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Forget About Ferpa: How Foia Protects Student-Athlete Privacy In The Nil Era, Kamron Cox Jan 2024

Forget About Ferpa: How Foia Protects Student-Athlete Privacy In The Nil Era, Kamron Cox

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The start of the name, image, and likeness (NIL) era stirred public fervor about the new earning potential of high-profile student-athletes. Since institutional policies and state laws governing NIL require student-athletes to broadly disclose information about their NIL activities to their respective institutions, the several state laws that follow the approach of the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) can jeopardize the privacy of student-athlete NIL information. Major universities have repeatedly resorted to the unreliable defense of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act as well as sporadic state legislation to protect student-athlete privacy in the new NIL space. However, …


Breaking The Fourth's Wall: The Implications Of Remote Education For Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Sallie Hatfield Nov 2023

Breaking The Fourth's Wall: The Implications Of Remote Education For Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Sallie Hatfield

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

As the COVID-19 pandemic forced both public K-12 and higher education institutions to transition to exclusively provide remote education, students’ homes and personal lives were exposed to the government like never before. Zoom classes and remote proctoring were suddenly the norm. Students and their families scrambled to create appropriate offices and classroom spaces in their homes, and many awkward and invasive scenarios soon followed. While many may have been harmlessly captured on camera, like classes that witness a student’s family eating lunch in the background or a dog on the couch, even these harmless instances have insidious implications for the …


Administrative Regulation Of Programmatic Policing: Why "Leaders Of A Beautiful Struggle" Is Both Right And Wrong, Christopher Slobogin Jul 2023

Administrative Regulation Of Programmatic Policing: Why "Leaders Of A Beautiful Struggle" Is Both Right And Wrong, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In Leaders of a Beautiful Struggle v. Baltimore Police Department, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals held that Aerial Investigation Research (AIR), Baltimore's aerial surveillance program, violated the Fourth Amendment because it was not authorized by a warrant. AIR was constitutionaly problematic, but not for the reason given by the Fourth Circuit. AIR, like many other technologically-enhanced policing programs that rely on closed-circuit television (CCTV), automated license plate readers and the like, involves the collection and retention of information about huge numbers ofpeople. Because individualized suspicion does not exist with respect to any of these people's information, an individual-specific warrant …


A Game Theoretic Approach To Balance Privacy Risks And Familial Benefits, Ellen W. Clayton, Jia Guo, Murat Kantarcioglu, Et Al. Apr 2023

A Game Theoretic Approach To Balance Privacy Risks And Familial Benefits, Ellen W. Clayton, Jia Guo, Murat Kantarcioglu, Et Al.

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

As recreational genomics continues to grow in its popularity, many people are afforded the opportunity to share their genomes in exchange for various services, including third-party interpretation (TPI) tools, to understand their predisposition to health problems and, based on genome similarity, to find extended family members. At the same time, these services have increasingly been reused by law enforcement to track down potential criminals through family members who disclose their genomic information. While it has been observed that many potential users shy away from such data sharing when they learn that their privacy cannot be assured, it remains unclear how …


The Data Trust Solution To Data Sharing Problems, Kimberly A. Houser, John W. Bagby Feb 2023

The Data Trust Solution To Data Sharing Problems, Kimberly A. Houser, John W. Bagby

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

A small number of large companies hold most of the world’s data. Once in the hands of these companies, data subjects have little control over the use and sharing of their data. Additionally, this data is not generally available to small and medium enterprises or organizations who seek to use it for social good. A number of solutions have been proposed to limit Big Tech “power,” including antitrust actions and stricter privacy laws, but these measures are not likely to address both the oversharing and under-sharing of personal data. Although the data trust concept is being actively explored in the …


Influencing “Kidfluencing”: Protecting Children By Limiting The Right To Profit From “Sharenting”, Charlotte Yates Jan 2023

Influencing “Kidfluencing”: Protecting Children By Limiting The Right To Profit From “Sharenting”, Charlotte Yates

