Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Patent trolls

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 61

Full-Text Articles in Law

The “Green Patent Paradox” And Fair Use: The Intellectual Property Solution To Fight Climate Change, Samuel Cayton Dec 2020

The “Green Patent Paradox” And Fair Use: The Intellectual Property Solution To Fight Climate Change, Samuel Cayton

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

As the climate crisis consistently worsens, the United States’ response to the crisis has proven inconsistent. Even with the United States likely to recommit to the Paris Climate Agreement, political tensions will likely further delay a climate response. The polarized characterization of the Green New Deal, the inaction of scientifically misguided conservatives, and the incessant proposal for middle ground approaches lacking the urgency needed to change course all contribute to this delay. While swift action from the federal government is needed, looking to the private sector to transition to sustainability is equally important. Specifically, patent protection is a strong intellectual ...


Protecting Blockchain Investments In A Patent Troll World, Kelli Spearman Jul 2019

Protecting Blockchain Investments In A Patent Troll World, Kelli Spearman

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

When blockchain technology was first introduced via the now-infamous Bitcoin in 2008, it was almost immediately recognized by the tech industry as being even more valuable (and certainly less volatile) than the cryptocurrency it embodied. The publicly distributed ledger known as the blockchain has created a frenzy that is continuing to grow as industries explore future adaptations of the technology. Following this explosion of cross-industry innovation, intellectual property issues naturally follow as early adaptors seek to capture the value of pioneering new blockchain technology. The rising popularity of the blockchain has created an intellectual property gold-rush as firms hoping to ...


Protecting Wisconsinites From Trolls: The Federal Circuit's "Bad Faith" Preemption And Its Restrictive Effect, Andrew Salomone Jan 2019

Protecting Wisconsinites From Trolls: The Federal Circuit's "Bad Faith" Preemption And Its Restrictive Effect, Andrew Salomone

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

In this comment, I use Wis. Stat. Ann. § 100.197 (“Wisconsin’s anti-PAE statute”) to demonstrate the significant degree to which the Federal Circuit’s current preemption regime restricts states’ abilities to regulate the behavior of PAEs. In Part II, I summarize Wisconsin’s legislative response to PAEs. In Part III, I contrast the Federal Circuit’s preemption doctrine and the Supreme Court’s doctrine as it relates to state laws similar to anti-PAE statutes. Paying particular attention to Wisconsin’s patent notification statute, I provide a brief preemption analysis in Part IV. Finally, in Part V, I conclude by ...


Will Delaware Be Different? An Empirical Study Of Tc Heartland And The Shift To Defendant Choice Of Venue, Ofer Eldar, Neel U. Sukhatme Nov 2018

Will Delaware Be Different? An Empirical Study Of Tc Heartland And The Shift To Defendant Choice Of Venue, Ofer Eldar, Neel U. Sukhatme

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Why do some venues evolve into litigation havens while others do not? Venues might compete for litigation for various reasons, like enhancing their judges’ prestige and increasing revenues for the local bar. This competition is framed by the party that chooses the venue. Whether plaintiffs or defendants primarily choose venue is crucial because, we argue, the two scenarios are not symmetrical.

The Supreme Court’s recent decision in TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods LLC illustrates this dynamic. There, the Court effectively shifted venue choice in many patent infringement cases from plaintiffs to corporate defendants. We use TC Heartland to ...


Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Teo Firpo, Michael S. Mireles May 2018

Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Teo Firpo, Michael S. Mireles

SMU Law Review

This paper examines the confluence of two important issues concerning patent law. The two issues are the merits of the debate concerning the supposed “patent troll” crisis and the increased patenting and licensing of university and other nonprofit inventions, including the litigation of those patents.

First, there is a debate in the literature concerning the presence and scope of the problem concerning so-called “patent trolls.” To some, supposed “patent troll” behavior is ordinary litigation behavior, and to others, it points to problems with the patent litigation system. Indeed, some may argue that the benefits of “patent trolls” may outweigh the ...


