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Determining What’S Not Obvious: Should A Reasonable Expectation Of Success Invalidate Patent Applications?, Natalie Peters Feb 2023

Determining What’S Not Obvious: Should A Reasonable Expectation Of Success Invalidate Patent Applications?, Natalie Peters

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Patents are necessary to incentivize innovation because they grant owners the right to protect inventions. To be patentable, an invention must be useful, it must be novel, and it must not be obvious. But the judiciary has struggled to apply the latter requirement, non-obviousness, particularly for highly technical innovations subject to FDA regulations. For these innovations, the progression through the regulatory jungle can take ten to twenty years and millions of dollars (2.6 billion for a pharmaceutical drug). The complexities of the regulatory process can also render an innovation unprotected by patent rights because, by the end of the process, …


Renewing Faith In Antitrust: Unveiling The Hidden Network Behind Pharmaceutical Product Hopping, Victoria Field Jan 2023

Renewing Faith In Antitrust: Unveiling The Hidden Network Behind Pharmaceutical Product Hopping, Victoria Field

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Patents grant time-limited market exclusivity to drug manufacturers, meaning that other companies are prohibited from copying and selling the patented pharmaceutical. This allows manufacturers to lawfully charge monopoly prices. Generic competition starts at the expiration of the patent. To maintain coveted monopoly power, manufacturers often release an alternative formulation of the drug with a fresh patent that enjoys continued market exclusivity. Manufacturers who can convert their consumer base to the new formulation can continue charging peak prices. This process, called “product hopping,” has been the target of significant antitrust inquiry, with mixed results.

A product hop may be the result …


A Qualitative Method For Investigating Design, Jessica Silbey, Mark P. Mckenna Jan 2023

A Qualitative Method For Investigating Design, Jessica Silbey, Mark P. Mckenna

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter describes our qualitative study of designers and design practice. It situates the study in the broader field of empirical studies of intellectual property, and it describes in detail the methodology and benefits of a qualitative interview study of designers and design practice to shed light on some of the persistent puzzles in design law. The chapter focuses on four lines of inquiry: defining “design” and “design practice” from within the profession; exploring the various inputs to design practice and the process of “problem solving” designers pursue; understanding what “integrated” form and function mean to designers; and explaining the …


Comparative Intellectual Property Protection For Marijuana: United States Vs. The European Union, Jillian Gosser Dec 2022

Comparative Intellectual Property Protection For Marijuana: United States Vs. The European Union, Jillian Gosser

The Global Business Law Review

Protecting intellectual property relating to marijuana is a complicated endeavor. The federal ban on marijuana renders trademark protection difficult at best, and patent protection, while available, still rife with complications. In Europe, the laws pose similar challenges in the protection and enforcement of marijuana related intellectual property. This Note presents a comparative law analysis of the various ways marijuana related intellectual property may be protected in the United States and Europe. Different types of intellectual property protection explored include utility patents, design patents, trademarks, plant patents, Plant Variety Protection Act coverage, and Community Plant Variety Act coverage. This Note explores …


Information Theory And Patent Documents, W. Michael Schuster Sep 2022

Information Theory And Patent Documents, W. Michael Schuster

Akron Law Review

Recent scholarship has expanded the scope of analytical tools available to patent law researchers. The foundation of information theory published by Claude Shannon has been applied to textual analysis to determine the similarities of patents and to assess a patent’s value. This article presents a theoretical application of information theory to quantify lexical ambiguity and originality in innovation within patent law.


It’S All About Principle: How Patent Trolling, Over Broad Patents, Evergreening, And Patent Shelving Represent A Departure From The Patent Clause And How To Return To The Principle Of The Patent Clause, Morgan L. Stringer Sep 2022

It’S All About Principle: How Patent Trolling, Over Broad Patents, Evergreening, And Patent Shelving Represent A Departure From The Patent Clause And How To Return To The Principle Of The Patent Clause, Morgan L. Stringer

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

This article explores differing patent abuses that reflect how current patent law has swung drastically away from the Patent Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The purpose of the Patent Clause is to ensure that inventors are given a limited monopoly in order to encourage innovation, or to “progress the useful arts and sciences.” There are many forms of patent abuse, but this article will explore patent trolls, overbroad patents, evergreening, and patent shelving as forms of patent abuse that reflect a departure from the Constitutional principle of progress in patent law. Each of these patent abuses hinders progress, so according …


