "emanations" is not a useful …


Access To Medical Records For Research Purposes: Varying Perceptions Across Research Ethics Boards, Donald Willison, Claudia Emerson, Karen Szala-Meneok, Elaine Gibson, Lisa Schwartz, Karen Weisbaum, François Fournier, Kevin Brazil, Michael Coughlin Jan 2008

Access To Medical Records For Research Purposes: Varying Perceptions Across Research Ethics Boards, Donald Willison, Claudia Emerson, Karen Szala-Meneok, Elaine Gibson, Lisa Schwartz, Karen Weisbaum, François Fournier, Kevin Brazil, Michael Coughlin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Variation across research ethics boards (REBs) in conditions placed on access to medical records for research purposes raises concerns around negative impacts on research quality and on human subject protection, including privacy. Aim: To study variation in REB consent requirements for retrospective chart review and who may have access to the medical record for data abstraction. Methods: Thirty 90-min face-to-face interviews were conducted with REB chairs and administrators affiliated with faculties of medicine in Canadian universities, using structured questions around a case study with open-ended responses. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded manually. Results: Fourteen sites (47%) required individual patient …


Who's Minding The Shop? The Role Of Canadian Research Ethics Boards In The Creation And Uses Of Registries And Biobanks, Elaine Gibson, Kevin Brazil, Michael Coughlin, Claudia Emerson, François Fournier, Lisa Schwartz, Karen Szala-Meneok, Karen Weisbaum, Donald Willison Jan 2008

Who's Minding The Shop? The Role Of Canadian Research Ethics Boards In The Creation And Uses Of Registries And Biobanks, Elaine Gibson, Kevin Brazil, Michael Coughlin, Claudia Emerson, François Fournier, Lisa Schwartz, Karen Szala-Meneok, Karen Weisbaum, Donald Willison

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Background: The amount of research utilizing health information has increased dramatically over the last ten years. Many institutions have extensive biobank holdings collected over a number of years for clinical and teaching purposes, but are uncertain as to the proper circumstances in which to permit research uses of these samples. Research Ethics Boards (REBs) in Canada and elsewhere in the world are grappling with these issues, but lack clear guidance regarding their role in the creation of and access to registries and biobanks.

Methods: Chairs of 34 REBS and/or REB Administrators affiliated with Faculties of Medicine in Canadian universities were …


Barriers To Access To Abortion Through A Legal Lens, Jocelyn Downie, Carla Nassar Jan 2008

Barriers To Access To Abortion Through A Legal Lens, Jocelyn Downie, Carla Nassar

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In addressing whether the procedure for obtaining abortions was operating equitably across Canada, the 1977 Badgley Report concluded that for many women, access to abortion was “practically illusory.” Sadly, although abortion on request became legally permissible for Canadian women in 1988, access to a safe and legal abortion remains practically illusory for many women today. A woman seeking an abortion in Canada must overcome numerous barriers. She must find a way to secure for herself some of the limited resources that our health care system provides for abortion. She must also expend her own, often scarce, personal resources: her time, …


Court-System Transparency, Lynn M. Lopucki Jan 2008

Court-System Transparency, Lynn M. Lopucki

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article applies systems analysis to two ends. First, it identifies simple changes that would make the court system transparent. Second, it projects transparency's consequences. Transparency means that both the patterns across, and details of, case files are revealed to policymakers, litigants, and the public in easily understood forms. Government must make two changes to achieve court system transparency. The first is to remove the existing restrictions on the electronic release of court documents, including the requirements for registration, separate requests for each document, and monetary payment. The second - already being implemented in the federal courts - is to …


Algorithmic Entities, Lynn M. Lopucki Jan 2008

Algorithmic Entities, Lynn M. Lopucki

UF Law Faculty Publications

In a 2014 article, Professor Shawn Bayern demonstrated that anyone can confer legal personhood on an autonomous computer algorithm by putting it in control of a limited liability company. Bayern’s demonstration coincided with the development of “autonomous” online businesses that operate independently of their human owners—accepting payments in online currencies and contracting with human agents to perform the off-line aspects of their businesses. About the same time, leading technologists Elon Musk, Bill Gates, and Stephen Hawking said that they regard human-level artificial intelligence as an existential threat to the human race. This Article argues that algorithmic entities—legal entities that have …


The Good And Bad News About Consent Searches In The Supreme Court, Tracey Maclin Jan 2008

