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Patents

2007

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Trolling For Trolls: The Pitfalls Of The Emerging Market Competition Requirement For Permanent Injunctions In Patent Cases Post-Ebay, Benjamin H. Diessel Nov 2007

Trolling For Trolls: The Pitfalls Of The Emerging Market Competition Requirement For Permanent Injunctions In Patent Cases Post-Ebay, Benjamin H. Diessel

Michigan Law Review

In eBay v. MercExchange, a unanimous Supreme Court announced that a new four-factor test should be employed by district courts in determining whether to award an injunction or damages to an aggrieved party whose intellectual property has been infringed. In the context of permanent injunctions in patent cases, district courts have distorted the four-factor test resulting in a "market competition requirement." Under the new market competition requirement, success at obtaining an injunction is contingent upon a party demonstrating that it is a market competitor After consistent application in the first twenty-five district court cases post-eBay, the market competition requirement is ...


Infringement & The International Reach Of U.S. Patent Law, Moin A. Yahya, Cameron Hutchison Aug 2007

Infringement & The International Reach Of U.S. Patent Law, Moin A. Yahya, Cameron Hutchison

Moin A Yahya

American Patent Law, through both judicial and legislative efforts, has evolved from a strict territorial based set of laws asserting jurisdiction only over those infringements taking place on American soil to a more expansive set of rules asserting jurisdiction over any event that may harm patent holders in the United States regardless of where the infringement is taking place. This, we argue, is contrary to the original purpose of Patent Law and inconsistent with American obligations under the International Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). We argue for a return to territorial based rules of jurisdiction. Such a ...


Race Specific Patents, Commercialization, & Intellectual Property Policy, Shubha Ghosh Aug 2007

Race Specific Patents, Commercialization, & Intellectual Property Policy, Shubha Ghosh

Shubha Ghosh

This Article examines the phenomenon of “race specific patents,” defined as patented inventions for which the claims or the disclosure is written using racial categories. Motivated by the grant of a patent in 2002 to a hypertension drug designed for used by “black patients,” as expressly stated in the patent claims, the study looks at race specific patents in several areas, including patents for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, toys, and devices for determining personal identity. After cataloguing the over thousand patents that were discovered, the author presents an analysis of the use of racial categories in patent law that focuses on both ...


Differing Shades Of Meaning, Robin C. Feldman Jul 2007

Differing Shades Of Meaning, Robin C. Feldman

Robin C Feldman

The relationship between patent law and antitrust law has challenged legal minds since the emergence of antitrust law in the late 19th century. In reductionist form, the two concepts pose a natural contradiction: One encourages monopoly while the other restricts it. To avoid uncomfortable dissonance, the trend across time has been to try to harmonize patent and antitrust law. In particular, harmonization efforts in recent decades have led Congress and the courts to engage in a series of attempts, some aborted and some half-formed, to graft antitrust doctrines onto patent law. These efforts have failed to resolve the conflicts.

This ...


Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, Ronald Mann Jun 2007

Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, Ronald Mann

Ronald Mann

Software patents have been controversial since the days when “software” referred to the crude programs that came free with an IBM mainframe. Different perspectives have been presented in judicial, legislative, and administrative fora over the years, and the press has paid as much attention to this issue as it has to any other intellectual property topic during this time. Meanwhile, a software industry developed and has grown to a remarkable size, whether measured by revenues or profitability, number of firms or employees, or research expenditures. The scope of software innovation has become even broader, as an increasing number of devices ...


The Demise And Rebirth Of Plant Variety Protection: A Comment On Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Laurence R. Helfer Jun 2007

The Demise And Rebirth Of Plant Variety Protection: A Comment On Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Laurence R. Helfer

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


The United States First-To-Invent System: Economic Justifications For Maintaining The Status Quo, Suzanne Konrad Jun 2007

The United States First-To-Invent System: Economic Justifications For Maintaining The Status Quo, Suzanne Konrad

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The latest patent reform bill, the United States Patent Act of 2005, has rehashed one of the most hotly contested debates in patent law: whether the United States should switch to a first-to-file system. Most arguments for keeping the current first-to-invent system center on fairness to small businesses or individual inventors. Although this argument has held its own for many years, it is beginning to erode in the face of counterarguments that the switch to a first-to-file system would be economically beneficial by simplifying matters and encouraging faster public disclosure. Thus fairness is no longer enough to justify maintaining the ...