Book Review: Indian Patent Law And Practice, Kaylan C. Kankanala, Arun K. Narasani And Vinita Radhakrishnan (Oup, 2010), Feroz Al Khader Sep 2022

Book Review: Indian Patent Law And Practice, Kaylan C. Kankanala, Arun K. Narasani And Vinita Radhakrishnan (Oup, 2010), Feroz Al Khader

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Sui Generis Protection For Plant Varieties And Traditional Knowledge In Biodiversity And Agriculture: The International Framework And National Approaches In The Philippines And India, Christoph Antons Sep 2022

Sui Generis Protection For Plant Varieties And Traditional Knowledge In Biodiversity And Agriculture: The International Framework And National Approaches In The Philippines And India, Christoph Antons

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

The so-called ‘biotechnology clause’ of Article 27.3(b) of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement requires from member states protection for plant varieties either via the patent system or via an ‘effective sui generis system’ or by a combination of the two. Many developing countries prefer forms of sui generis protection, which allow them to include exceptions and protection measures for traditional agricultural practices and the traditional knowledge of farmers and local communities. However, ‘traditional knowledge’ remains a vaguely defined term. Its extension to biodiversity has brought a diffusion of the previously clearer link between protected subject matter, intellectual property and potential beneficiaries. The …


Patenting Human Genes: Wherein Lies The Balance Between Private Rights And Public Access In India And The United States?, Elizabeth Siew-Kuan Ng Sep 2022

Patenting Human Genes: Wherein Lies The Balance Between Private Rights And Public Access In India And The United States?, Elizabeth Siew-Kuan Ng

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

This article examines the patentability of human genes by evaluating where the balance should lie between the protection of private rights and public access for the promotion of further innovation and public health. The author investigates this issue by providing a comparative study on the approaches adopted in India and the United States – two highly divergent nations that offer unique contrasts in a comparative analysis of their patent regimes. The outcome of the appraisal discerns a potential convergence in the Indian and US approaches on certain aspects of human gene patent-eligibility. This interesting result reveals that contrary to intuition, …


Picket Patents: Non-Working As An Ip Abuse, Dr. Feroz Ali Sep 2022

Picket Patents: Non-Working As An Ip Abuse, Dr. Feroz Ali

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

Patents picket when the patent holder practices the patent in certain jurisdictions but refuses to work the patent in others. The concept of patent picketing developed as a result of a shift from the representation of the working of an invention physically to the merely describing, effectively, the inventions in patent applications. Patent holders picket with their patents and demand a higher price, thereby not only preventing others from using their invention but also ensuring that the product is not made available in all markets. Such behaviour can be regarded as an intellectual property (IP) abuse when the non-working of …


Copyright Protection For Works In The Language Of Life, Nina Srejovic Jun 2022

Copyright Protection For Works In The Language Of Life, Nina Srejovic

IPIPC Papers & Reports

In 2001, the DNA Copyright Institute sought to capitalize on the fear of human cloning by offering celebrities the opportunity to use copyright to secure exclusive rights in their DNA. At the time, a Copyright Office spokesperson pointed out that a person’s DNA “is not an original work of authorship.” That statement is no longer self-evident. A scientist claims to have used CRISPR technology to create a pair of twin girls with human-altered DNA that may provide immunity to HIV infection and improved cognitive function. Through gene therapy, doctors can “author” changes to patients’ DNA to cure disease. Scientists “edit” …


Does Size Matter? Nanoscale Particle Size As An Indicator Of Inherency In Nanopharmaceutical Patent Validity, Kirsten Fehlan Jun 2022

Does Size Matter? Nanoscale Particle Size As An Indicator Of Inherency In Nanopharmaceutical Patent Validity, Kirsten Fehlan

Georgia State University Law Review

Scientific and technological advances in nanopharmaceuticals bring the doctrine of inherent obviousness to a head. On the one hand, nanotechnology promises to offer novel ways to target and treat traditionally incurable diseases by operating at a scale that is comparable to the scales that most biological systems use. On the other hand, nanotechnology inventions that result in improved pharmacokinetic properties are susceptible to validity challenges based on inherent obviousness.