The Good And Bad News About Consent Searches In The Supreme Court, Tracey Maclin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article is about the Supreme Court's consent search doctrine. Part I describes how the law of consent searches developed between the 1920s and 1973, when Schneckloth v. Bustamonte was decided, which is the Court's seminal consent search case. Part II of the article is a discussion of Bustamonte. In particular, this part highlights the spoken and unspoken premises that influenced the result in Bustamonte and outlines Bustamonte's continuing relevance for consent search cases today. Part III examines United States v. Drayton, a ruling authored by Justice Kennedy that explains why a cryptic passage in that ruling provides important clues …


Government Data Mining: The Need For A Legal Framework, Fred H. Cate Jan 2008

Government Data Mining: The Need For A Legal Framework, Fred H. Cate

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The article examines the government's growing appetite for collecting personal data. Often justified on the basis of protecting national security, government data mining programs sweep up data collected through hundreds of regulatory and administrative programs, and combine them with huge datasets obtained from industry. The result is an aggregation of personal data - the "digital footprints" of individual lives - never before seen. These data warehouses are then used to determine who can work and participate in Social Security programs, who can board airplanes and enter government buildings, and who is likely to pose a threat in the future, even …


The Good And Bad News About Consent Searches In The Supreme Court, Tracey Maclin Jan 2008

The Good And Bad News About Consent Searches In The Supreme Court, Tracey Maclin

Faculty Scholarship

This article is about the Supreme Court's consent search doctrine. Part I describes how the law of consent searches developed between the 1920s and 1973, when Schneckloth v. Bustamonte was decided, which is the Court's seminal consent search case.

Part II of the article is a discussion of Bustamonte. In particular, this part highlights the spoken and unspoken premises that influenced the result in Bustamonte and outlines Bustamonte's continuing relevance for consent search cases today.

Part III examines United States v. Drayton, a ruling authored by Justice Kennedy that explains why a cryptic passage in that ruling provides important clues …


Data Mining And The Security-Liberty Debate, Daniel J. Solove Jan 2008

Data Mining And The Security-Liberty Debate, Daniel J. Solove

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In this essay, written for a symposium on surveillance for the University of Chicago Law Review, I examine some common difficulties in the way that liberty is balanced against security in the context of data mining. Countless discussions about the trade-offs between security and liberty begin by taking a security proposal and then weighing it against what it would cost our civil liberties. Often, the liberty interests are cast as individual rights and balanced against the security interests, which are cast in terms of the safety of society as a whole. Courts and commentators defer to the government's assertions about …


The Case For Tolerant Constitutional Patriotism: The Right To Privacy Before The European Courts, Francesca Bignami Jan 2008

The Case For Tolerant Constitutional Patriotism: The Right To Privacy Before The European Courts, Francesca Bignami

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The theory of constitutional patriotism has been advanced as a solution to the European Union's legitimacy woes. Europeans, according to this theory, should recognize themselves as members of a single human community and thus acknowledge the legitimacy of Europe-wide governance based on their shared belief in a common set of liberal democratic values. Yet in its search for unity, constitutional patriotism, like nationalism and other founding myths, carries the potential for the exclusion of others. This article explores the illiberal tendencies of one element of the liberal canon - the right to privacy - in the case law of Europe's …


Book Review, Susan Nevelow Mart Jan 2008

Book Review, Susan Nevelow Mart

Publications

No abstract provided.


Fourth Amendment Protection For Stored E-Mail, Patricia L. Bellia, Susan Freiwald Jan 2008

Fourth Amendment Protection For Stored E-Mail, Patricia L. Bellia, Susan Freiwald

Journal Articles

The question of whether and how the Fourth Amendment regulates government access to stored e-mail remains open and pressing. A panel of the Sixth Circuit recently held in Warshak v. United States, 490 F.3d 455 (6th Cir. 2007), that users generally retain a reasonable expectation of privacy in the e-mails they store with their Internet Service Providers (ISPs), which implies that government agents must generally acquire a warrant before they may compel ISPs to disclose their users' stored e-mails. The Sixth Circuit, however, is reconsidering the case en banc. This Article examines the nature of stored e-mail surveillance and argues …


Dredging Up The Past: Lifelogging, Memory And Surveillance, Anita L. Allen Jan 2008

