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Perpetuities

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Full-Text Articles in Law

What Property Does, Christopher Serkin Jan 2022

What Property Does, Christopher Serkin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

For centuries, scholars have wrestled with seemingly intractable problems about the nature of property. This Article offers a different approach. Instead of asking what property is, it asks what property does. And it argues that property protects people’s reliance on resources by moderating the pace of change. Modern scholarly accounts emphasize voluntary transactions as the source and purpose of reliance in property. Such “transactional reliance” implies strong, stable, and enduring rights. This Article argues that property law also reflects a very different source of reliance on resources, one that rises and falls simply with the passage of time. This new …


The Nonfiduciary "Trust", Jeffrey A. Schoenblum Jan 2021

The Nonfiduciary "Trust", Jeffrey A. Schoenblum

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article identifies and details the emergence in an increasing number of states of a new trust law that rejects the fundamental tenets of traditional trust law. This alternative concept of the trust liberates the trustee from any meaningful accountability to the beneficiary, the very core concept of traditional trust law. In short, these states are enabling the creation of what might be described as a "nonfiduciary trust."


Less Trust Means More Trusts, Bridget J. Crawford Apr 2019

Less Trust Means More Trusts, Bridget J. Crawford

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The word “trust” has multiple meanings. In everyday speech, it refers to a feeling of confidence associated with integrity, such as trusting that a friend will keep a secret. In the financial context, some law students, lawyers and lucky individuals also understand that a trust is a near-magical device that splits legal and equitable title. A trustee holds formal legal title to property for the benefit of a beneficiary simply because the grantor declares it to be so. By turning the spotlight on “trust,” in both senses of the word, one can discern fault lines in contemporary U.S. political and …


Magical Thinking And Trusts, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2019

Magical Thinking And Trusts, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

At a time of monumental economic inequality in the United States, wealthy individuals and their tax-motivated behavior have come under significant scrutiny from all corners. In 2019, the Supreme Court issued its first major ruling in over sixty years on the state income taxation of trusts. In North Carolina Department of Revenue v. Kimberley Rice Kaestner 1992 Family Trust, the Court declined to close what some critics consider to be a major loophole that benefits the trusts that wealthy individuals create for family members. This Article makes two principal claims—one interpretative and the other normative. This Article explains why the …


Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M.P. Mccouch Aug 2015

Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M.P. Mccouch

Grayson McCouch

This article examines the relationship between the federal wealth transfer taxes and the rule against perpetuities. The decline of the RAP is often attributed primarily to the GST tax amendments enacted in 1986. However, while perpetual trusts were available long before 1986, their estate tax avoidance possibilities were not widely used. Even after 1986, simple repeal of the RAP leaves perpetual trusts exposed to potential estate taxation. In addition, settlors should consider non-tax considerations in assessing the attractions of perpetual trusts.


Perpetuities And The Genius Of A Free State, Joshua C. Tate Nov 2014

Perpetuities And The Genius Of A Free State, Joshua C. Tate

Vanderbilt Law Review

Legal history, like all history, is inevitably a speculative affair. No one can be sure what the editors of Justinian's Digest might have excised from long-lost works of classical Roman law; nor can one know for certain what went through the minds of certain justices of the U.S. Supreme Court in the mid-twentieth century when they formed and reformed their views on Roosevelt's New Deal. Of course, scholars can try to chip away at this uncertainty: great progress can be made through educated guesses and learned theories. But certainty about the past is reserved for those who lived in it. …


Unconstitutional Perpetual Trusts, Steven J. Horowitz, Robert H. Sitkoff Nov 2014

Unconstitutional Perpetual Trusts, Steven J. Horowitz, Robert H. Sitkoff

Vanderbilt Law Review

"I never can be thankful, Mr. Bennet, for any thing about the entail."t Perpetual trusts are an established feature of today's estate planning firmament. Yet little-noticed provisions in the constitutions of nine states, including in five states that purport to allow perpetual trusts by statute, proscribe ')erpetuities." This Article examines those provisions in light of the meaning of ')erpetuity" as a legal term of art across history. We consider the constitutionality of perpetual trust statutes in states that have a constitutional ban on perpetuities and whether courts in states with such a ban may give effect to a perpetual trust …


Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M.P. Mccouch Jan 2013

Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M.P. Mccouch

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the relationship between the federal wealth transfer taxes and the rule against perpetuities. The decline of the RAP is often attributed primarily to the GST tax amendments enacted in 1986. However, while perpetual trusts were available long before 1986, their estate tax avoidance possibilities were not widely used. Even after 1986, simple repeal of the RAP leaves perpetual trusts exposed to potential estate taxation. In addition, settlors should consider non-tax considerations in assessing the attractions of perpetual trusts.