The Aftermath Of Festo V. Smc: Is There "Some Other Reason" For Justifying The Third Festo Rebuttal Criterion?, Erin Conway Jun 2007

The Aftermath Of Festo V. Smc: Is There "Some Other Reason" For Justifying The Third Festo Rebuttal Criterion?, Erin Conway

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Encouraging technological innovation and improvement lies at the heart of the U.S. patent system. To achieve this goal, the patent system must provide robust protection to patentees while assuring that would-be inventors know exactly where protected inventions end and areas open to development begin. In recognizing the importance of these two functions of the patent laws, the Supreme Court in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co. ("Festo VIII") set out to clarify the relationship between two important, yet troublesome, patent law doctrines-the doctrine of equivalents and prosecution history estoppel. However, in its attempt to restore balance between ...


A New World Order For Addressing Patent Rights And Public Health, Cynthia M. Ho Jun 2007

A New World Order For Addressing Patent Rights And Public Health, Cynthia M. Ho

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Can patent rights and public health coexist? This is a pressing global question in an era where the AIDS pandemic rages in countries that cannot afford to pay for the most effective—and patent-protected—AIDS treatment. Even in countries with higher levels of income, patent problems may nonetheless loom large in unanticipated situations that could turn deadly without access to patented drugs, such as the 2001 anthrax "crisis" or the potential avian flu epidemic. This article provides an important perspective on how international laws currently impact the intersection between patent rights and public health. This article begins with an explanation ...


Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, Giancarlo Moschini Jun 2007

Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual ...


Creative Lawmaking: A Comment On Lionel Bently, Copyright, Translations, And Relations Between Britain And India In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries, Rochelle C. Dreyfuss Jun 2007

Creative Lawmaking: A Comment On Lionel Bently, Copyright, Translations, And Relations Between Britain And India In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries, Rochelle C. Dreyfuss

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Big Idea: Prizes To Stimulate R&D For New Medicines, James Love, Tim Hubbard Jun 2007

The Big Idea: Prizes To Stimulate R&D For New Medicines, James Love, Tim Hubbard

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Mark D. Janis, Stephen Smith Jun 2007

Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Mark D. Janis, Stephen Smith

Chicago-Kent Law Review

In this paper, we examine the potential for plant variety protection ("PVP") regimes—that is, sui generis, industry-specific intellectual property regimes—to become compromised as a result of technological change. In particular, we analyze the shift in plant breeding from phenotypic selection to genotypic selection, and consider the impact of that shift on existing plant variety protection. We also lay out an alternative structure for plant intellectual property protection based on unfair competition, a model that differs radically in some respects from current PVP schemes. We offer our model as a starting point for debate on adaptations that might improve ...


Data Protection In A U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement: New Barriers To Market Access For Generic Drug Manufacturers., Robert Galantucci Jun 2007

Data Protection In A U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement: New Barriers To Market Access For Generic Drug Manufacturers., Robert Galantucci

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Should Patent Infringement Require Proof Of Copying?, Mark A. Lemley May 2007

Should Patent Infringement Require Proof Of Copying?, Mark A. Lemley

Michigan Law Review

Patent infringement is a strict liability offense. Patent law gives patent owners not just the right to prevent others from copying their ideas, but the power to control the use of their idea--even by those who independently develop a technology with no knowledge of the patent or the patentee. This is a power that exists nowhere else in intellectual property (IP) or real property law, but it is a one that patentees have had, with rare exceptions, since the inception of the Republic. In an important paper in the Michigan Law Review, Samson Vermont seeks to change this, arguing that ...


Patents And Innovation, What We Learn From History, Severin De Wit Jan 2007

Patents And Innovation, What We Learn From History, Severin De Wit

Severin de Wit

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook Of Best Practices, Vol. 2, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski Jan 2007

Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook Of Best Practices, Vol. 2, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski

Law Faculty Scholarship

Prepared by and for policy-makers, leaders of public sector research establishments, technology transfer professionals, licensing executives, and scientists, this online resource offers up-to-date information and strategies for utilizing the power of both intellectual property and the public domain. Emphasis is placed on advancing innovation in health and agriculture, though many of the principles outlined here are broadly applicable across technology fields. Eschewing ideological debates and general proclamations, the authors always keep their eye on the practical side of IP management. The site is based on a comprehensive Handbook and Executive Guide that provide substantive discussions and analysis of the opportunities ...