Dredging Up The Past: Lifelogging, Memory And Surveillance, Anita L. Allen

All Faculty Scholarship

The term “lifelog” refers to a comprehensive archive of an individual's quotidian existence, created with the help of pervasive computing technologies. Lifelog technologies would record and store everyday conversations, actions, and experiences of their users, enabling future replay and aiding remembrance. Products to assist lifelogging are already on the market; but the technology that will enable people fully and continuously to document their entire lives is still in the research and development phase. For generals, edgy artists and sentimental grandmothers alike, lifelogging could someday replace or complement, existing memory preservation practices. Like a traditional diary, journal or day-book, the lifelog …


Garbage Pails And Puppy Dog Tails: Is That What Katz Is Made Of?, Aya Gruber Jan 2008

Garbage Pails And Puppy Dog Tails: Is That What Katz Is Made Of?, Aya Gruber

Publications

This Article takes the opportunity of the fortieth anniversary of Katz v. U.S. to assess whether the revolutionary case's potential to provide broad and flexible privacy protection to individuals has been realized. Answering this question in a circumspect way, the Article pinpoints the language in Katz that was its eventual undoing and demonstrates how the Katz test has been plagued by two principle problems that have often rendered it more harmful to than protective of privacy. The manipulation problem describes the tendency of conservative courts to define reasonable expectations of privacy as lower than the expectations society actually entertains. The …


Necessary Subjects: The Need For A Mandatory National Donor Gamete Registry, Naomi R. Cahn Jan 2008

Necessary Subjects: The Need For A Mandatory National Donor Gamete Registry, Naomi R. Cahn

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This brief article calls for a mandatory national donor gamete registry. It first discusses the history of secrecy in the adoption context before turning to issues involving confidentiality in the donor context. After analyzing the issues involved in maintaining the secrecy of donor gametes, the article ultimately recommends the establishment of a national information registry, similar to that in place in numerous other countries, to keep track of children both through donor egg, embryo, and sperm, as well as the identities of the gamete providers. Participation in the registry would be mandatory for anyone involved in supplying donor gametes. Once …


Understanding Privacy (Chapter One), Daniel J. Solove Jan 2008

Understanding Privacy (Chapter One), Daniel J. Solove

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Privacy is one of the most important concepts of our time, yet it is also one of the most elusive. As rapidly changing technology makes information increasingly available, scholars, activists, and policymakers have struggled to define privacy, with many conceding that the task is virtually impossible.

In UNDERSTANDING PRIVACY (Harvard University Press, May 2008), Professor Daniel J. Solove offers a comprehensive overview of the difficulties involved in discussions of privacy and ultimately provides a provocative resolution. He argues that no single definition can be workable, but rather that there are multiple forms of privacy, related to one another by family …


The New Vulnerability: Data Security And Personal Information, Daniel J. Solove Jan 2008

The New Vulnerability: Data Security And Personal Information, Daniel J. Solove

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This book chapter was originally written for a conference on privacy and security at Stanford Law School held in March 2004. The chapter argues that abuses of personal information are caused by the failure to regulate the way companies manage personal information. Despite taking elaborate technological measures to protect their data systems, companies readily disseminate the personal information they have collected to a host of other entities and sometimes even to anyone willing to pay a small fee. Companies provide access to their record systems over the phone to anybody in possession of a few easy-to-find pieces of personal information …


Government Data Mining And The Fourth Amendment, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2008

Government Data Mining And The Fourth Amendment, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The government's ability to obtain and analyze recorded information about its citizens through the process known as data mining has expanded enormously over the past decade. Although the best-known government data mining operation (Total Information Awareness, more recently dubbed Terrorism Information Awareness) supposedly no longer exists, large-scale data mining by federal agencies devoted to enforcing criminal and counter-terrorism laws has continued unabated. This paper addresses three puzzles about data mining. First, when data mining is undertaken by the government, does it implicate the Fourth Amendment? Second, does the analysis change when data mining is undertaken by private entities which then …


Privacy, Visibility, Transparency, And Exposure, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2008

Privacy, Visibility, Transparency, And Exposure, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay considers the relationship between privacy and visibility in the networked information age. Visibility is an important determinant of harm to privacy, but a persistent tendency to conceptualize privacy harms and expectations in terms of visibility has created two problems. First, focusing on visibility diminishes the salience and obscures the operation of nonvisual mechanisms designed to render individual identity, behavior, and preferences transparent to third parties. The metaphoric mapping to visibility suggests that surveillance is simply passive observation, rather than the active production of categories, narratives, and, norms. Second, even a broader conception of privacy harms as a function …