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2010

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Hiv And Aids In Africa: Compulsory Licensing Under Trips And Doha Declaration, Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire Dec 2010

Hiv And Aids In Africa: Compulsory Licensing Under Trips And Doha Declaration, Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire

Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire

In today’s world, there is a lot of focus on issues such as militancy, global warming, terrorism, racism and even politics. Unfortunately, there is a problem that has killed and is still killing far more people than any of the above issues. That problem is HIV/AIDS.

AIDS is a serious medical condition that predisposes patients towards opportunistic infecting tumors, dementia and death. HIV is the viral agent associated with AIDS. Africa is without doubt more heavily affected by HIV/AIDS than any other region of the world. Although Nigeria’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is still relatively low ...


Biotech Biofuels: How Patents May Save Biofuels And Create Empires, Adam Wolek Dec 2010

Biotech Biofuels: How Patents May Save Biofuels And Create Empires, Adam Wolek

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The United States' primary transportation energy sources are fossil fuels, namely, gasoline and diesel. These products have high environmental, security, and financial costs. A strong emphasis has been placed on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel, to lessen reliance on fossil fuels. Historically, high production costs, lack of infrastructure, return on investment anxieties, and concerns about scaling-up production have slowed the development of these alternative technologies. Today, biotechnological solutions are lowering productions costs and making large scale production more economically feasible. Patents can lessen anxieties about investment as they can provide longer-term protection and market exclusivity for patented technologies. As biofuels ...


The Theorem Of The Social Value Of Inventions And The Happiness Machine Patent Syndrome, Nuno P. Carvalho Sep 2010

The Theorem Of The Social Value Of Inventions And The Happiness Machine Patent Syndrome, Nuno P. Carvalho

Nuno P Carvalho

The higher the social value of inventions the lower is the proportion of revenue that inventors are able to capture from their exploitation. This formulation is a hypothesis that stems from the observation of facts: most patents covering highly valuable inventions are subject to attacks that are difficult to explain. Those attacks have social causes, such as the monopoly stigma, the urge for penance and the idea of just price. Together they form the happiness machine patent syndrome. There is no evidence making a definitive case for the theorem above, and yet observation of the difficulties that have insistently haunted ...


An Economic Analysis Of Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine, Thomas F. Cotter Sep 2010

An Economic Analysis Of Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine, Thomas F. Cotter

Thomas F. Cotter

In recent years, patent law’s inequitable conduct doctrine has attracted considerable attention from judges, legislators, patent lawyers and commentators, culminating most recently in the Federal Circuit’s decision to reconsider en banc several aspects of the doctrine in Therasense, Inc. v. Becton, Dickinson & Co. Building on the work of other scholars, this Article proposes an instrumental view of the doctrine as, ideally, a tool for inducing patent applicants to disclose the optimal quantity of information relating to the patentability of their inventions; it then presents a formal model of the applicant’s choices in deciding how much information to reveal. The model suggests, among other things, that the conditions that trigger a finding of inequitable conduct, both in the doctrine’s current form and in various proposed reformulations, are at best only a rough proxy for the conditions ...


An Economic Analysis Of Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine, Thomas F. Cotter Sep 2010

An Economic Analysis Of Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine, Thomas F. Cotter

Thomas F. Cotter

In recent years, patent law’s inequitable conduct doctrine has attracted considerable attention from judges, legislators, patent lawyers and commentators, culminating most recently in the Federal Circuit’s decision to reconsider en banc several aspects of the doctrine in Therasense, Inc. v. Becton, Dickinson & Co. Building on the work of other scholars, this Article proposes an instrumental view of the doctrine as, ideally, a tool for inducing patent applicants to disclose the optimal quantity of information relating to the patentability of their inventions; it then presents a formal model of the applicant’s choices in deciding how much information to reveal. The model suggests, among other things, that the conditions that trigger a finding of inequitable conduct, both in the doctrine’s current form and in various proposed reformulations, are at best only a rough proxy for the conditions ...


Best Of The Supremes - A Review Of The U.S. Supreme Court Term 2009-2010, Miller W. Shealy Jr. Aug 2010

Best Of The Supremes - A Review Of The U.S. Supreme Court Term 2009-2010, Miller W. Shealy Jr.

Miller W. Shealy Jr.

No abstract provided.


