Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Law

Unconstitutional Perpetual Trusts, Steven J. Horowitz, Robert H. Sitkoff Nov 2014

Unconstitutional Perpetual Trusts, Steven J. Horowitz, Robert H. Sitkoff

Vanderbilt Law Review

"I never can be thankful, Mr. Bennet, for any thing about the entail."t Perpetual trusts are an established feature of today's estate planning firmament. Yet little-noticed provisions in the constitutions of nine states, including in five states that purport to allow perpetual trusts by statute, proscribe ')erpetuities." This Article examines those provisions in light of the meaning of ')erpetuity" as a legal term of art across history. We consider the constitutionality of perpetual trust statutes in states that have a constitutional ban on perpetuities and whether courts in states with such a ban may give effect to a perpetual trust …


Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M. P. Mccouch May 2013

Who Killed The Rule Against Perpetuities?, Grayson M. P. Mccouch

Pepperdine Law Review

During the last two decades more than half the states have either abolished or substantially weakened the traditional rule against perpetuities. The increased demand for perpetual trusts is widely attributed to the ability of such trusts to avoid federal wealth transfer taxes. Furthermore, recent empirical studies confirm a correlation between repeal of the rule against perpetuities (coupled with favorable state income tax treatment) and increased personal trust assets and average account size. This symposium article discusses the asymmetric benefits and drawbacks of perpetual trusts and concludes that the decline of the rule against perpetuities cannot be explained solely in terms …


Distracted From Distraction By Distraction: Reimagining Estate Tax Reform, Edward J. Mccaffery May 2013

Distracted From Distraction By Distraction: Reimagining Estate Tax Reform, Edward J. Mccaffery

Pepperdine Law Review

Recent legislation has left a gift and estate tax that will apply to far fewer than 1% of all decedents each year. This Article, prepared for a symposium on Tax Advice for the Second Obama Administration, argues that the estate tax has become largely irrelevant, except ironically as a spur to the creation and perpetuation of dynastic wealth via 'Dynasty Trusts.' The tax no longer meets any compelling policy rationale, such as raising revenue, 'backing up” the income tax, injecting progression into the tax system, or breaking up large concentrations of wealth. It is time to move on, and to …


Who Is Afraid Of Perpetual Trusts?, Bridget J. Crawford Jul 2012

Who Is Afraid Of Perpetual Trusts?, Bridget J. Crawford

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

Throw a stone into a room full of law professors, and it is virtually impossible to hit someone who will defend perpetual trusts. Yet since 1995, eighteen states have repealed their rules against perpetuities, and there are now twenty-one states that permit trusts to last forever. Many academics have responded with a virtual pile-on, calling the repeals a "race to the bottom" at best and "loony" at worst. Lawrence Waggoner, Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan School of Law and Reporter for the Restatement (Third) of Property: Wills and Other Donative Transfers, has made another contribution to the scrum. …


Us Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jan 2011

Us Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Articles

In 2009, the UK reconfirmed tis long-standing public policy against perpetual trusts. America has been moving in the opposite direction. Recent years have seen a movement in the states to pass legislation allowing settlors to create family trusts that can last forever or for several centuries. Sadly, and embarrassingly, the American perpetual-trust movement has not been based on the merits of removing the traditional curb on excessive dead-hand control. The policy issues associated with allowing perpetual trusts have not been seriously discussed in the state legislatures. The driving force has been interstate competition for trust business.


Requiem For Pennsylvania's Rule Against Perpetuities?, Martha Jordan Dec 2007

Requiem For Pennsylvania's Rule Against Perpetuities?, Martha Jordan

Martha W. Jordan

The purpose of this article is not to debate the wisdom of repealing the rule against perpetuities but to highlight two arcane problems created by the repeal. Both of these problems derive from the interaction of the doctrine of relation back with powers of appointments. The doctrine of relation back deems the exercise of a special or a testamentary general power of appointment as the completion of an act begun by the donor when the power was created. Consequently, the perpetuities period for contingent interests created by the exercise of a special or a testamentary general power of appointment begins …


Colorado Revisits The Rule Against Perpetuities, Wayne M. Gazur Jan 2006

Colorado Revisits The Rule Against Perpetuities, Wayne M. Gazur

Publications

The 2006 Colorado General Assembly passed legislation adopting a 1000-year limitation applicable to interests in trust, practically eliminating the Rule Against Perpetuities ("RAP"). This article discusses the legislation's impact on the RAP in trust and non-trust situations.


Perpetual Trusts And The Settlor's Intent, Joshua C. Tate Jan 2005

Perpetual Trusts And The Settlor's Intent, Joshua C. Tate

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

In recent years, a number of American states have abolished the Rule Against Perpetuities, allowing for the creation of perpetual dynasty trusts. Some scholars have suggested that these states should also pass statutes making it easier for beneficiaries and trustees to undo a perpetual dynasty trust after the settlor has died. This article makes use of a novel source of empirical evidence - websites created by estate planners to entice clients to set up dynasty trusts - to show that settlors' goals would be frustrated by the proposed legislation.


The Rise Of The Perpetual Trust, Jesse Dukeminier, James E. Krier Jan 2003

The Rise Of The Perpetual Trust, Jesse Dukeminier, James E. Krier

Articles

For more than two centuries, the Rule against Perpetuities has served as the chief means of limiting a transferor's power to tie up property by way of successive contingent interests. But recently, at least seventeen jurisdictions in the United States have enacted statutes abolishing the Rule in the case of perpetual (or near-perpetual) trusts. The prime mover behind this important development has been the federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax. This Article traces the gradual decline of the common law Rule against Perpetuities, considers the dynamics behind the recent wave of state legislation, examines the problems that might result from the rise …