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Articles 1 - 30 of 109

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Patent Option, Daniel J. Gervais Oct 2019

The Patent Option, Daniel J. Gervais

Daniel J Gervais

There is a shift in the shape of intellectual property (IP) tools used to strengthen and lengthen the right of pharmaceutical companies to exclude others from making and marketing their products. Patents have traditionally been the tool of choice. Over the past two decades, however, pharmaceutical companies have increased their degree of reliance on a right known as “data exclusivity.” This right, which now exists in most major jurisdictions, is the right to prevent third parties from relying on the clinical trial data submitted by another pharmaceutical company to obtain marketing approval for a bioequivalent or biosimilar product. The right ...


Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern Sep 2019

Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern

James Y. Stern

How should we allocate property rights in unowned tangible and intangible resources? This Article develops a model of original acquisition that draws together common law doctrines of first possession with original acquisition doctrines in patent, copyright, and trademark law. The common denominator is time: in each context, doctrine involves a trade-off between assigning entitlements to resources earlier or later in the process of their development and use. Early awards risk granting exclusivity to parties who may not be capable of putting resources to their best use. Late awards prolong contests for ownership, which may generate waste or discourage acquisition efforts ...


Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Sep 2019

Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Global patent law has raced toward harmonization over the past decades. Countries with vastly different industries, values, and levels of development now offer robust patent rights with similar contours through membership in the World Trade Organization and consequent adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”). However, patent law is still far from harmonized among countries or static within countries. Jurisdictions tailor their patent laws to accommodate differences between industries, unforeseen inefficiencies, and diverse views of the costs and benefits associated with offering patent rights to stimulate innovation. Prior scholarly work consists of either doctrinal analyses ...


An Overview Of Patent Prosecution, Frederick W. Dingledy Sep 2019

An Overview Of Patent Prosecution, Frederick W. Dingledy

Frederick W. Dingledy

No abstract provided.


Are We Overprotecting Code? Thoughts On First-Generation Internet Law, Orin S. Kerr Jul 2019

Are We Overprotecting Code? Thoughts On First-Generation Internet Law, Orin S. Kerr

Orin Kerr

No abstract provided.


What Patent Attorney Fee Awards Really Look Like, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2018

What Patent Attorney Fee Awards Really Look Like, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Saurabh Vishnubhakat

This essay gives an empirical account of attorney fee awards over the last decade of patent litigation. Given the current attention in legislative proposals and on the Supreme Court’s docket to more liberal fee shifting as a check on abusive patent litigation, a fuller descriptive understanding of the current regime is of utmost importance to forming sound patent litigation policy. Following a brief overview of judicial experience in patent cases and trends in patent case filing, this study presents analysis of over 200 attorney fee award orders during 2003-2013.

The study confirms the commonsense view that plaintiffs have tended ...


Gender Diversity In The Patent Bar, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2018

Gender Diversity In The Patent Bar, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Saurabh Vishnubhakat

This article describes the state of gender diversity across technology and geography within the U.S. patent bar. The findings rely on a new gender-matched dataset, the first public dataset of its kind, not only of all attorneys and agents registered to practice before the United States Patent and Trademark Office, but also of attorneys and agents on patents granted by the USPTO. To enable follow-on research, the article describes all data and methodology and offers suggestions for refinement. This study is timely in view of renewed interest about the participation of women in the U.S. innovation ecosystem, notably ...


Comment To The Sec In Support Of The Enhanced Disclosure Of Patent And Technology License Information, Colleen V. Chien, Jorge Contreras, Carol Corrado, Stuart Graham, Deepak Hedge, Arti K. Rai, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2018

Comment To The Sec In Support Of The Enhanced Disclosure Of Patent And Technology License Information, Colleen V. Chien, Jorge Contreras, Carol Corrado, Stuart Graham, Deepak Hedge, Arti K. Rai, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Intangible assets like IP constitute a large share of the value of firms, and the US economy generally. Accurate information on the intellectual property (IP) holdings and transactions of publicly-traded firms facilitates price discovery in the market and reduces transaction costs. While public understanding of the innovation economy has been expanded by a large stream of empirical research using patent data, and more recently trademark information this research is only as good as the accuracy and completeness of the data it builds upon. In contrast with information about patents and trademarks, good information about IP licensing is much less publicly ...


Expired Patents, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2018

Expired Patents, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Saurabh Vishnubhakat

This article presents a comprehensive empirical description of the public domain of technologies that have recently passed out of patent protection. From a new dataset of over 300,000 patents that expired during 2008–2012, the study examines technological, geographical, and procedural traits of newly public inventions as a basis for exploring the social value associated with their competitive use. Moreover, comparing these inventions to inventions newly patented during the same period enables more specific discussion of how the balance of innovation in the United States continues to change.