Who Is Afraid Of Perpetual Trusts?, Bridget J. Crawford Jul 2012

Who Is Afraid Of Perpetual Trusts?, Bridget J. Crawford

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

Throw a stone into a room full of law professors, and it is virtually impossible to hit someone who will defend perpetual trusts. Yet since 1995, eighteen states have repealed their rules against perpetuities, and there are now twenty-one states that permit trusts to last forever. Many academics have responded with a virtual pile-on, calling the repeals a "race to the bottom" at best and "loony" at worst. Lawrence Waggoner, Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan School of Law and Reporter for the Restatement (Third) of Property: Wills and Other Donative Transfers, has made another contribution to the scrum. …


Effectively Curbing The Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jun 2012

Effectively Curbing The Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

In "Effectively Curbing the GST Exemption for Perpetual Trusts," I criticized the Treasury Department’s proposal for dealing with perpetual trusts. My objection is that Treasury’s approach would leave many trusts and much wealth GST-exempt for much longer than Congress originally intended. For perpetual trusts created before enactment, Treasury’s approach would allow them to continue to be unburdened by a durational limit. For perpetual trusts created after the effective date of enactment, Treasury’s approach would still allow them to qualify for the GST exemption, but would have the exemption expire 90 years after the trust was created.


What's In The Third And Final Volume Of The New Restatement Of Property That Estate Planners Should Know About, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 2012

What's In The Third And Final Volume Of The New Restatement Of Property That Estate Planners Should Know About, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

Professor John Langbein and I have just concluded a twenty-year project for the American Law Institute to restate the law of donative transfers. The official title of our three-volume Restatement is the Restatement (Third) of Property: Wills and Other Donative Transfers.1 We refer to it herein simply as the Property Restatement. The third and final volume of the work was published in the last days of 2011. Professor Langbein spoke about certain of the initiatives in the two earlier volumes, which set forth the principles governing the law of wills, intestacy, interpretation of instruments, and the nonprobate system. The concluding …


What Sex-Ed Didn't Teach You: Addressing The Inadequacies Of West Virginia Code Section 42-1-8 And The Future Of Posthumously Conceived Children, Andrew S. Felts Sep 2011

What Sex-Ed Didn't Teach You: Addressing The Inadequacies Of West Virginia Code Section 42-1-8 And The Future Of Posthumously Conceived Children, Andrew S. Felts

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Us Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 2011

Us Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

In 2009, the UK reconfirmed tis long-standing public policy against perpetual trusts. America has been moving in the opposite direction. Recent years have seen a movement in the states to pass legislation allowing settlors to create family trusts that can last forever or for several centuries. Sadly, and embarrassingly, the American perpetual-trust movement has not been based on the merits of removing the traditional curb on excessive dead-hand control. The policy issues associated with allowing perpetual trusts have not been seriously discussed in the state legislatures. The driving force has been interstate competition for trust business.


Message To Congress: Halt The Tax Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 2010

Message To Congress: Halt The Tax Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

The federal estate tax is in abeyance this year. The popular press has picked up on the possibility that the estates of billionaires such as the late George Steinbrenner, who owned the New York Yankees, will escape the tax. The House Ways and Means Committee, chaired by Representative Sander Levin of Michigan, and the Senate Finance Committee, chaired by Senator Max Baucus of Montana, are now considering two questions: what the maximum rate and exemption will be when the estate tax returns and whether the tax will be reinstated for this year. Lurking behind the headlines but equally important is …


Evolution Of Rules In A Common Law System: Differential Litigation Of The Fee Tail And Other Perpetuities, Jeffrey E. Stake Jan 2005