Solving The Riddle! Bridging The Gap In The Federal Circuit’S Definition Of “Regular And Established Place Of Business” To Prevent Patent Trolls From Forum Shopping, Michael A. Morales Jan 2018

Solving The Riddle! Bridging The Gap In The Federal Circuit’S Definition Of “Regular And Established Place Of Business” To Prevent Patent Trolls From Forum Shopping, Michael A. Morales

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte Jun 2017

Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte

Christopher B. Seaman

More than ten years after the United States Supreme Court’s landmark decision in eBay v. MercExchange, the availability of injunctive relief in patent cases remains hotly contested. For example, in a recent decision in the long-running litigation between Apple and Samsung, members of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit divided sharply on whether an injunction was warranted to prevent Samsung from continuing to infringe several smartphone features patented by Apple. To date, however, nearly all empirical scholarship regarding eBay has focused on trial court decisions, rather than the Federal Circuit. This Article represents the first ...


Fixing Forum Selling, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan Jr. Apr 2017

Fixing Forum Selling, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan Jr.

University of Miami Business Law Review

“Forum selling” is jurisdictional competition intended to attract litigants. While consensual forum selling may be beneficial, non-consensual forum selling is harmful because it encourages jurisdictions to adopt an inefficient pro-plaintiff bias. In the last 20 years, the Eastern District of Texas has adopted an aggressive and remarkably successful policy of non-consensual forum selling in patent infringement actions. In 2016, 44% of all patent infringement actions were filed in the Eastern District of Texas, and 93% of them were filed by patent assertion entities or “patent trolls.”

In December 2016, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in TC Heartland v. Kraft, to ...


Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte Mar 2017

Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte

Scholarly Articles

More than ten years after the United States Supreme Court’s landmark decision in eBay v. MercExchange, the availability of injunctive relief in patent cases remains hotly contested. For example, in a recent decision in the long-running litigation between Apple and Samsung, members of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit divided sharply on whether an injunction was warranted to prevent Samsung from continuing to infringe several smartphone features patented by Apple. To date, however, nearly all empirical scholarship regarding eBay has focused on trial court decisions, rather than the Federal Circuit.

This Article represents the first ...


Evaluating Market Reactions To Non-Practicing Entity Litigation, Emiliano Giudici, Justin Blount Jan 2017

Evaluating Market Reactions To Non-Practicing Entity Litigation, Emiliano Giudici, Justin Blount

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

An ongoing debate in patent law involves the role "non-practicing entities," sometimes called "patent trolls," serve in the patent system. Some argue they serve as valuable market intermediaries, while others contend they are a drain on innovation and an impediment to a well-functioning patent system. This Article adds to the data available in this debate by conducting an event study that analyzes the market reaction to patent litigation filed by large "mass aggregator" non-practicing entities against large publicly traded companies. This study advances the literature by attempting to reproduce the results of previous event studies done in this area with ...


In Defense Of Patent Trolls: Patent Assertion Entities As Commercial Litigation Funders, Jean Xiao Nov 2016

In Defense Of Patent Trolls: Patent Assertion Entities As Commercial Litigation Funders, Jean Xiao

Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property

This paper is the first to defend and commend the role of patent trolls in litigation. It argues that trolls either are not the sole source of patent litigation ills or are not responsible for these ills in the first place. Next, it demonstrates that trolls provide the same litigation-related benefits as commercial litigation funders, which also finance patent lawsuits. Troll commentators have ignored these benefits, for which funders are praised, in the evaluation of trolls. Finally, this paper explains that eliminating trolls will not only close off a source of these benefits but also worsen problems by shifting trolling ...


Regulating Patent Assertions, Paul Gugliuzza Oct 2016

Regulating Patent Assertions, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Recent years have seen a proliferation of statutes regulating and lawsuits challenging patent enforcement conduct. The Federal Circuit, however, has held that acts of patent enforcement are illegal only if there is clear and convincing evidence both that the patent holder’s infringement allegations were objectively baseless and that the patent holder knew or should have known its allegations were baseless. This chapter summarizes recent efforts by state governments and the federal government to control patent enforcement behavior, questions the broad immunity the Federal Circuit has conferred on patent holders, and seeks to improve pending federal legislation governing patent enforcement ...


