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2006

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Measure Of The Doubt: Dissent, Indeterminacy, And Interpretation At The Federal Circuit, Jeffrey A. Lefstin Oct 2006

The Measure Of The Doubt: Dissent, Indeterminacy, And Interpretation At The Federal Circuit, Jeffrey A. Lefstin

ExpressO

The law of patent claim interpretation articulated by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is commonly supposed to be markedly indeterminate, and to be responsible for a lack of certainty and predictability in patent infringement litigation. But there has been no attempt to measure objectively the indeterminacy associated with patent claim interpretation, or, for that matter, of any other field of law. This Article shows that under appropriate conditions the indeterminacy of a legal regime may be measured empirically by the frequency of judicial dissents. Application of this method to the Federal Circuit's jurisprudence demonstrates ...


Power Or Prudence: Which Is It?, Lisa A. Dolak Sep 2006

Power Or Prudence: Which Is It?, Lisa A. Dolak

ExpressO

In limiting patent litigants’ access to the declaratory judgment remedy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has primarily invoked the “actual controversy” requirement imposed by the U.S. Constitution and the federal Declaratory Judgment Act. However, an examination of Federal Circuit decisions and those of the district courts reveals that the courts have often confused, or blurred the distinction between, constitutional requirements and the discretion the Act affords the federal courts to decline to exercise jurisdiction. Specifically, the courts often attribute constitutional significance to factors that instead bear on policy.

It is important to distinguish between ...


Scientific Expertise In Policymaking: The Case For Open Review And Patent Reform, Beth Simone Noveck Aug 2006

Scientific Expertise In Policymaking: The Case For Open Review And Patent Reform, Beth Simone Noveck

ExpressO

The Energy Research Advisory Board, the group of external scientific advisors that provided impartial expert advice to the Secretary of Energy since 1978, was disbanded this May. The Administration, like its predecessors, regularly replaces experts on agency advisory panels with ideologues and political allies. We are at the nadir of a historical progression since World War II away from trust in and use of scientific expertise in policymaking. This shift however, has not been countered with greater public participation. Instead, administrative law and theory have developed a model of the managerial administrative authority. The "expertocratic" agency relies on internal expertise ...


Recombinant Proteins Containing Repeating Units, Qi Wang, Zhonghon Guan, Brendan O. Baggot, Kristen Hadfield, Jianmin Zhao, Janice Edwards Jun 2006

Recombinant Proteins Containing Repeating Units, Qi Wang, Zhonghon Guan, Brendan O. Baggot, Kristen Hadfield, Jianmin Zhao, Janice Edwards

Brendan O. Baggot

Methods for the production of recombinant proteins containing repeating units are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for the production of degenerate polynucleotides encoding said recombinant proteins. In addition, polypeptides and polynucleotides produced by the methods of current invention are also disclosed.


Mark(Et)Ing Nondiscrimination: Privatizing Enda With A Certification Mark, Ian Ayres, Jennifer Gerarda Brown Jun 2006

Mark(Et)Ing Nondiscrimination: Privatizing Enda With A Certification Mark, Ian Ayres, Jennifer Gerarda Brown

Michigan Law Review

People in the United States strongly support the simple idea that employers should not discriminate against gays and lesbians. In a 2003 Gallup poll, eighty-eight percent of respondents said that "homosexuals should . . . have equal rights in terms of job opportunities." Even prominent social conservatives- such as George W. Bush-give lip service to the idea that employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is wrong. But gay rights advocates have achieved only modest legal reform on this issue. Seventeen states have prohibited employment discrimination against gays and lesbians. A seemingly modest bill, the Employment Non Discrimination Act (ENDA), which only ...