Evolution Of Rules In A Common Law System: Differential Litigation Of The Fee Tail And Other Perpetuities, Jeffrey E. Stake

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This paper presents a variation on the Rubin-Priest theory of the evolution of common law rules toward efficiency. It offers the fee tail and similar restraints on alienation as examples of how inefficient rules can lead to inefficient uses of land, which cause owners to seek the help of courts in freeing their lands from the inefficient constraints. In other words, there is a feedback loop that provides courts with opportunities to overturn inefficient common law rules. We should expect this common law drift toward efficiency to be stronger for property rules than for tort rules. Because efficient property rules …


The Embarrassing Rule Against Perpetuities, Peter A. Appel Jun 2004

The Embarrassing Rule Against Perpetuities, Peter A. Appel

Scholarly Works

The Rule Against Perpetuities offers an opportunity for those who teach property or trusts and estates to review some of the major schools of jurisprudence and how accurately or inaccurately those schools characterize law and legal development. At first blush, the idea that the rule can be used to advance a student's mastery or consideration of theory seems absurd. But this essay will outline an innovative approach to the rule that allows those who teach it to mix theory in with the difficult problems that the rule creates.

The modern pedagogical approach to the rule treats it as an embarrassment …


The Rise Of The Perpetual Trust, Jesse Dukeminier, James E. Krier Jan 2003

The Rise Of The Perpetual Trust, Jesse Dukeminier, James E. Krier

Articles

For more than two centuries, the Rule against Perpetuities has served as the chief means of limiting a transferor's power to tie up property by way of successive contingent interests. But recently, at least seventeen jurisdictions in the United States have enacted statutes abolishing the Rule in the case of perpetual (or near-perpetual) trusts. The prime mover behind this important development has been the federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax. This Article traces the gradual decline of the common law Rule against Perpetuities, considers the dynamics behind the recent wave of state legislation, examines the problems that might result from the rise …


The Role Of Offshore Jurisdictions In The Development Of The International Trust, David Brownbill Oct 1999

The Role Of Offshore Jurisdictions In The Development Of The International Trust, David Brownbill

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The trust is a common law invention, the product of experience over many years. But the more it is reduced to legislation, the more formalistic it becomes, and the less able it will be to respond to new situations and challenges. The quasi-code approach--and, to a much lesser extent, the targeted approach--also results in a fragmenting of the trust law. The trust has benefited immensely from the relative uniformity of most general principles throughout the Commonwealth and other common law countries. This has enabled developments, in the form of judicial pronouncements, in one country to be freely adopted in others. …


Equitable Modification: Ameliorating The Harsh Consequences Of The Commonlaw Rule Against Pepetuities While Eliminating The Uncertainty Rule Against Perpetuities, Michael S. Bailey Sep 1999

Equitable Modification: Ameliorating The Harsh Consequences Of The Commonlaw Rule Against Pepetuities While Eliminating The Uncertainty Rule Against Perpetuities, Michael S. Bailey

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Legal Doctrine In The Decline Of The Islamic Waqf: A Comparison With The Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum Jan 1999

The Role Of Legal Doctrine In The Decline Of The Islamic Waqf: A Comparison With The Trust, Jeffrey Schoenblum

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The Waqf and the trust have an ancient, intertwined history. However, whereas the Waqf has largely remained a static institution, the trust has proven remarkably flexible and responsive to changing conditions affecting intergenerational management of family wealth and its preservation. While there is a temptation to find clones in legal constructs of different cultures, care must be exercised to avoid simplistic or superficial generalizations. This is true of the Waqf and the trust. It would be intriguing to find comparable wealth administration and preservation constructs in these two great systems of law. This is simply not the case with the …


When Words Fail Me: Diagramming The Rule Against Perpetuities, Mark Reutlinger Jan 1994

When Words Fail Me: Diagramming The Rule Against Perpetuities, Mark Reutlinger

Missouri Law Review

There is no shortage of creative ways in which teachers of Property law have sought to represent graphically the operation of the Rule Against Perpetuities. I have myself, over the years, tried a number of methods, none of them wholly satisfactory. The reason we all keep trying is that the Rule simply does not lend itself to mere verbal explanation. Although quite easy to state and memorize, each of its terms is saturated with difficult and interrelated concepts that operate on several planes. A future interest must "vest"or fail within 21 years of a "life in being" at the "creation" …