Inherency and obviousness are two independently recognized and well-understood principles in United States patent law. Inherency refers to a claimed limitation or feature that is either necessarily present in, or the …


Intellectual Property Rights And Competition Law For Transfer Of Environmentally Sound Technologies, Mahatab Uddin May 2022

Intellectual Property Rights And Competition Law For Transfer Of Environmentally Sound Technologies, Mahatab Uddin

Pace International Law Review

Battling against climate change, “a common concern of humankind,” is the most prominent global challenge of this century, and Environmentally Sound Technologies (“ESTs”) are the main tools to fight this battle. This article examines the juxtaposed role of Intellectual Property Rights (“IPRs”) and competition laws in facilitating wide-scale innovation and transfer of ESTs in developing and least developed countries. This article covers diverse IPRs, including patents and trade secrets. The discussion and analysis of the IPRs are based on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”). And the discussion on competition law mainly focuses on competition related …


International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson May 2022

International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The impact of the COVID–19 pandemic has been felt world-wide, and despite having several vaccines in the market at this point, there are still issues of accessibility for certain countries. International intellectual property law has been a breeding ground for the exploration of intellectual curiosity and creation as it provides strong protections to creators. These strong protections have allowed for the monopolization of certain goods, such as vaccines, under the concept of patents. While patents are important to incentivize pharmaceutical companies to create life–saving medicines, these protections have also become a barrier for access to medicines, especially in less–developed countries. …


Patent Performativity, Dan L. Burk May 2022

Patent Performativity, Dan L. Burk

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

Gender bias is rife in the patent system; a large and growing body of empirical literature demonstrates the exclusion of women from the patent system at every level. Such pervasive marginalization cannot be explained by the paucity of women in STEM fields. Rather, more fundamental discriminatory mechanisms must be at work. In this paper I examine one aspect of such biases, arguing that patents operate as performatives, that is, as social assemblages that enact what they disclose, and that create their own social facts. To demonstrate patent performativity, I briefly trace the development of performative concepts, from Austinian declarations, through …


Bright Stars Or Unreliable Compasses: Navigating Patent Definiteness During The Fourth Industrial Revolution, N. Thane Bauz May 2022

Bright Stars Or Unreliable Compasses: Navigating Patent Definiteness During The Fourth Industrial Revolution, N. Thane Bauz

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article traces the evolution of the definiteness requirement over the course of two centuries. From the time of inventions relating to flour mills, the definiteness requirement evolved into the consequence for drafting uninterpretable claims. Without considering the reasons for this evolution, the Supreme Court in its Nautilus decision returned the standard for assessing definiteness to its root form. Given the consequences are the loss of patent rights, this Article grapples with the Supreme Court’s decision during an era where complex and convergent technologies are more commonplace. The Article also analyzes empirical evidence six years before and six years after …


Patents And Plants: Rethinking The Role Of International Law In Relation To The Appropriation Of Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants (Tkup), Ikechi Mgbeoji May 2022

Patents And Plants: Rethinking The Role Of International Law In Relation To The Appropriation Of Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants (Tkup), Ikechi Mgbeoji

PhD Dissertations

Legal control and ownership of plants and traditional knowledge of the uses of plants (TKUP) is often a vexed issue, particularly at the international level because of the conflicting interests of states or groups of states in the matter. The most widely used form of juridical control of plants and TKUP is the patent system which originated in Europe. This thesis rethinks the role of international law and legal concepts, the major patent systems of the world and international agricultural research institutions as they affect legal ownership and control of plants and TKUP. The analysis is cast in various contexts …


Assessing Responses To The Pto’S 2021 Patent Eligibility Study, Jorge L. Contreras, Victoria T. Carrington Mar 2022

Assessing Responses To The Pto’S 2021 Patent Eligibility Study, Jorge L. Contreras, Victoria T. Carrington

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In July 2021, the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) issued a public request for comments regarding the impact of recent patent eligibility jurisprudence on US businesses and markets. The PTO received 145 responses to its request by the October 2021 deadline. In this paper, we analyze the responses by industry sector and respondent type, assessing whether responses were generally positive, neutral or negative toward US patent eligibility jurisprudence, and also identifying those responses that cited international competitiveness of US businesses (particularly with respect to China) in their reasoning.