Perspectives On Patents: Post-Grant Review Procedures And Other Litigation Reforms: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Intellectual Property Of The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 109th Cong., May 23, 2006 (Statement Of Professor John R. Thomas, Geo. U. L. Center), John R. Thomas May 2006

Perspectives On Patents: Post-Grant Review Procedures And Other Litigation Reforms: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Intellectual Property Of The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 109th Cong., May 23, 2006 (Statement Of Professor John R. Thomas, Geo. U. L. Center), John R. Thomas

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss May 2006

Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss

Michigan Law Review

The Patent Act was last revised in 1952. The hydrogen bomb was exploded that year, vividly demonstrating the power of the nucleus; in the ensuing postwar period, the Next Big Thing was clearly the molecule. Novel compounds were synthesized in the hopes of finding new medicines; solid-state devices exploited the special characteristics of germanium and other semiconductors; as investments in polymer chemistry soared, advice to the college graduate soon boiled down to "one word ... just one word[:] ... Plastics." Over the next half-century, things changed dramatically. "Better living through chemistry" has begun to sound dated (if not sinister). Genomics and computer ...


Intellectual Property Management Strategies To Accelerate The Development And Access Of Vaccines And Diagnostics: Case Studies On Pandemic Influenza, Malaria And Sars, Anatole Krattiger, Stanley P. Kowalski, Robert Eiss, Anthony Taubman Apr 2006

Intellectual Property Management Strategies To Accelerate The Development And Access Of Vaccines And Diagnostics: Case Studies On Pandemic Influenza, Malaria And Sars, Anatole Krattiger, Stanley P. Kowalski, Robert Eiss, Anthony Taubman

Law Faculty Scholarship

Achieving global access to vaccines, diagnostics, and pharmaceuticals remains a challenge. Throughout the developing world, intellectual property (IP) constraints complicate access to critically essential medical technologies and products. Vaccines for malaria and pandemic strains of influenza, as well as diagnostic and vaccine technologies for SARS, are not only relevant to global public health but are particularly critical to the needs of developing countries. A global access solution is urgently needed. This article offers a timely case‐by‐case analysis of preliminary patent landscape surveys and formulates options via patent pools and other forms of creative IP management to accelerate development ...


The Rise And Fall Of Patent Law Uniformity And The Need For A Congressional Response, Scott Cole Apr 2006

The Rise And Fall Of Patent Law Uniformity And The Need For A Congressional Response, Scott Cole

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Congress established the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals a quarter century ago to create uniformity in the field of patent law. By significantly limiting the appellate jurisdiction of the Federal Circuit in patent related cases, the recent decision of Holmes v. Vornado in the United States Supreme Court makes this goal an impossibility. This Article addresses the purposes of uniformity in patent law, the ramifications of the limited jurisdiction of the Federal Circuit, and concludes with a proposed Congressional response designed to withstand a future appeal to the Supreme Court.


The Antitrust Legality Of Pharmaceutical Patent Litigation Settlements, James F. Ponsoldt, W. Hennen Ehrenclou Apr 2006

The Antitrust Legality Of Pharmaceutical Patent Litigation Settlements, James F. Ponsoldt, W. Hennen Ehrenclou

Scholarly Works

Several federal courts of appeal have recently ruled on the issue of whether a pharmaceutical patent infringement settlement, pursuant to which a generic drug manufacturer agrees to forgo marketing a particular drug in return for monetary payments from a patent-holding “pioneer” drug manufacturer, is a violation of antitrust law. These payments are termed “reverse payments” because, contrary to normal settlements, the plaintiff makes a lump sum payment to the defendant. Reverse payments have sparked considerable academic comment and controversy. Even more recently, the Federal Trade Commission (“Commission”) and the Solicitor General have expressed views on the issue, in the context ...


The Hatch-Waxman Act And Market Exclusivity For Generic Manufacturers: An Entitlement Or An Incentive?, Ashlee B. Mehl Apr 2006

The Hatch-Waxman Act And Market Exclusivity For Generic Manufacturers: An Entitlement Or An Incentive?, Ashlee B. Mehl

Chicago-Kent Law Review

One of Congress' central goals in enacting the Hatch-Waxman Act was to expedite and encourage earlier market entry for generic pharmaceutical products. The Act provides that a generic firm may challenge a drug patent during its term by filing paperwork with the FDA that alleges either that its generic product does not infringe the relevant patent, or that the patent is invalid. If the patentee disagrees with the allegation of the generic firm, it may file suit and have a court determine infringement and validity. If the generic firm prevails in court on either count, it may enter the market ...