"Willful Patent Filing": A Criminal Procedure Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Vincent M. Smoczynski Jun 2010

"Willful Patent Filing": A Criminal Procedure Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Vincent M. Smoczynski

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This article explores the interaction between current intellectual property regimes and traditional knowledge and concludes that national laws currently in place inadequately protect traditional knowledge holders. When property rights are granted on traditional knowledge, the effects can extend not only to the indigenous communities, but to the surrounding ecosystems and the global market. Commercialization and increased demand leads to shortages in natural resources and increased prices. Therefore, in order to ensure that patent applicants are deterred from acquiring property rights in traditional knowledge, as well that traditional knowledge holders receive proper benefits for their labor and knowledge, this article advocates ...


Machine-Or-Transformation Test Hit The Board: Patent-Eligible Subject Matter Following Bilski, Peter L. Ludwig Apr 2010

Machine-Or-Transformation Test Hit The Board: Patent-Eligible Subject Matter Following Bilski, Peter L. Ludwig

Peter L. Ludwig

In In re Bilski the Federal Circuit held that the machine-or-transformation test is the test to apply to determine subject matter eligibility of process claims under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The en banc majority opinion of the Federal Circuit introduced the machine-or-transformation test based upon Supreme Court precedent. The Supreme Court will soon hand down a ruling letting the public know if this is the test that will be applied to process claims. Although patent practitioners may have a test to apply, application of the test is far from certain.


Dynamic Federalism And Patent Law Reform, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Apr 2010

Dynamic Federalism And Patent Law Reform, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Indiana Law Journal

Patent law is federal law, and the normative approach to patent reform has been top down, looking to Congress and the Supreme Court for changes to the broken and complex patent system. The normative approach thus far has not yielded satisfactory results. This Article challenges the static approach to patent reform and embraces the dynamic-federalism approach that patent reform can be an overlapping of both national and local efforts. Patent reform at the local level is essential as locales can serve as laboratories for changes, vertically compete with national government to reform certain areas of the patent system, and become ...


Genetic Source Disclosure In The United States, Laura Grebe Mar 2010

Genetic Source Disclosure In The United States, Laura Grebe

Laura Grebe

Bioprospecting and biopiracy are an increasing problem, particularly for developing nations. Large companies, usually from developed nations, gather biological samples to use in research, and often patent the results without sharing profits with the nations from which the biological samples were taken. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) attempted to address these issues by stating that natural resources belong to the source nations, and entities wishing to use those resources should obtain prior informed consent before using them. The CBD, however, lacks an enforcement mechanism. Other nations and organizations have proposed amendments to Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property ...


Patent Reform Arrives -- Without Congressional Action, James R. Farrand Mar 2010

Patent Reform Arrives -- Without Congressional Action, James R. Farrand

James R. Farrand

Abstract is on cover page of ms.

Authors are not shown on ms to allow anonymous review. Author names and affiliations are available via an email request to the lead author.

Lead author's e-address is james.farrand@aporter.com


Korea's Patent Policy And Its Impact On Economic Development: A Model For Emerging Countries?, Jay A. Erstling, Ryan E. Strom Mar 2010

Korea's Patent Policy And Its Impact On Economic Development: A Model For Emerging Countries?, Jay A. Erstling, Ryan E. Strom

San Diego International Law Journal

The purpose of this paper will be to examine Korean patent policy as exemplified by its patent legislation and the activities of KIPO. Part II will take a brief look at the rationale underpinning Korea’s confidence in the power of the patent system to stimulate economic growth. Part III of the paper will look at the Korean Patent Act as an example of strong, comprehensive patent legislation that fully complies with international standards and responds well to the perceived needs of patent applicants. Part III will examine one of the highlights of Korean patent legislation, the Korean Invention Promotion ...


Cost-Effective Healthcare – How Patent Framework Can Be Re-Designed To Help Fulfil This Objective, Mian Atif Saeed Jan 2010

Cost-Effective Healthcare – How Patent Framework Can Be Re-Designed To Help Fulfil This Objective, Mian Atif Saeed

Mian Atif Saeed

The issue of prices of medicinal products is not only limited to third world countries alone and it is now becoming relevant in developed nations too. Governments all over the world are being pressurised to address the issue of providing better healthcare to every citizen. In order to address this issue the payers are becoming more and more cost conscious and the industry is being pressurised on reducing the cost of medicinal products. However, we have not seen any industry friendly developments in the legislative and business framework in which pharmaceuticals operate. Instead, the framework in which pharmaceuticals operate is ...


A Patent Panacea?: The Promise Of Corbinized Claim Construction, Jonathan L. Moore Jan 2010

A Patent Panacea?: The Promise Of Corbinized Claim Construction, Jonathan L. Moore

Law Student Publications

A patent's claims define the scope of a patent-holder's right to exclude others. Because patent infringement actions often hinge on how a court construes claim terms, the interpretative approach that a court uses has a significant effect on the scope ofpatent rights. This article examines claim construction through the lens of contract law. In theory, the Federal Circuit has explicitly rejected the application of contract interpretation principles to claim construction, despite historical acceptance of the patent-contract analogy. In practice, however, the Federal Circuit applies the theory of contract interpretation espoused by Samuel Williston, a theory that focuses on ...