Patent Privateers And Antitrust Fears, Matthew Sipe Jul 2016

Patent Privateers And Antitrust Fears, Matthew Sipe

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Patent trolls are categorically demonized as threatening American innovation and industry. But whether they are a threat that antitrust law is equipped to deal with is a complex question that depends on the particular type of patent troll and activities they engage in. This Article looks specifically at privateer patent trolls: entities that acquire their patents from operating entities and assert them against other industry members. In the particular context of privateering, antitrust law is almost certainly not the proper legal solution. Privateering does raise significant issues: circumventing litigation constraints, evading licensing obligations, and raising the cost and frequency of ...


Rent-Seeking And Inter Partes Review: An Analysis Of Invalidity Assertion Entities In Patent Law, W. Michael Schuster Jul 2016

Rent-Seeking And Inter Partes Review: An Analysis Of Invalidity Assertion Entities In Patent Law, W. Michael Schuster

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

This Essay is the first analysis of a recent entrant on the patent landscape: the Invalidity Assertion Entity (IAE). IAEs engage in rent-seeking by demanding payment from patent holders in exchange for not attempting to invalidate their patents through administrative action before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The response to IAEs has been uniformly negative. Reflexive proposals have been raised in Congress (unsurprisingly) to terminate the IAE business model. In contrast to the common response to IAEs, this Essay discusses how profit-driven IAEs may generate socially beneficial externalities and why legislating to end the IAE business model is ...


Permanent Injunctions In Patent Litigation After Ebay: An Empirical Study, Christopher B. Seaman Jul 2016

Permanent Injunctions In Patent Litigation After Ebay: An Empirical Study, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

The Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in eBay v. MercExchange is widely regarded as one of the most important patent law rulings of the past decade. Historically, patent holders who won on the merits in litigation nearly always obtained a permanent injunction against infringers. In eBay, the Court unanimously rejected the “general rule” that a prevailing patentee is entitled to an injunction, instead holding that lower courts must apply a four-factor test before granting such relief. Ten years later, however, significant questions remain regarding how this four-factor test is being applied, as there has been little rigorous empirical examination of ...


Permanent Injunctions In Patent Litigation After Ebay: An Empirical Study, Christopher B. Seaman Jun 2016

Permanent Injunctions In Patent Litigation After Ebay: An Empirical Study, Christopher B. Seaman

Christopher B. Seaman

The Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in eBay v. MercExchange is widely regarded as one of the most important patent law rulings of the past decade. Historically, patent holders who won on the merits in litigation nearly always obtained a permanent injunction against infringers. In eBay, the Court unanimously rejected the “general rule” that a prevailing patentee is entitled to an injunction, instead holding that lower courts must apply a four-factor test before granting such relief. Ten years later, however, significant questions remain regarding how this four-factor test is being applied, as there has been little rigorous empirical examination of ...


Patent "Trolls" And Claim Construction, Greg Reilly Apr 2016

Patent "Trolls" And Claim Construction, Greg Reilly

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article explores the largely overlooked relationship between claim construction and patent assertion entities (patent “trolls”), finding that claim construction problems and trends benefit patent assertion entities. First, the Federal Circuit’s deep divide over the proper approach to claim construction creates uncertain patent scope, which is widely recognized as a core reason for the success of patent assertion entities. Second, case law and commentary increasingly endorse an approach to claim construction that relies on the “general meaning” in the technical field with limited reliance on the patent itself, which benefits patent assertion entities by increasing the breadth and uncertainty ...