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Statistics on children’s digital presences are staggering, with an overwhelming majority of children having unique digital identities by age two. The phenomenon of “sharenting” (parents sharing content of their children on social media) can start as early as a sonogram photo or a birth video and evolve into parent-run Instagram and TikTok accounts soon after. Content is often intimate, sometimes embarrassing, and frequently shared without children’s consent. Sharenting poses a myriad of risks to children including identity theft, digital kidnapping, exposure to child predators, emotional trauma, and social isolation. In the face of such significant risks to children’s well-being, one …


Putting Cano On Ice – A Path Forward For Border Searches Of Electronic Devices, Davis Price Shugrue Jan 2022

Putting Cano On Ice – A Path Forward For Border Searches Of Electronic Devices, Davis Price Shugrue

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Across the country, circuit courts disagree over what level of suspicion, if any, is required for border officials to search electronic devices. This leaves law enforcement agencies in the lurch because they must craft nationwide policies that cover jurisdictions with differing rules. The Supreme Court should bring this quandary to an end by holding that no reasonable suspicion or warrant is required for border searches of electronic devices. Many scholars and litigants have called for a reasonable suspicion or warrant requirement in light of Supreme Court decisions like Riley and Carpenter that recognize the privacy concerns raised by searches of …


Big Brother Is Scanning: The Widespread Implementation Of Alpr Technology In America’S Police Forces, Yash Dattani Jan 2022

Big Brother Is Scanning: The Widespread Implementation Of Alpr Technology In America’S Police Forces, Yash Dattani

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Automatic License Plate Readers (ALPRs) are an increasingly popular tool in police departments across the United States. At its core, ALPR technology functions in a relatively simple manner. The technology has two major components: the actual scanners, which record license plates, and the databases which collect, compile, and analyze this information for officers to access at the click of a button. Although this technology first came to the United States in 1998 as a form of rudimentary border security, its purpose and capabilities have rapidly grown. Now, in 2022, ALPR has evolved into a frighteningly powerful piece of technology, potentially …


Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing, Ellen W. Clayton, Et Al. Nov 2021

Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing, Ellen W. Clayton, Et Al.

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is marketed as a tool to uncover ancestry and kin. Recent studies of actual and potential users have demonstrated that individuals’ responses to the use of these tests for these purposes are complex, with privacy, disruptive consequences, potential for misuse, and secondary use by law enforcement cited as potential concerns. We conducted six focus groups with a diverse sample of participants (n = 62) who were aware of but had not used direct-to-consumer genetic tests, in an effort to understand more about what people considering these tests think about the potential value, risks, and benefits of such …


Becoming Visible, Jennifer B. Shinall Jan 2021

Becoming Visible, Jennifer B. Shinall

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This Article will consider the consequences of a large number of workers making their health conditions known to their employers during the pandemic. Becoming visible will likely have short-term costs for both employers and employees-—in terms of health-status discrimination, privacy, and administrative burdens. Nonetheless, this Article will ultimately argue that becoming visible also has a major benefit: improved information flow between employers and employees. Although the long-run cost-benefit analysis of increased health-status visibility during the pandemic remains to be seen, increased visibility ultimately has the potential to improve the employer-employee relationship.


Regulating Data Breaches: A Data Superfund Statute, Kyle Mckibbin Jan 2021

Regulating Data Breaches: A Data Superfund Statute, Kyle Mckibbin

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Collecting and processing large amounts of personal data has become a fundamental feature of the modern economy. Personal data, combined with good data analytics, are valuable to businesses as they can provide highly detailed information about individual preferences and behaviors. This data collection can also be valuable to the consumer as it generates innovative products and digital platforms. The era of big data promises great rewards, but it is not without its costs. Data breaches, or the release of personal data into unwanted hands, are pervasive and increasingly massive in scale. Despite the personal privacy harm caused by data breaches, …


Protecting Research Data Of Publicly Revealing Participants, Ellen Clayton, B. A. Malin, Kyle J. Mckibbin Jan 2021

Protecting Research Data Of Publicly Revealing Participants, Ellen Clayton, B. A. Malin, Kyle J. Mckibbin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Biomedical researchers collect large amounts of personal data about individuals, which are frequently shared with repositories and an array of users. Typically, research data holders implement measures to protect participants’ identities and unique attributes from unauthorized disclosure. These measures, however, can be less effective if people disclose their participation in a research study, which they may do for many reasons. Even so, the people who provide these data for research often understandably expect that their privacy will be protected. We discuss the particular challenges posed by self-disclosure and identify various steps that researchers should take to protect data in these …


