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Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore May 2021

Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Technology is moving at unmeasurable rates to that of law. Ownership rights and legality become harder to grasp distant theories. With community code-sharing and limiting language structures, when does code become plagiarized or entity-owned? The disciplines of Cyberlaw and computer science are used to provide a better understanding.

The Cyberlaw discipline explores how jurisdiction views cyberspace, source code, and source code’s placement within legislation. Due to cyberspace’s ever-evolving nature, litigation struggles to encompass the possibilities within it. Computer science delves into theory-based excursions that define the law’s shape in the cyber realm. It bolsters the possibility of ...


Intellectual Property For New Entrepreneurs, Michael Johnston Apr 2021

Intellectual Property For New Entrepreneurs, Michael Johnston

Honors Projects

Abstract – New entrepreneurs, regardless of age, encounter several barriers regarding intellectual property. My research posits that new entrepreneurs are burdened by both informational barriers and lack of resources. A data driven analysis of this problem produced an easy to comprehend guide targeted to new entrepreneurs. This paper presents a subjective guide for entrepreneurs that details patents, trademarks, copyrights, and licensing.


The Injunction Function: How And Why Courts Secure Property Rights In Patents, Adam Mossoff Apr 2021

The Injunction Function: How And Why Courts Secure Property Rights In Patents, Adam Mossoff

Notre Dame Law Review

This Essay addresses one aspect of this legal and policy debate concerning remedies in patent law: how and why courts presumptively secured patent owners with injunctions against ongoing or willful infringements of their property rights. Prompted by the United States Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in eBay v. MercExchange, which created a new four-factor test for issuing injunctions on a finding of ongoing infringement of a valid patent, there is a growing body of scholarly commentary on the role of injunctive remedies in securing property rights in new technological innovations. Much of this commentary focuses on how eBay has resulted ...


Legal Principles Of Acts Resulting From Patent Rights A Comparative Study Of Uae, Jordanian And French Legal Systems, Nouri Hamad Khater Mar 2021

Legal Principles Of Acts Resulting From Patent Rights A Comparative Study Of Uae, Jordanian And French Legal Systems, Nouri Hamad Khater

Journal Sharia and Law

Patent rights occupy an eminent position within the intellectual copyrights in general, and the industrial copyrights, in particular. Admitting patent rights resulted in several significant impacts at the legal and economic levels alike. Thus, patent legislations have closely focused on that issue. Among the most important impacts of such an issue are the articles governing the acts based on patent rights. Legislations have identified the basic legal principles governing these acts. Therefore, we find it highly essential to discuss these legislations, explain their principles and compare such basic principles to the general principles of legal acts. This study is based ...


Software Patent In U.S. Law, Mohammed Hassan Abdullah Mar 2021

Software Patent In U.S. Law, Mohammed Hassan Abdullah

Journal Sharia and Law

The handling of the patent system is at variance in the American system with that in the European Union's system, where the American system began to allow software protection under its patent system in addition to copyright protection while the European Union's Patent Office accepts this tendency some member States reject it. This affects negatively the level of protection and its nature, which should be available in a suitable and balanced manner between the different legal systems due to the nature of software as a countries' trans-border product. Thus, this research study calls for a special system of ...


United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller Feb 2021

United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller

Catholic University Law Review

Intellectual property law in the United States, though shaped by key statutes, has long been a common-law field to a great degree. Many decades of decisional law flesh out the meaning of broad-textured, sparely worded statutes. Given the key roles of patent law and copyright law, both federal, the Supreme Court of the United States is i.p. law’s leading apex court. What are the major topical currents in the Supreme Court’s i.p. cases, both now and over the course of the Court’s work? This study uses network-analysis tools to measure and map the entirety of ...