Who Cares What Thomas Jefferson Thought About Patents: Reevaluating The Patent "Privilege" In Historical Context, Adam Mossoff Mar 2006

Who Cares What Thomas Jefferson Thought About Patents: Reevaluating The Patent "Privilege" In Historical Context, Adam Mossoff

ExpressO

The conventional wisdom holds that American patents have always been grants of special monopoly privileges lacking any justification in natural rights philosophy, a belief based in oft-repeated citations to Thomas Jefferson's writings on patents. Using privilege as a fulcrum in its analysis, this Article reveals that the history of early American patent law has been widely misunderstood and misused. In canvassing primary historical sources, including political and legal treatises, Founders' writings, congressional reports, and long-forgotten court decisions, it explains how patent rights were defined and enforced under the social contract doctrine and labor theory of property of natural rights ...


Patent Drafter Estoppel: Why Didn't Sage Products Create A New Foreseeability Limitation On The Application Of The Doctrine Of Equivalents?, Christopher M. Kaiser Feb 2006

Patent Drafter Estoppel: Why Didn't Sage Products Create A New Foreseeability Limitation On The Application Of The Doctrine Of Equivalents?, Christopher M. Kaiser

ExpressO

This article reviews the 1997 Federal Circuit Case of Sage Products v. Devon and the case law that has followed it. There is some belief among patent practitioners that Sage Products created a new legal doctrine limiting the application of the doctrine of equivalents in patent infringement cases. The new doctrine, sometimes referred to as “patent drafter estoppel,” would bar the application of the doctrine of equivalents any time an accused equivalent structure should have been foreseen by a reasonable patentee. Federal Circuit case law since Sage Products has diverged into two lines of thought: one that supports the thinking ...


Strategies For Ip And Technology Standards, Ron D. Katznelson Jan 2006

Strategies For Ip And Technology Standards, Ron D. Katznelson

Ron D. Katznelson

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr Jan 2006

Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr

Law Faculty Scholarship

Patents, copyrights, trademarks and related interests are known as intellectual property (IP). It has not been long since patents especially were regarded in U.S. courts, and the Supreme Court in particular, as tools of monopolists, and their owners often fared poorly. However, people have come increasingly to view privately funded innovation as critical to national economic well-being and to agree that such innovation cannot occur unless companies that succeed in the marketplace can recoup their research, development and marketing costs. That is a major function of IP, and, particularly within the past dozen years, IP has been seen, both ...


The Five Levels Of Inventions- A Classification Of Patents From Triz Perspective, Umakant Mishra Jan 2006

The Five Levels Of Inventions- A Classification Of Patents From Triz Perspective, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The Five levels of Inventions is a popular concept in the study of TRIZ. Generally patent databases (like USPTO) classify inventions according to their topics or areas of invention. But they don’t classify inventions according to their easiness or usefulness or inventiveness. Altshuller classified patents into five levels according to their levels of inventiveness. The higher levels of inventions are difficult (and rare) while the lower levels of inventions are easy and plenty in number. This article attempts to explain the five levels of inventions in simple terms and the purpose behind such a classification. Although there are limitations ...


The British Empire Patent 1901-1923: The ‘Global’ Patent That Never Was, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2006

The British Empire Patent 1901-1923: The ‘Global’ Patent That Never Was, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

Reflects on the lessons which unsuccessful efforts to introduce a British Empire patent prior to 1923 may offer for the European Community patent. Reviews the origin of the proposal in 1901, the state of patent law across the Empire at the time, the progress made at several Imperial conferences, key features of the 1919 memorandum and the issues discussed at the 1922 patent conference. Outlines the reasons for the failure of the 1923 proposals, including the problems created by Canada's claim for reciprocal treatment for its patents, and considers whether the EC Community patent has a greater prospect of ...