Constructed And Enhanced Equities Under Ebay: Whose Right Is It Anyway?, Richard S. Gruner Mar 2016

Constructed And Enhanced Equities Under Ebay: Whose Right Is It Anyway?, Richard S. Gruner

Akron Intellectual Property Journal

This article treats the injunction issuance standards announced in eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, LLC, as the starting point for patent enforcement planning by sophisticated clients and their patent and corporate attorneys. The eBay standards imply a set of circumstances in which a patent holder will be well-positioned to obtain a patent enforcement injunction, circumstances that patent holders may be able to reach through well-crafted strategic moves. This article explores the actions that a pure licensee patent holder can take to improve its position and establish "constructed equities" that will enhance its chances of obtaining a patent enforcement injunction.


A Novel, Nonobvious Approach To Curb Abusive Patent Litigants, Zachary H. Valentine Jan 2016

A Novel, Nonobvious Approach To Curb Abusive Patent Litigants, Zachary H. Valentine

Roger Williams University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pay The Troll Toll: The Patent Troll Model Is Fundamentally At Odds With The Patent System's Goal Of Innovation And Competition, Grace Heinecke Dec 2015

Pay The Troll Toll: The Patent Troll Model Is Fundamentally At Odds With The Patent System's Goal Of Innovation And Competition, Grace Heinecke

Fordham Law Review

Patent litigation has multiplied sixfold since the 1980s, with the last few years seeing an unprecedented number of patent lawsuits. When an inventor receives a patent, the U.S. Constitution grants him a monopoly for a limited number of years to reward him for his investment of time and resources and to incentivize him to continue innovating, which ultimately benefits society. However, the emergence of a litigious character, deemed the “patent troll,” has led to the patent system’s hindrance of innovation, a result that is at odds with the primary goal of patent law. Patent trolls exploit weaknesses in ...


Patent Trolls And Preemption, Paul Gugliuzza Oct 2015

Patent Trolls And Preemption, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Patent law is usually thought to be the domain of the federal government, not state governments. Yet over half the states have recently passed statutes outlawing unfair or deceptive assertions of patent infringement. The statutes are aimed at fighting so-called patent trolls, particularly those who send letters to users of allegedly infringing technology — as opposed to the manufacturers of that technology — demanding that each user purchase a license for a few thousand dollars or else face an infringement suit. The Federal Circuit, however, has held that state law claims challenging acts of patent enforcement are preempted by the federal Patent ...


Defeating Trolls: The Impact Of Octane And Highmark On Patent Trolls, Aria Soroudi Jun 2015

Defeating Trolls: The Impact Of Octane And Highmark On Patent Trolls, Aria Soroudi

Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review

This Comment discusses two Supreme Court cases, Octane Fitness, LLC v. ICON Health & Fitness, Inc. and Highmark, Inc. v. Allcare Health Management Systems, Inc., and their impact on patent litigation involving patent trolls. Prior to these cases, patent troll litigation was on a continual rise and Congress’s proposed measures were failing to curb the problem. Many companies, particularly startups, were left vulnerable to a patent troll threat because they could not afford the potential court costs to defend their case. This problem was compounded by the fact that traditional attorney fee shifting awards were extremely rigid and difficult to ...


Here Come The Trade Secret Trolls, David S. Levine, Sharon K. Sandeen Jan 2015

Here Come The Trade Secret Trolls, David S. Levine, Sharon K. Sandeen

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Within the past few years, the U.S. federal government has been forced to confront the massive but hard-to-quantify problem of foreign and state-sponsored cyberespionage against U.S. corporations, from Boeing to small technology start-ups, and (as of this writing) perhaps Sony Pictures Entertainment. As part of that effort, Congress has taken up the Defend Trade Secrets Act and the Trade Secret Protection Act, which would create a private cause of action under the federal Economic Espionage Act. This Article addresses the possibility of introducing trolling behavior—using litigation as a means to extract settlement payments from unsuspecting defendants—to ...