A World Of Difference? Law Enforcement, Genetic Data, And The Fourth Amendment, Christopher Slobogin, J. W. Hazel Jan 2021

A World Of Difference? Law Enforcement, Genetic Data, And The Fourth Amendment, Christopher Slobogin, J. W. Hazel

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Law enforcement agencies are increasingly turning to genetic databases as a way of solving crime, either through requesting the DNA profile of an identified suspect from a database or, more commonly, by matching crime scene DNA with DNA profiles in a database in an attempt to identify a suspect or a family member of a suspect. Neither of these efforts implicates the Fourth Amendment, because the Supreme Court has held that a Fourth Amendment "search" does not occur unless police infringe "expectations of privacy society is prepared to recognize as reasonable" and has construed that phrase narrowly, without reference to …


Privacy Beyond Possession: Solving The Access Conundrum In Digital Dollars, Nerenda N. Atako Jan 2021

Privacy Beyond Possession: Solving The Access Conundrum In Digital Dollars, Nerenda N. Atako

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The advent of a retail central bank digital currency (CBDC) could reshape the US payments system. A retail CBDC would be a digital representation of the US dollar in the form of an account or token that is widely accessible to the general public. It would be a third form of US fiat money that is created and issued by the Federal Reserve and complementary to physical cash. CBDC proposals have suggested a myriad of retail CBDC design models with an overwhelming interest in a retail CBDC that either implements a centralized ledger system or some form of a distributed …


The Law Of The Tetrapods, Henry T. Greely Jan 2020

The Law Of The Tetrapods, Henry T. Greely

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Should there be such a thing as "Technology Law"? This Article explores that question in two ways. It first looks at four substantive issues that appear across many different areas of technology law: privacy, security, property, and responsibility. It then examines five questions that frequently recur about how to regulate very different new technologies. These questions include which agency should regulate, whether regulation should focus on before or after marketing, what jurisdiction should regulate, how relevant new information will be gained and used, and how-politically-good regulation can be enacted. This Article concludes that it may make sense to develop a …


The Missing Regulatory State: Monitoring Businesses In An Age Of Surveillance, Rory V. Loo Oct 2019

The Missing Regulatory State: Monitoring Businesses In An Age Of Surveillance, Rory V. Loo

Vanderbilt Law Review

An irony of the information age is that the companies responsible for the most extensive surveillance of individuals in history-large platforms such as Amazon, Facebook, and Google-have themselves remained unusually shielded from being monitored by government regulators. But the legal literature on state information acquisition is dominated by the privacy problems of excess collection from individuals, not businesses. There has been little sustained attention to the problem of insufficient information collection from businesses. This Article articulates the administrative state's normative framework for monitoring businesses and shows how that framework is increasingly in tension with privacy concerns. One emerging complication is …


Policing, Databases, And Surveilance: Five Regulatory Categories, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2019

Policing, Databases, And Surveilance: Five Regulatory Categories, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Databases are full of personal information that law enforcement might find useful. Government access to these databases can be divided into five categories: suspect-driven; profile-driven; event-driven; program-driven and volunteer-driven. This chapter recommends that, in addition to any restrictions imposed by the Fourth Amendment (which currently are minimal), each type of access should be subject to its own regulatory regime. Suspect-driven access should depend on justification proportionate to the intrusion. Profile-driven access should likewise abide by a proportionality principle but should also be subject to transparency, vetting, and universality restrictions. Event-driven access should be cabined by the time and place of …


Keeping It Off The Record: Student Social Media Monitoring And The Need For Updated Student Records Laws, Alice Haston Jan 2019

Keeping It Off The Record: Student Social Media Monitoring And The Need For Updated Student Records Laws, Alice Haston

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

An increasing number of school districts work with private companies to monitor public social media and to notify administrators of alarming student information. Although these services help address challenging school safety issues, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and state law offer little guidance on how districts should store student social media data. This Note encourages states to pass student records laws similar to recent California legislation and urges the Department of Education to clarify the relationship between student social media and education records under FERPA. New state and federal initiatives would help ensure that third parties may …