Commercial Success And Patent Standards: Economic Perspectives On Innovation, Robert P. Merges Dec 2017

Commercial Success And Patent Standards: Economic Perspectives On Innovation, Robert P. Merges

Robert P Merges

This Article criticizes a recent line of patent decisions in which the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has considered evidence of an innovation's commercial success in deciding whether to award a patent to the inn innovator. Professor Merges briefly reviews the history of patent law and concludes that one of its principle purposes is to reward "invention," or the achievement of a significant technical advance and thereby to spur innovative technological development. He notes, however, that recently, the Federal Circuit has begun to consider "secondary factors," including the financial success of a commercialized invention, and the extent ...


High Technology Entrepreneurs And The Patent System: Results Of The 2008 Berkeley Patent Survey, Stuart J. H. Graham, Robert P. Merges, Pam Samuelson, Ted Sichelman Dec 2017

High Technology Entrepreneurs And The Patent System: Results Of The 2008 Berkeley Patent Survey, Stuart J. H. Graham, Robert P. Merges, Pam Samuelson, Ted Sichelman

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.


Unwinding Sony, Peter S. Menell, David Nimmer Dec 2017

Unwinding Sony, Peter S. Menell, David Nimmer

Peter Menell

No abstract provided.


Private Law And The Future Of Patents, Oskar Liivak Nov 2017

Private Law And The Future Of Patents, Oskar Liivak

Oskar Liivak

As it operates today, patent law does not qualify as private law and, without change, I doubt it ever will. For some, this is as it should be and any private law aspects that remain in the patent system should be purged. The basic argument is that the dominant theory of patents is just not compatible with private law and patent doctrine should reflect a pure public law theoretical basis. I agree that today's dominant patent theory is incompatible with private law principles. Yet agreeing with that inherent incompatibility does not imply that doctrine needs to be reformed. There ...


The Pull Of Patents, Brett M. Frischmann Sep 2017

The Pull Of Patents, Brett M. Frischmann

Brett Frischmann

No abstract provided.


Fixing Forum Selling, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan Jr. Jun 2017

Fixing Forum Selling, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan Jr.

Brian L. Frye

"Forum selling” is jurisdictional competition intended to attract litigants. While consensual forum selling may be beneficial, non-consensual forum selling is harmful because it encourages jurisdictions to adopt an inefficient pro-plaintiff bias. In the last 20 years, the Eastern District of Texas has adopted an aggressive and remarkably successful policy of non-consensual forum selling in patent infringement actions. In 2016, 44% of all patent infringement actions were filed in the Eastern District of Texas, and 93% of them were filed by patent assertion entities or “patent trolls.” In December 2016, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in TC Heartland v. Kraft, to ...


“An Ingenious Man Enabled By Contract”: Entrepreneurship And The Rise Of Contract, Catherine Fisk May 2017

“An Ingenious Man Enabled By Contract”: Entrepreneurship And The Rise Of Contract, Catherine Fisk

Catherine Fisk

A legal ideology emerged in the 1870s that celebrated contract as the body of law with the particular purpose of facilitating the formation of productive exchanges that would enrich the parties to the contract and, therefore, society as a whole. Across the spectrum of intellectual property, courts used the legal fiction of implied contract, and a version of it particularly emphasizing liberty of contract, to shift control of workplace knowledge from skilled employees to firms while suggesting that the emergence of hierarchical control and loss of entrepreneurial opportunity for creative workers was consistent with the free labor ideology that dominated ...


Do Patent Challenges Increase Competition?, Stephen Yelderman Mar 2017

Do Patent Challenges Increase Competition?, Stephen Yelderman

Stephen Yelderman

As a general rule, judges and scholars believe settlement is a good thing. But for nearly a century, the Supreme Court has said that patent litigation is categorically different, since it offers the chance to increase competition by freeing the public from the burdens of a monopoly. Based on this theory, and in the hopes of seeing more patent litigation fought to completion, the Court has overturned long-standing common-law doctrines, declined to enforce otherwise-valid contracts, and—in the recent case of Federal Trade Commission v Actavis, Inc—subjected patent settlements to scrutiny under the antitrust laws. Similar reasoning has resulted ...


Patents And Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants: Is A Communal Patent Regime Part Of The Solution To The Scourge Of Bio Piracy, Ikechi Mgbeoji Jul 2016

Patents And Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants: Is A Communal Patent Regime Part Of The Solution To The Scourge Of Bio Piracy, Ikechi Mgbeoji

Ikechi Mgbeoji

No abstract provided.


Regulatory Property: The New Ip, Robin C. Feldman Dec 2015

Regulatory Property: The New Ip, Robin C. Feldman

Robin C Feldman

For thirty years, a new form of intellectual property has grown up quietly beneath the surface of societal observation. It is a set of government-granted rights that have the quintessential characteristic of intellectual property and other forms of property — that is, the right to exclude others from the territory. 