Trolls Or Toll-Takers: Do Intellectual Property Non-Practicing Entities Add Value To Society?, Samuel F. Ernst Jan 2015

Trolls Or Toll-Takers: Do Intellectual Property Non-Practicing Entities Add Value To Society?, Samuel F. Ernst

Publications

The 2015 Chapman Law Review Symposium will seek to advance the discussion of non-practicing entities in three ways: (1) by expanding on the scholarly debate surrounding patent trolls summarized above; (2) by expanding on the perspectives informing this debate beyond academia by inviting the views of practitioners from both sides of the patent troll divide; and (3) by expanding on the scope of this topic by considering the nature and possibility of copyright and trademark trolls.


Patent Litigation Reform: The Courts, Congress, And The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Paul Gugliuzza Jan 2015

Patent Litigation Reform: The Courts, Congress, And The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Barely three years after passing the America Invents Act, Congress is again considering patent reform legislation. At least fourteen patent reform bills were introduced in the recently concluded 113th Congress. Several of those bills focused specifically on patent litigation, proposing, among other things, to impose heightened pleading requirements on plaintiffs, to limit discovery, and to create a presumption that the losing party should pay the winner’s attorneys’ fees. None of the proposals became law, but one of the bills (the Innovation Act) passed the House of Representatives. In addition, scholars continue to call for reform, and Republican members of ...


The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver Dec 2014

The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver

Oskar Liivak

In Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co., the Supreme Court held (1) that patent owners have an absolute right not to practice their patent and (2) that even these nonpracticing patent owners are entitled to the liberal use of injunctive relief against infringers. Both of these holdings have been very important to the viability of patent assertion entities, the so-called patent trolls. In eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., the Supreme Court softened the injunction rule. In this Article, we argue that Congress or the Court should reconsider Continental Paper Bag’s embrace of an absolute ...


The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver Nov 2014

The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver

Eduardo M. Peñalver

In Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co., the Supreme Court held (1) that patent owners have an absolute right not to practice their patent and (2) that even these nonpracticing patent owners are entitled to the liberal use of injunctive relief against infringers. Both of these holdings have been very important to the viability of patent assertion entities, the so-called patent trolls. In eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., the Supreme Court softened the injunction rule. In this Article, we argue that Congress or the Court should reconsider Continental Paper Bag’s embrace of an absolute ...


Patent Law In The Service Of Innovation: The Danger Of "Patent Trolls", Marketa Trimble Apr 2014

Patent Law In The Service Of Innovation: The Danger Of "Patent Trolls", Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

UNLV's Academic Achievement Gala is a campus-wide event that celebrates the scholarly and creative accomplishments of the university's faculty over the academic year. Prof. Trimble was chosen to have her empirical research on patent litigation showcased at 2014's Academic Achievement Gala. This poster, which was on display at the gala, provides an overview of Prof. Trimble's research on patent trolls.


Foreigners In U.S. Patent Litigation: An Empirical Study Of Patent Cases Filed In Nine U.S. Federal District Courts In 2004, 2009, And 2012 (Presentation), Marketa Trimble Apr 2014

Foreigners In U.S. Patent Litigation: An Empirical Study Of Patent Cases Filed In Nine U.S. Federal District Courts In 2004, 2009, And 2012 (Presentation), Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at PatCon 4, a conference hosted by the University of San Diego School of Law. Professor Trimble discussed the results of her empirical study of patent litigation involving foreign parties.


Markets And Patent Enforcement: A Comparative Investigation Of Non-Practicing Entities In The Unitedstates And Europe, Stefania Fusco Jan 2014

Markets And Patent Enforcement: A Comparative Investigation Of Non-Practicing Entities In The Unitedstates And Europe, Stefania Fusco

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Is it true that non-practicing entities (NPEs) are primarily a U.S. phenomenon? Over time, several definitions of NPEs have been presented. They range from research institutions that hold patent portfolios for their inventions but do not develop and commercialize any products, to IP asset management firms whose exclusive business is asserting patent claims to collect significant fees from companies operating in certain industries. The latter are also referred to as “patent trolls” and have been the subject of significant debate as to their role in the innovative process in different fields. NPEs are a relatively new phenomenon. Studies have ...