Common Sense: Rethinking The New Common Rule's Week Protections For Human Subjects, Ahsin Azim Oct 2018

Common Sense: Rethinking The New Common Rule's Week Protections For Human Subjects, Ahsin Azim

Vanderbilt Law Review

Since 1991, the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, known as the "Common Rule," has protected the identifiable private information of human subjects who participate in federally funded research initiatives. Although the research landscape has drastically changed since 1991, the Common Rule has remained mostly unchanged since its promulgation. In an effort to modernize the Common Rule, the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects Final Rule ("Final Rule') was published on January 19, 2017. The Final Rule, however, decreases human-subject protections by increasing access to identifiable data with limited administrative oversight. Accordingly, the Final Rule demands …


Borders And Bits, Jennifer Daskal Jan 2018

Borders And Bits, Jennifer Daskal

Vanderbilt Law Review

Our personal data is everywhere and anywhere, moving across national borders in ways that defy normal expectations of how things and people travel from Point A to Point B. Yet, whereas data transits the globe without any intrinsic ties to territory, the governments that seek to access or regulate this data operate with territorial-based limits. This Article tackles the inherent tension between how governments and data operate, the jurisdictional conflicts that have emerged, and the power that has been delegated to the multinational corporations that manage our data across borders as a result. It does so through the lens of …


Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, J. W. Hazel, Ellen Wright Clayton, B. A. Malin, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2018

Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, J. W. Hazel, Ellen Wright Clayton, B. A. Malin, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The ethical objections to mandating forensic profiling of newborns and/or compelling every citizen or visitor to submit to a buccal swab or to spit in a cup when they have done nothing wrong are not trivial. But newborns are already subject to compulsory medical screening, and people coming from foreign countries to the United States already submit to fingerprinting. It is also worth noting that concerns about coercion or invasions of privacy did not give pause to legislatures (or, for that matter, even the European Court) when authorizing compelled DNA sampling from arrestees, who should not forfeit genetic privacy interests …


"I Call Alexa To The Stand": The Privacy Implications Of Anthropomorphizing Virtual Assistants Accompanying Smart-Home Technology, Christopher B. Burkett Jan 2018

"I Call Alexa To The Stand": The Privacy Implications Of Anthropomorphizing Virtual Assistants Accompanying Smart-Home Technology, Christopher B. Burkett

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Note offers a solution to the unique privacy issues posed by the increasingly humanlike interactions users have with virtual assistants, such as Amazon's Alexa, which accompany smart-home technology. These interactions almost certainly result in the users engaging in the cognitive phenomenon of anthropomorphism--more specifically, an assignment of agency. This is a phenomenon that has heretofore been ignored in the legal context, but both the rapidity of technological advancement and inadequacy of current applicable legal doctrine necessitate its consideration now. Since users view these anthropomorphized virtual assistants as persons rather than machines, the law should treat them as such. To …


A Free Ride: Data Brokers'rent-Seeking Behavior And The Future Of Data Inequality, Krishnamurty Muralidhar, Laura Palk Jan 2018

A Free Ride: Data Brokers'rent-Seeking Behavior And The Future Of Data Inequality, Krishnamurty Muralidhar, Laura Palk

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Historically, researchers obtained data from independent studies and government data. However, as public outcry for privacy regarding the government's maintenance of data has increased, the discretionary release of government data has decreased or become so anonymized that its relevance is limited. Research necessarily requires access to complete and accurate data. As such, researchers are turning to data brokers for the same, and often more, data than they can obtain from the government. Data brokers base their products and services on data gathered from a variety of free public sources and via the government-created Internet. Data brokers then recategorize the existing …


Flagging The Middle Ground Of The Right To Be Forgotten: Combatting Old News With Search Engine Flags, Hannah L. Cook Jan 2017

Flagging The Middle Ground Of The Right To Be Forgotten: Combatting Old News With Search Engine Flags, Hannah L. Cook

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Incomplete and outdated news articles present an increasing problem for individuals who find themselves stigmatized on the basis of truthful but misleading reports. This Article proposes a moderate solution between the European right to be forgotten and the protectionless status quo in the United States. It proposes a flagging system, administered through Federal Trade Commission adjudications, where links to articles whose private harms outweigh their public benefits are flagged in the search results of an individual. This flag will help combat psychological biases that may cause decisionmakers to place an irrational weight on these articles while preserving the ability of …