In Your Own Defense: The Importance Of Immuno-Oncology And The Problem With Patenting Under The "Laws Of Nature", Laura Schwartz Feb 2022

In Your Own Defense: The Importance Of Immuno-Oncology And The Problem With Patenting Under The "Laws Of Nature", Laura Schwartz

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Anti-Suit Injunctions And Jurisdictional Competition In Global Frand Litigation: The Case For Judicial Restraint, Jorge L. Contreras Feb 2022

Anti-Suit Injunctions And Jurisdictional Competition In Global Frand Litigation: The Case For Judicial Restraint, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The proliferation of international jurisdictional conflicts and competing “anti-suit injunctions” in litigation over the licensing of standards-essential patents has raised concerns among policy makers in the United States, Europe and China. This article suggests that national courts temporarily “stand down” from assessing global “fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory” (FRAND) royalty rates while international bodies develop a more comprehensive, efficient and transparent methodology for resolving issues around FRAND licensing.


Bilski And The Information Age A Decade Later, Michael J. Meurer Jan 2022

Bilski And The Information Age A Decade Later, Michael J. Meurer

Faculty Scholarship

In the years from State Street in 1999 to Alice in 2014, legal scholars vigorously debated whether patents should be used to incentivize the invention of business methods. That attention has waned just as economists have produced important new research on the topic, and just as artificial intelligence and cloud computing are changing the nature of business method innovation. This chapter rejoins the debate and concludes that the case for patent protection of business methods is weaker now than it was a decade ago.


Technology Changes Drive Legal Changes For Antibody Patents: What Patent Examiners Can Teach Courts About The Written Description And Enablement Requirements., S. Sean Tu, Christopher M. Holman Jan 2022

Technology Changes Drive Legal Changes For Antibody Patents: What Patent Examiners Can Teach Courts About The Written Description And Enablement Requirements., S. Sean Tu, Christopher M. Holman

Faculty Works

Antibody patents form the basis of some of the most valuable biotechnology products on the market. In 2020 alone, the sales of the top three drugs exceed 10 billion dollars. Two of those three drugs are monoclonal antibodies (Humira and Keytruda). In the past, patent law offered broad protection for monoclonal antibodies. As time has progressed, however, courts have narrowed the scope of antibody patents. However, very little research has been done to see how patent examiners are applying the rules of patentability to these valuable antibody patents.

We examine approximately two decades worth of antibody patents to determine how …


'In The Public Interest' - University Technology Transfer And The Nine Points Document – An Empirical Assessment, Jorge L. Contreras Jan 2022

'In The Public Interest' - University Technology Transfer And The Nine Points Document – An Empirical Assessment, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In 2007, eleven major U.S. research universities and the Association of American Medical Colleges signed an accord titled “In the Public Interest: Nine Points to Consider in Licensing University Technology.” It outlined a range of issues that universities should consider when licensing their technology to the private sector - from reservations of rights and limitations on exclusivity to refraining from dealing with patent assertion entities to making medical technologies accessible at affordable prices. More than talking points, the document proposed specific contractual clauses intended to promote the educational and public welfare missions of universities. Today, more than one hundred academic …


Patent Reality Checks: Eliminating Patents On Fake, Impossible And Other Inoperative Inventions, Jorge L. Contreras Jan 2022

Patent Reality Checks: Eliminating Patents On Fake, Impossible And Other Inoperative Inventions, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The recent assertion of patents originally held by Theranos, the defunct blood analysis company whose founders are under federal indictment for fraud, highlights the existence of patents that might claim non-existent or inoperative inventions. While such patents may ultimately be subject to validity challenges in court, their issuance nevertheless has harmful effects on markets and innovation. I propose several administrative and legislative measures directed toward the elimination of patents claiming inoperative inventions including (1) increasing USPTO efforts to detect potentially inoperable inventions, (2) heightening examination requirements, including a certification of enablement, for certain inventions, (3) enabling greater public input into …


Ms. Attribution: How Authorship Credit Contributes To The Gender Gap, Jordana Goodman Jan 2022

Ms. Attribution: How Authorship Credit Contributes To The Gender Gap, Jordana Goodman

Faculty Scholarship

Misattribution plagues the practice of law in the United States. Seasoned practitioners and legislators alike will often claim full credit for joint work and, in some cases, for the entirety of a junior associate’s writing. The powerful over-credit themselves on legislation, opinions, and other legal works to the detriment of junior staff and associates. The ingrained and expected practice of leveraging junior attorneys as ghost-writers is, to many, unethical. But it presents a distinct concern that others have yet to interrogate: misattribution disparately impacts underrepresented members of the legal profession.