The impact of this form of IP on the US health care system, in particular, is enormous. In 2014, more than 40% of all new drugs approved by the FDA came through just one of these portals, with the companies collecting regulatory property rights along the way. 

Some forms of this ...


Sharing Research Data And Intellectual Property Law: A Primer, Michael W. Carroll Aug 2015

Sharing Research Data And Intellectual Property Law: A Primer, Michael W. Carroll

Michael W. Carroll

Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security ...


Patent Claim Construction: A Modern Synthesis And Structured Framework, Peter S. Menell, Matthew D. Powers, Steven C. Carlson Aug 2015

Patent Claim Construction: A Modern Synthesis And Structured Framework, Peter S. Menell, Matthew D. Powers, Steven C. Carlson

Peter Menell

No abstract provided.


The Emergence Of Classical American Patent Law, Herbert Hovenkamp Aug 2015

The Emergence Of Classical American Patent Law, Herbert Hovenkamp

Herbert Hovenkamp

The Emergence of Classical Patent Law

Abstract

One enduring historical debate concerns whether the American Constitution was intended to be "classical" -- referring to a theory of statecraft that maximizes the role of private markets and minimizes the role of government in economic affairs. The most central and powerful proposition of classical constitutionalism is that the government's role in economic development should be minimal. First, private rights in property and contract exist prior to any community needs for development. Second, if a particular project is worthwhile the market itself will make it occur. Third, when the government attempts to induce ...


Certain Patents, Alan C. Marco, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jul 2015

Certain Patents, Alan C. Marco, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Saurabh Vishnubhakat

This Article presents the first in a series of studies of stock market reactions to the legal outcomes of patent cases. From a sample of patents litigated during a 20-year period, we estimate market reactions to patent litigation decisions and to patent grants. These estimates reveal that the resolution of legal uncertainty over patent validity and patent infringement is, on average, worth as much to a firm as is the initial grant of the patent right. Each is worth about 1.0-1.5% excess returns on investment. There are significant differences between such market reactions before and after the establishment ...


Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss Jul 2015

Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss

Andrew P. Morriss

Patent law today is a complex institution in most developed economies and the appropriate structure for patent law is hotly debated around the world. Despite their differences, one crucial feature is shared by the diverse patent systems of the industrialized world even before the recent trend toward harmonization: modern patent regimes include self-imposed restrictions of executive and legislative discretion, which we refer to as "constitutionalized" systems. Given the lucrative nature of patent monopolies, the long history of granting patents as a form of patronage, and the aggressive pursuit of patronage in most societies, the choice to confine patents within a ...


Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss Jul 2015

Constitutionalizing Patents: From Venice To Philadelphia, Craig Allen Nard, Andrew P. Morriss

Andrew P. Morriss

Patent law today is a complex institution in most developed economies and the appropriate structure for patent law is hotly debated around the world. Despite their differences, one crucial feature is shared by the diverse patent systems of the industrialized world even before the recent trend toward harmonization: modern patent regimes include self-imposed restrictions of executive and legislative discretion, which we refer to as "constitutionalized" systems. Given the lucrative nature of patent monopolies, the long history of granting patents as a form of patronage, and the aggressive pursuit of patronage in most societies, the choice to confine patents within a ...


Intellectual Property Rights Management In Small And Medium Size Social Enterprise In Australia, Francina Cantatore, Elizabeth Spencer May 2015

Intellectual Property Rights Management In Small And Medium Size Social Enterprise In Australia, Francina Cantatore, Elizabeth Spencer

Francina Cantatore

This paper identifies the role and significance of Intellectual Property (IP) management in small and medium-sized social enterprises (SMSEs) and aims to address a gap in the available literature dealing with IP use and management in social enterprise. The findings are based on the results of a qualitative study undertaken with Australian SMSEs, in the form of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The research identifies how SMSEs view and manage their IP rights, and the significance of these rights in the organisation. The findings suggest that there is a significant lack of IP rights management strategies for protection of IP assets such ...


The Proper Scope Of The Copyright And Patent Power, Robert Patrick Merges, Glenn Harlan Reynolds May 2015

The Proper Scope Of The Copyright And Patent Power, Robert Patrick Merges, Glenn Harlan Reynolds

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property Rights And Bargaining Breakdown: The Case Of Blocking Patents, Robert Merges May 2015

Intellectual Property Rights And Bargaining Breakdown: The Case Of Blocking Patents, Robert Merges

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.


As Many As Six Impossible Patent Before Breakfast: Property Rights For Business Concepts And Patent System Reform, Robert P. Merges May 2015

As Many As Six Impossible Patent Before Breakfast: Property Rights For Business Concepts And Patent System Reform, Robert P. Merges

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property In Higher Life Forms: The Patent System And Controversial Technologies, Robert P. Merges May 2015

Intellectual Property In Higher Life Forms: The Patent System And Controversial Technologies, Robert P. Merges

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.