The Use Of Big Data Analytics By The Irs: Efficient Solutions Or The End Of Privacy As We Know It?, Kimberly A. Houser, Debra Sanders Jan 2017

The Use Of Big Data Analytics By The Irs: Efficient Solutions Or The End Of Privacy As We Know It?, Kimberly A. Houser, Debra Sanders

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article examines the privacy issues resulting from the IRS's big data analytics program as well as the potential violations of federal law. Although historically, the IRS chose tax returns to audit based on internal mathematical mistakes or mismatches with third party reports (such as W-2s), the IRS is now engaging in data mining of public and commercial data pools (including social media) and creating highly detailed profiles of taxpayers upon which to run data analytics. This Article argues that current IRS practices, mostly unknown to the general public are violating fair information practices. This lack of transparency and accountability …


The Shaky Ground Of The Right To Be Delisted, Miquel Peguera Jan 2016

The Shaky Ground Of The Right To Be Delisted, Miquel Peguera

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

It has long been discussed whether individuals should have a "right to be forgotten" online to suppress old information that could seriously interfere with their privacy and data protection rights. In the landmark case of Google Spain v. Agencia Espafiola de Proteccion de Datos, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) addressed the particular question of whether, under EU Data Protection Law, individuals have a right to have links delisted from the list of search results in searches made on the basis of their name. It found that they do have this right--which can be best described as …


Just What The Doctor Ordered: Protecting Privacy Without Impeding Development Of Digital Pills, Amelia R. Montgomery Jan 2016

Just What The Doctor Ordered: Protecting Privacy Without Impeding Development Of Digital Pills, Amelia R. Montgomery

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Using technology, humans are receiving more and more information about the world around them via the Internet of Things, and the next area of connection will be the inside of the human body. Several forms of "digital pills" that send information from places like the human digestive tract or bloodstream are being developed, with a few already in use. These pills could stand to provide information that could drastically improve the lives of many people, but they also have privacy and data security implications that could put consumers at great risk. This Note analyzes these risks and suggests that short-term …


Where Copyright Meets Privacy In The Big Data Era: Access To And Control Over User Data In Agriculture And The Role Of Copyright, Tesh W. Dagne Jan 2016

Where Copyright Meets Privacy In The Big Data Era: Access To And Control Over User Data In Agriculture And The Role Of Copyright, Tesh W. Dagne

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The application of big data in different sectors of the economy and its transformative value has recently attracted considerable attention. However, this transformation, driven by the application of advanced technologies that utilize big data—such as the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and software systems—raises concerns about access to and control over the user data that results from the uptake in using digital technologies. This Article examines the role different legal regimes have in framing access to and control over various forms of user data from the perspective of technology users in the agriculture sector. This Article then goes …


How Smart Is Too Smart?: How Privacy Concerns Threaten Modern Energy Infrastructure, Megan Mclean Jan 2016

How Smart Is Too Smart?: How Privacy Concerns Threaten Modern Energy Infrastructure, Megan Mclean

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Smart meters are integral to the health of our electric grid and are critical to a reliable, affordable, and efficient energy economy. Yet, collection of smart meter data is raising privacy concerns that are inspiring pockets of resistance to smart meter installation around the country. The fact that these data, like many other kinds of personal information, can and often do flow to the government should not prevent their collection and use. It is critical for environmental and energy regulators to have access to this data to maximize the potential of our energy system. On the state level, several legislatures …


Secondary Data: A Primary Concern, Kelsey L. Zottnick Jan 2015

Secondary Data: A Primary Concern, Kelsey L. Zottnick

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Note addresses privacy concerns implicated by rising secondary data mining. Secondary data mining is the use of personal information for a purpose other than the original. This complex technology drives billions of dollars in commercial industry yet remains largely unregulated. This Note examines the current state of the data mining industry and the behavioral fallacies that belie societal concerns about online privacy. Further, relevant federal, state, and constitutional laws appear outstripped by these technological advances. An analysis of potential privacy solutions examines the advantages and disadvantages of implementing each one through the privacy community, the federal government, and the …