Federal Circuit Patent Precedent: An Empirical Study Of Institutional Authority And Ip Ideology, David Pekarek-Krohn, Emerson H. Tiller Jan 2010

Federal Circuit Patent Precedent: An Empirical Study Of Institutional Authority And Ip Ideology, David Pekarek-Krohn, Emerson H. Tiller

Faculty Working Papers

In this paper, we aim to better understand the institutional authority of the Federal Circuit as a source of law as well as the influence of pro-patent and anti-patent ideological forces at play between the Supreme Court, Federal Circuit, and the district courts. Our specific focus is on the district courts and how they cite Federal Circuit precedent relative to Supreme Court precedent to support their decisions, whether they be pro-patent or anti-patent. Using a variety of citation approaches and statistical tests, we find that federal district courts treat the Federal Circuit as more authoritative (compared to the Supreme Court ...


Patent Pleading After Iqbal: Using Infringement Contentions As A Guide, Richard Alan Kamprath Jan 2010

Patent Pleading After Iqbal: Using Infringement Contentions As A Guide, Richard Alan Kamprath

Richard Kamprath

“Patent Pleading After Iqbal: Using Infringement Contentions As A Guide” This article proposes how the new standard for pleading patent infringement related claims should be interpreted in light of the Supreme Court’s decisions in Twombly and Iqbal. The facial plausibility of a pleading requires more than bare allegations and must be supported with enough facts in order for the court to infer wrongdoing by the accused infringer. This article is dedicated to applying this theory of pleading to the practical world of the courtroom. Federal Rule 8 is discussed as the starting point to understanding pleading in the federal ...


A New Look At Patent Quality: Relating Patent Prosecution To Validity, Ronald J. Mann, Marian Underweiser Jan 2010

A New Look At Patent Quality: Relating Patent Prosecution To Validity, Ronald J. Mann, Marian Underweiser

Ronald Mann

The paper uses two hand-collected datasets to implement a novel research design for analyzing the precursors to patent quality. Operationalizing patent "quality" as legal validity, the paper analyzes the relation between Federal Circuit decisions on patent validity and three sets of data about the patents: quantitative features of the patents themselves, textual analysis of the patent documents, and data collected from the prosecution histories of the patents. The paper finds large and statistically significant relations between ex post validity and both textual features of the patents and ex ante aspects of the prosecution history (especially prior art submissions and the ...


Patents For Genes And Methods Of Analysis And Comparison, Justine Pila Jan 2010

Patents For Genes And Methods Of Analysis And Comparison, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

In March 2010, a United States (U.S.) District Court held that isolated human genes are “products of nature”, and methods of analysis and comparison “abstract mental processes”, for which a US patent cannot validly be granted. Its decision undermined U.S. patent granting practices, and widens the gap between U.S. and European law on what constitutes inherently patentable subject matter (“inventions”) and a proportionate patent grant. In this note I consider the case – AMP v USPTO – and its implications for European patent law.


Who Owns The Intellectual Property Rights In Academic Work?, Justine Pila Jan 2010

Who Owns The Intellectual Property Rights In Academic Work?, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

In this Opinion piece the ownership of intellectual property rights in university teaching and research is considered against the backdrop of British university intellectual property policies and recent cases. Starting from the position of Lord Evershed that it is "just and commonsense" that academics own the copyright in their lectures, and by extension the copyright in their research, I consider the policy arguments for university claims of ownership in respect of such copyright and academic employees' inventions.


Maintaining Incentives For Healthcare Innovation: A Response To The Ftc's Report On Follow-On Biologics, Christopher M. Holman Jan 2010

Maintaining Incentives For Healthcare Innovation: A Response To The Ftc's Report On Follow-On Biologics, Christopher M. Holman

Christopher M Holman

Congress is considering legislation that would create an abbreviated FDA approval process for follow-on biologics (FOBs), which proponents anticipate will promote competition and lower prices in the market for biologic drugs. In June of 2009 the FTC published a report on FOBs (“the FTC Report”), which attempts to forecast the nature of competition between innovator biologics and FOBs, and offers a number of substantive recommendations regarding specific provisions of the various FOB bills. In particular, the FTC Report concludes that there is essentially no justification for the inclusion of a substantial data exclusivity period (“DEP”) for innovators in pending FOB ...


