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Patent Validity Across The Executive Branch: Ex Ante Foundations For Policy Development, Arti K. Rai Mar 2012

Patent Validity Across The Executive Branch: Ex Ante Foundations For Policy Development, Arti K. Rai

Duke Law Journal

Among patent scholars who address institutional questions, many favor the courts over the PTO as the policymaker of choice. Even though courts have familiar limitations with respect to policymaking, scholars often argue that the PTO is more likely to be captured. This Essay argues that the capture story has significant limits, particularly in key cases where PTO decision making has been influenced by other executive-branch decision makers. Meanwhile, exclusive reliance on ex post judicial development can yield a one-way ratchet towards the expansion of patent protection. When courts expand patent rights, they generally do not have to worry about retroactive ...


Use Patents, Carve-Outs, And Incentives — A New Battle In The Drug-Patent Wars, Arti K. Rai Jan 2012

Use Patents, Carve-Outs, And Incentives — A New Battle In The Drug-Patent Wars, Arti K. Rai

Faculty Scholarship

The Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 aims to strike a balance between the innovation incentives provided by patents and the greater consumer access provided by low-cost generic drugs. The legislation, which relies in part on an explicit link between the FDA drug approval process and the U.S. patent system, has been controversial, particularly because of the ways in which firms producing brand-name drugs have exploited that link to delay market entry of generics as long as possible. Voluminous scholarship has focused on so-called "pay-for-delay" settlements of patent litigation between brand name and generic firms.

In contrast, this Perspective uses the ...


Rand Patents And Exclusion Orders: Submission Of 19 Economics And Law Professors To The International Trade Commission, Arti K. Rai Jan 2012

Rand Patents And Exclusion Orders: Submission Of 19 Economics And Law Professors To The International Trade Commission, Arti K. Rai

Faculty Scholarship

In this comment to ITC Investigation 337-TA-745 (Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Motorola v. Apple) we, as teachers and scholars of economics, antitrust and intellectual property, remedies, administrative, and international intellectual property law, former Department of Justice lawyers and chief economists, a former executive official at the Patent and Trademark Office, a former counsel at the ITC Office of the General Counsel, and a former Member of the President’s Council of Economic Adviser take the position that ITC exclusion orders generally should not be granted under § 1337(d)(1) on the basis of patents subject to obligations to license on ...


Accountability In Patenting Of Federally Funded Research, Arti K. Rai, Bhaven N. Sampat Jan 2012

Accountability In Patenting Of Federally Funded Research, Arti K. Rai, Bhaven N. Sampat

Faculty Scholarship

Bayh-Dole allows academic grantees to patent federally-funded research for purposes of promoting the commercialization of this research. To ensure commercialization goals are achieved, the Act requires grantees to report to funding agencies not only the existence of federally-funded patents but also utilization efforts they and their licensees/assignees are making.

Although reporting is a cornerstone of accountability under Bayh-Dole, information about grantee compliance with reporting requirements is incomplete and dated. In fact, the last significant study of the question dates back to the late 1990s and analyzes only 633 patents. Since that time, concerns have emerged that federally-funded university patents ...