The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: Taming The Technicality-Ridden Legal Nightmare, John D. Moore Sep 1992

The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: Taming The Technicality-Ridden Legal Nightmare, John D. Moore

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fear And Loathing In Perpetuities, John W. Weaver Sep 1991

Fear And Loathing In Perpetuities, John W. Weaver

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Rule Against Perpetuities And The Generation-Skipping Tax: Do We Need Both, Leonard Levin, Michael Mulroney Jan 1990

The Rule Against Perpetuities And The Generation-Skipping Tax: Do We Need Both, Leonard Levin, Michael Mulroney

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: The Rationale Of The 90-Year Waiting Period, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1990

The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: The Rationale Of The 90-Year Waiting Period, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

The Uniform Law Commissioners promulgated the Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities in 1986. The perpetuity-reform efforts of the American Law Institute in the Restatement (Second) inspired the Uniform Act. The Restatement and the Uniform Act employ the so-called wait-and-see approach to perpetuity reform. Wait-and-see is a two-step strategy. Step One preserves the validating side of the common-law Rule Against Perpetuities (the common-law Rule): By satisfying the common-law Rule, a nonvested future interest in property is valid at the moment of its creation. Step Two is a salvage strategy for future interests that would have been invalid at common law: Rather …


The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: Oregon Joins Up, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1990

The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities: Oregon Joins Up, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

Uniform perpetuity reform is on the march, and Oregon has joined the parade. On January 1, 1990, the Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities (Uniform Act) became effective in Oregon. Although promulgated only three years ago, the Uniform Act has been enacted in over twenty percent of the states and appears to be on its way toward enactment in several others. Prior to the adoption of the Uniform Act, Oregon followed the common-law Rule Against Perpetuities (common-law Rule). Noted for its unjust consequences, the common-law Rule disregards actual events and invalidates a contingent (nonvested) future interest merely on the grounds of …


Wait-And-See: The New American Uniform Act On Perpetuities, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1987

Wait-And-See: The New American Uniform Act On Perpetuities, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

The wait-and-see version of perpetuity reform has gained a new champion in the United States. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws-the body responsible for promulgating uniform legislation, such as the Uniform Commercial Code, for recommended enactment by the federal states-recently approved a Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities. Shortly thereafter, the Uniform Act was endorsed by the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, the Board of Regents of the American College of Probate Counsel, and the Board of Governors of the American College of Real Estate Lawyers.


The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1986

The Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

When the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws recently approved the Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities, it may at long last have made perpetuity reform achievable in this country. Coming, as it does, on the heels of the 1981 promulgation of the Restatement (Second) of Property (Donative Transfers), which adopts the same general type of perpetuity reform, and having been unanimously endorsed by the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, the Board of Regents of the American College of Probate Counsel, and the Board of Governors of the American College of Real Estate Lawyers, the Uniform …


Perpetuities: A Perspective On Wait-And-See, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1985

Perpetuities: A Perspective On Wait-And-See, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

Professor Dukeminier and I agree on most of the important points concerning perpetuity law and perpetuity reform. We agree that the Rule Against Perpetuities still serves a socially useful function of limiting dead hand control, and should not be abolished. We also agree that the common law Rule is needlessly harsh and should be softened. Finally, we agree on the type of reform that is most desirable-waitand- see. Our only disagreeihent-concerns the best method of marking off the wait-and-see perpetuity pe]iqod-the period of time during which dispositions that would have been invalid under the common law Rule are to be …


A Rejoinder By Professor Waggoner, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 1985

A Rejoinder By Professor Waggoner, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

Since the patience of the reader and the space in this issue of the Law Review are nearing their limits, I wish to publish only two points in response to what Professor Dukeminier has written.. These points further support my position that Dukeminier's proposed statute would lead almost anyone to conclude that A, not X, is the causal relationship measuring life in Example 1 of my article.1 By implication, these points, along with the others made in my article, corroborate my overall thesis: Professor Dukeminier's proposed one-sentence statute2 cannot be counted a responsible way of identifying the measuring lives for …