Pharmaceutical Lemons: Innovation And Regulation In The Drug Industry, Ariel Katz Jan 2007

Pharmaceutical Lemons: Innovation And Regulation In The Drug Industry, Ariel Katz

Ariel Katz

Before a new drug can be marketed the Food and Drug Administration must be satisfied that it is safe and effective. According to conventional wisdom, the cost and delay involved in this process diminish the incentives to invest in the development of new drugs. Accordingly, several reforms aimed at restoring such incentives have been implemented and others have been advocated. This paper challenges the central argument in the debate on the topic, namely that drug regulation and drug innovation are necessarily at odds with each other. Although intuitively appealing, the argument that drug regulation negatively affects the incentives to innovate ...


Ants, Elephant Guns, And Statutory Subject Matter, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2007

Ants, Elephant Guns, And Statutory Subject Matter, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

Questions about whether software qualifies for patent protection are becoming increasingly more prevalent, despite the fact the issue seemed settled. The Supreme Court has indicated its interest in the topic and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office-which had previously been liberally issuing patents in the computer-related arts-now appears to be leading the groundswell against the subject-matter eligibility of these inventions, rejecting an increasing number of applications in this area for lack of statutory subject matter. Despite the broad definitions of patentable subject matter provided by the Constitution, Patent Act, and Supreme Court, the Patent Office has grafted various additional ...


Not All Property Is Created Equal: Why Modern Courts Resist Applying The Takings Clause To Patents, And Why They Are Right To Do So, Davida H. Isaacs Jan 2007

Not All Property Is Created Equal: Why Modern Courts Resist Applying The Takings Clause To Patents, And Why They Are Right To Do So, Davida H. Isaacs

Faculty Scholarship

After a century of disregard, the question of whether patents are entitled to protection under the Fifth Amendment's Takings Clause has recently become a topic of scholarly and judicial debate. While one might have expected this issue to have been settled long before, it is only the recent burgeoning of patentholders' regulatory takings claims that has made this question one of pressing interest. Thus far scholarship on the issue has focused on whether or not patents have historically been characterized as property. Meanwhile, last year's rejection by the Federal Circuit of a patentholder's right to assert a ...


Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: Executive Guide, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski Jan 2007

Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: Executive Guide, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski

Law Faculty Scholarship

Prepared by and for policy-makers, leaders of public sector research establishments, technology transfer professionals, licensing executives, and scientists, this online resource offers up-to-date information and strategies for utilizing the power of both intellectual property and the public domain. Emphasis is placed on advancing innovation in health and agriculture, though many of the principles outlined here are broadly applicable across technology fields. Eschewing ideological debates and general proclamations, the authors always keep their eye on the practical side of IP management. The site is based on a comprehensive Handbook and Executive Guide that provide substantive discussions and analysis of the opportunities ...


Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook Of Best Practices, Vol. 1, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski Jan 2007

Intellectual Property Management In Health And Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook Of Best Practices, Vol. 1, Anatole Krattiger, Richard T. Mahoney, Lita Nelsen, Jennifer A. Thomson, Alan B. Bennett, Kanikaram Satyanarayana, Gregory D. Graff, Carlos Fernandez, Stanley Kowalski

Law Faculty Scholarship

Prepared by and for policy-makers, leaders of public sector research establishments, technology transfer professionals, licensing executives, and scientists, this online resource offers up-to-date information and strategies for utilizing the power of both intellectual property and the public domain. Emphasis is placed on advancing innovation in health and agriculture, though many of the principles outlined here are broadly applicable across technology fields. Eschewing ideological debates and general proclamations, the authors always keep their eye on the practical side of IP management. The site is based on a comprehensive Handbook and Executive Guide that provide substantive discussions and analysis of the opportunities ...


Lexis V. Westlaw For Research - Better, Different, Or Same And The Qwerty Effect?, Jon R. Cavicchi Jan 2007

Lexis V. Westlaw For Research - Better, Different, Or Same And The Qwerty Effect?, Jon R. Cavicchi

Law Faculty Scholarship

There are synchronistic moments when in the process of writing. While contemplating this article, an email message made its way to my desk, past Pierce Law Center's spam firewall with the following subject line: "Pepsi v. Coke-Tell Us--Get $10." Do IP researchers choose Lexis or Westlaw justified by taste? Surely you jest, some voice said to me. Repressing this message, I proceeded to compare platform content, perform literature searches, and poll students and IP professors.

Yet another synchronistic moment came as the email from those taking the poll steamed into my email. Many IP professors indicated that they made ...