The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2010

The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

In 1918, the United States confiscated virtually all German-owned intellectual property assets within its jurisdiction. Out of 6,000 patents in the chemical field, 4,500 were assigned for a very modest consideration to an newly-established entity, the Chemical Foundation, which was incorporated with the objective of licensing and managing them for the benefit of the United States chemical industry. This article describes the origins and activities of the Chemical Foundation, and considers whether it provides a useful model, or at least useful lessons, for the collective management of patents today.


An Empirical Study Of The Role Of The Written Description Requirement In Patent Prosecution, Dennis D. Crouch Jan 2010

An Empirical Study Of The Role Of The Written Description Requirement In Patent Prosecution, Dennis D. Crouch

Faculty Publications

An en banc Federal Circuit is now considering whether Section 112 of the Patent Act as properly interpreted includes a written description requirement that is separate and distinct from the enablement requirement. Although the USPTO has no direct role in the infringement dispute, the government submitted an amicus curie brief arguing that a separate written description requirement is “necessary to permit the USPTO to perform its basic examination function.” However, when pressed during oral arguments the government could not point to any direct evidence supporting its contention.

This essay presents the results of a retrospective empirical study of the role ...


Pharmaceutical Patents, Paragraph Iv, And Pay-For-Delay: The Landscape Of Drung Patent Litigation And The Lessons Provided For The Recently Passed Biosimilar Approval Pathway, Brett Havranek Jan 2010

Pharmaceutical Patents, Paragraph Iv, And Pay-For-Delay: The Landscape Of Drung Patent Litigation And The Lessons Provided For The Recently Passed Biosimilar Approval Pathway, Brett Havranek

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Medicine Patents By The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement To Broaden Access To Medicine, Daniel Lee Jan 2010

Regulation Of Medicine Patents By The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement To Broaden Access To Medicine, Daniel Lee

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Pharmaceutical Patents, Paragraph Iv, And Pay-For-Delay: The Landscape Of Drung Patent Litigation And The Lessons Provided For The Recently Passed Biosimilar Approval Pathway, Brett Havranek Jan 2010

Pharmaceutical Patents, Paragraph Iv, And Pay-For-Delay: The Landscape Of Drung Patent Litigation And The Lessons Provided For The Recently Passed Biosimilar Approval Pathway, Brett Havranek

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Medicine Patents By The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement To Broaden Access To Medicine, Daniel Lee Jan 2010

Regulation Of Medicine Patents By The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement To Broaden Access To Medicine, Daniel Lee

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Court Closes The Door On Inventors, Open A Window For Business-Method Patents, Kristin Wall Jan 2010

Court Closes The Door On Inventors, Open A Window For Business-Method Patents, Kristin Wall

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


A Statistical Analysis Of The Patent Bar: Where Are The Software-Savvy Patent Attorneys?, Ralph D. Clifford, Thomas G. Field Jr., Jon R. Cavicchi Jan 2010

A Statistical Analysis Of The Patent Bar: Where Are The Software-Savvy Patent Attorneys?, Ralph D. Clifford, Thomas G. Field Jr., Jon R. Cavicchi

Faculty Publications

Among the many factors that impact the declining quality of U.S. patents is the increasing disconnect between the technological education patent bar members have and the fields in which patents are being written. Based on an empirical study, the authors show that too few patent attorneys and agents have relevant experience in the most often patented areas today, such as computer science. An examination of the qualification practices of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) suggests that an institutional bias exists within the PTO that prevents software-savvy individuals from registering with the Office. This paper concludes with ...


Special 301 Of The Trade Act Of 1974 And Global Access To Medicine, Sean M. Flynn Jan 2010

Special 301 Of The Trade Act Of 1974 And Global Access To Medicine, Sean M. Flynn

PIJIP Faculty Scholarship

Since its inception in 1988, the United States Trade Representative’s “Special 301” adjudication of foreign intellectual property law standards has been used to promote policies restricting access to affordable medications around the world. President-elect Obama released a platform promising to “break the stranglehold that a few big drug and insurance companies have on these life-saving drugs” and pledged support for “the rights of sovereign nations to access quality-assured, low-cost generic medication to meet their pressing public health needs.” The 2009 and 2010 Special 301 reports, however, indicate that the Obama Administration has not yet implemented this pledge into administration ...


Intellectual Property Law Research, Charlene Cain Jan 2010

Intellectual Property Law Research, Charlene Cain

Research Guides

This research guides provides an overview of resources and search strategies for researching Intellectual Property Law: subject headings, statutes and popular names for selected statutes, legislative histories, regulations, and treatises. It also identifies sources for researching case law and secondary sources - reporters, courts, selected periodicals, and blogs and websites.