Parallel Trade, Unparallel Laws: An Examination Of The Pharmaceutical Parallel Trade Laws Of The United States, The European Union And The World Trade Organization, Julia A. Moore Jan 2006

Parallel Trade, Unparallel Laws: An Examination Of The Pharmaceutical Parallel Trade Laws Of The United States, The European Union And The World Trade Organization, Julia A. Moore

Richmond Journal of Global Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Patent Law Viewed Through An Evidentiary Lens: The "Suggestion Test" As A Rule Of Evidence, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2006

Patent Law Viewed Through An Evidentiary Lens: The "Suggestion Test" As A Rule Of Evidence, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

The Federal Circuit's recent nonobviousness jurisprudence has been the subject of much criticism. Reports from the Federal Trade Commission and the National Research Council and a pending petition for certiorari to the Supreme Court all conclude that the Federal Circuit has improperly relaxed the nonobviousness standard. Most of this criticism focuses on the Federal Circuit's implementation of part of the nonobviousness inquiry - the suggestion test. The suggestion test queries whether a suggestion to make the invention existed before the invention's creation. The Federal Circuit allegedly requires a suggestion to come solely from prior art references. The court ...


A Brief History Of Indirect Liability For Patent Infringement, Charles W. Adams Jan 2006

A Brief History Of Indirect Liability For Patent Infringement, Charles W. Adams

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

No abstract provided.


How The Xechem Decision May Insulate State Universities From Correction Of Inventorship Suits, Stacey Drews Jan 2006

How The Xechem Decision May Insulate State Universities From Correction Of Inventorship Suits, Stacey Drews

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Open Source On Preinvention Assignment Contracts, Michael Mattioli Jan 2006

The Impact Of Open Source On Preinvention Assignment Contracts, Michael Mattioli

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This comment studies the implications of open source on pre-invention assignment agreements. Part I analyzes the basis for past enforcement of these contracts, with an eye toward distinctions between open source projects and more traditional commercial endeavors. Part II briefly reviews the history of patents and explores constitutional and contract-based arguments against the pre-invention assignment. Part III begins with a discussion of open source and then explores how this new phenomenon perfectly fulfills the goals behind the Patent Act. With these addressed, the central inquiry of pre-invention assignment agreements, as they could conflict with open source inventions, will be addressed ...


The Patent Cooperation Treaty: At The Center Of The International Patent System, Jay Erstling Jan 2006

The Patent Cooperation Treaty: At The Center Of The International Patent System, Jay Erstling

Faculty Scholarship

In view of the fact that the PCT is composed of almost 130 countries and that more than 100 national and regional patent offices, as well as WIPO itself, perform PCT functions, it is remarkable that the system operates so smoothly and continues to gain momentum. Perhaps the system’s greatest strength comes from the immense diversity of legal, linguistic, and national cultures that constitute the PCT. While the system has served to harmonize divergent practices, it has also been obliged to accommodate to the sometimes inflexible peculiarities of national law and procedure. The PCT’s ability to strike a ...


The Supreme Court, Stare Decisis, And The Role Of Appellate Deference In Patent Claim Construction Appeals, David Krinsky Jan 2006

The Supreme Court, Stare Decisis, And The Role Of Appellate Deference In Patent Claim Construction Appeals, David Krinsky

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss Jan 2006

Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss

Faculty Publications

Patent law today is a complex institution in most developed economies and the appropriate structure for patent law is hotly debated around the world. Despite their differences, one crucial feature is shared by the diverse patent systems of the industrialized world even before the recent trend toward harmonization: modern patent regimes include self-imposed restrictions of executive and legislative discretion, which we refer to as "constitutionalized" systems. Given the lucrative nature of patent monopolies, the long history of granting patents as a form of patronage, and the aggressive pursuit of patronage in most societies, the choice to confine patents within a ...


Commercializing Open Source Software: Do Property Rights Still Matter?, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2006

Commercializing Open Source Software: Do Property Rights Still Matter?, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

For several years now, open source software products have been gaining prominence and market share. Yet the products themselves are not as provocative as the way in which they are developed and distributed. Two related features of the open source model are distinctive: the use of collaborative development structures that extend beyond the boundaries of a single firm, and the lack of reliance on intellectual property ("IP") rights as a means of appropriating the value of the underlying technologies. Firm-level control of intellectual property is replaced by a complex set of relations, both informal and sometimes contractual, among strategic partners ...