This Article fills that space by offering a quantitative analysis …


What Is Standard Tomorrow, May Not Have Been Today: An Argument For Claiming ScèNes À Faire, Logan Sandler Nov 2021

What Is Standard Tomorrow, May Not Have Been Today: An Argument For Claiming ScèNes À Faire, Logan Sandler

University of Miami Law Review

Recent lawsuits involving the Pirates of the Caribbean film franchise and the Oscar award-winning movie The Shape of Water required courts to wrestle with the application of the decisive scènes à faire doctrine. In doing so, the Ninth Circuit exposed the doctrine’s chief pitfall: the lack of a temporal framework.
The modern scènes à faire doctrine limits the scope of what authors can claim as substantially similar by excluding the standard or stock elements in a given expressive work from copyright protection. Courts will often conclude that a contested element is scènes à faire if it can be demonstrated that …


Treating Diagnostics: Protecting In Vitro Diagnostic Testing In An Uncertain § 101 Landscape, Emily Iroz Rich Oct 2021

Treating Diagnostics: Protecting In Vitro Diagnostic Testing In An Uncertain § 101 Landscape, Emily Iroz Rich

Akron Law Review

Beyond question, medical diagnostic tests, they save lives. The diagnostic tests also contribute to the overall health of the U.S. economy. However, the current state of subject-matter eligibility for patent protection does not incentivize the research and development of these life-saving tools. Previous legislative and judicial efforts to fix subject-matter eligibility have failed. This article proposes a diagnostic patent act to allow the protection of in vitro diagnostic tests. The proposed diagnostic patent act would include safeguards to allow adequate access to fundamental research while incentivizing the return of investment to the patent holder. Safeguards would include exceptions to patent …


"Prep"Aring For A Challenge To Government-Owned Patents, Caleb Holland Sep 2021

"Prep"Aring For A Challenge To Government-Owned Patents, Caleb Holland

Catholic University Law Review

The United States Government owns one of the largest patent estates in the world, but it rarely brings suit for patent infringement. To understand why that may be, this paper looks critically at the Government as a patent holder. Specifically, the paper reviews the fundamentals of American patents and explores the intricacies unique to the Government as an entity that both grants and holds patent rights. The paper examines the historical progression of how the United States Government positions itself with regard to its patents, tracing this evolution from Constitutional origins to more recent statutory refinements. Finally, the paper looks …


Intellectual Property Through A Non-Western Lens: Patents In Islamic Law, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Aug 2021

Intellectual Property Through A Non-Western Lens: Patents In Islamic Law, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Georgia State University Law Review

The intersection of secular, Western intellectual property law and Islamic law is undertheorized in legal scholarship. Yet the nascent and developing non-Western law of one form of intellectual property—patents—in Islamic legal systems is profoundly important for transformational innovation and economic development initiatives of Muslim-majority countries that comprise nearly one-fifth of the world’s population.

Recent scholarship highlights the tensions of intellectual property in Islamic law because religious considerations in an Islamic society do not fully align with Western notions of patents. As Islamic legal systems have begun to embrace patents in recent decades, theories of patents have presented conceptual and theological …


Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore May 2021

Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Technology is moving at unmeasurable rates to that of law. Ownership rights and legality become harder to grasp distant theories. With community code-sharing and limiting language structures, when does code become plagiarized or entity-owned? The disciplines of Cyberlaw and computer science are used to provide a better understanding.

The Cyberlaw discipline explores how jurisdiction views cyberspace, source code, and source code’s placement within legislation. Due to cyberspace’s ever-evolving nature, litigation struggles to encompass the possibilities within it. Computer science delves into theory-based excursions that define the law’s shape in the cyber realm. It bolsters the possibility of implementing progressive legislation …