How To Make A Patent Market, Mark A. Lemley, Nathan Myhrvold Jan 2007

How To Make A Patent Market, Mark A. Lemley, Nathan Myhrvold

Hofstra Law Review

Imagine a stock market in which buyers and sellers couldn't find out the prices at which anyone else sold a share of stock. If you wanted to buy (or sell) a share of stock, you'd have to guess what it was worth. The result, everyone would agree, would be massively inefficient. Willing buyers and sellers would often miss each other. Patents, however, exist in just such a blind market. Want to know if you're getting a good deal on a patent license, or acquiring rights in a technology? Too bad. Even if that patent or ones like ...


Patents And Access To Antiretroviral Medicines In Vietnam After World Trade Organization Accession, Jakkrit Kuanpoth Jan 2007

Patents And Access To Antiretroviral Medicines In Vietnam After World Trade Organization Accession, Jakkrit Kuanpoth

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, where they are accessible, have been shown to prolong the lives and increase the health and well-being of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In general terms, whether a country is able to provide affordable ARVs to people in need is determined by the pricing structure of the drugs, whichis in turn based on the patent environment that regulates them. Increasing access in many developing countries, including Vietnam, requires a thorough understanding of the patent environment and of the legal options that will allow the production and/or importation of affordable treatments. This article ...


Rembrandts In The Research Lab: Why Universities Should Take A Lesson From Big Business To Increase Innovation, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2007

Rembrandts In The Research Lab: Why Universities Should Take A Lesson From Big Business To Increase Innovation, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

In this Article, I argue that patents, if obtained and exploited strategically, can have a beneficial effect on university research. I will describe the barriers to university participation in the patent arena-that is, lack of money, lack of knowledge, lack of infrastructure, and cultural concerns-and explain, with reference to business, how and why universities need to overcome these barriers. By breaking down these barriers and ably exploiting their intellectual property, I argue that the obstacles to university research will be lessened, resulting in increased research and innovation. I further provide a primer to provide university administrators, technology transfer offices, and ...


Transaction Costs And Patent Reform, Paul J. Heald Jan 2007

Transaction Costs And Patent Reform, Paul J. Heald

Scholarly Works

This article considers current proposals for patent law reform in light of a simple theory about intellectual property law: In a world without transactions costs, the assignment of property rights is not necessary to stimulate the optimal production of creative goods. Because potential users of inventions could contract for their creation, a compelling justification for granting property rights in these intangibles is the reduction of real-world transaction and information costs that hinder, or make impossible, contract formation between users and creators. Proposals for patent law reform, therefore, should be evaluated by whether a change in legal rights, or in the ...


Standard Setting, Patents, And Access Lock-In: Rand Licensing And The Theory Of The Firm, Joseph S. Miller Jan 2007

Standard Setting, Patents, And Access Lock-In: Rand Licensing And The Theory Of The Firm, Joseph S. Miller

Scholarly Works

Many leading voluntary standard-setting organizations (SSOs) have adopted intellectual property (IP) policies under which participants must promise to license any patents on technology that they contribute to a standard, and to do so on reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms (RAND). The standard setting literature includes a substantial focus on the widespread use of this RAND promise. A common refrain in these analyses of the RAND promise is that its meaning is dysfunctionally uncertain. We know more about the RAND promise, however, than the existing literature suggests. I show that we already know the RAND promise's core meaning, and why it ...


Synthetic Biology: Caught Between Property Rights, The Public Domain, And The Commons, Arti K. Rai, James Boyle Jan 2007

Synthetic Biology: Caught Between Property Rights, The Public Domain, And The Commons, Arti K. Rai, James Boyle

Faculty Scholarship

Synthetic biologists aim to make biology a true engineering discipline. In the same way that electrical engineers rely on standard capacitors and resistors, or computer programmers rely on modular blocks of code, synthetic biologists wish to create an array of modular biological parts that can be readily synthesized and mixed together in different combinations. Synthetic biology has already produced important results, including more accurate AIDS tests and the possibility of unlimited supplies of previously scarce drugs for malaria. Proponents hope to use synthetic organisms to produce not only medically relevant chemicals but also a large variety of industrial materials, including ...


Stifling Or Stimulating - The Role Of Gene Patents In Research And Genetic Testing, Lawrence M. Sung Jan 2007

Stifling Or Stimulating - The Role Of Gene Patents In Research And Genetic Testing, Lawrence M. Sung

Congressional Testimony

No abstract provided.