The Problem Of Recourse To Arbitration In Intellectual Property Disputes Within National Laws: Comparative Study On Patent, Trademark And Copyright Disputes, Mahmoud Ismail Abu Turabi Feb 2021

The Problem Of Recourse To Arbitration In Intellectual Property Disputes Within National Laws: Comparative Study On Patent, Trademark And Copyright Disputes, Mahmoud Ismail Abu Turabi

Journal Sharia and Law

This study tries to answer the following question: could the intellectual property rights being a subject of arbitration in case of dispute? To answer the question, we need to study the legal nature of the intellectual property and the legal basic to get protection. It is a comparative study between Jordanian law and French law.


Defensive Patent Litigation Strategy For Chinese Companies: A Review Of The Extraterritorial Reach Of The United States Patent Laws, Lisa D. Zang Jan 2021

Defensive Patent Litigation Strategy For Chinese Companies: A Review Of The Extraterritorial Reach Of The United States Patent Laws, Lisa D. Zang

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

China has experienced an extraordinary transformation from a poor, developing nation into a global economic power. With China becoming one of the U.S.’s largest trading partners, however, Chinese companies have become increasingly enmeshed in U.S. patent litigations. Although the U.S. patent laws are intended only to govern conduct within the nation’s borders, the line between domestic and foreign economic activities has become increasingly blurred. Modern sales transactions often span multiple countries, and in such situations, it may not be clear whether the U.S. patent laws apply. For Chinese companies facing exposure to U.S ...


The Covid-19 Vaccine Race: Intellectual Property, Collaboration(S), Nationalism And Misinformation, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Covid-19 Vaccine Race: Intellectual Property, Collaboration(S), Nationalism And Misinformation, Ana Santos Rutschman

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a national and global vaccine race. This Article examines the race with respect to contemporary frameworks for biopharmaceutical research and development. Specifically, this Article focuses on the effect of patents, pre-production agreements, public-private partnerships, and vaccine misinformation. This Article analyzes lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, advocates for promoting vaccine affordability and equity, and suggests modifications to existing preparedness frameworks to prepare for upcoming outbreaks of infectious disease.


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


Nonobviousness: Before And After, Dmitry Karshtedt Jan 2021

Nonobviousness: Before And After, Dmitry Karshtedt

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The requirement of nonobviousness, codified in 35 U.S.C. § 103, has been called “the ultimate condition of patentability” because of its crucial function of keeping technically trivial inventions out of the patent system. The obviousness determination must be made based on the state of the invention’s field at a particular point in time—in the Patent Act’s current version, the date that the patent application was effectively filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”).

However, in spite of the critical role of time in patent law and the danger that hindsight bias could distort ...


Patents And Price Fixing By Serial Colluders, Michael Meurer, William Kovacic, Robert Marshall Jan 2021

Patents And Price Fixing By Serial Colluders, Michael Meurer, William Kovacic, Robert Marshall

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust law has long been mindful of the danger that firms may misuse their patents to facilitate price fixing. Courts and commentators addressing this danger have assumed that patent-facilitated price fixing occurs in a single market. In this Article, we extend conventional analysis to address firms’ patent misuse to facilitate price fixing across multiple products lines. By doing so, we expose gaps in existing agency enforcement and scholarly proposals for reform. Important legal tests that make sense in the single market setting do not carry over to the context we call serial collusion, where certain offenders engage in repeat collusion ...


We're All Pirates Now: Making Do In A Precarious Ip Ecosystem, Jessica Silbey Jan 2021

We're All Pirates Now: Making Do In A Precarious Ip Ecosystem, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

Fifteen years after the Piracy Paradox explained how most anti-copying protection is unnecessary for a thriving fashion industry, we face another piracy paradox: with broader and stronger IP laws and a digital economy in which IP enforcement is more draconian than ever, what explains the ubiquity of everyday copying, sharing, re-making and re-mixing practices that are the life blood of the internet's expressive and innovative ecosystems? Drawing on empirical data from a decade of research, this short essay provides two examples of this "new piracy paradox": a legal regime that ostensibly punishes piracy in a culture in which it ...


Financial Terms In License Agreements, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Financial Terms In License Agreements, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in the forthcoming casebook Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice (2020, forthcoming), discusses the financial terms of IP licensing agreements including fixed payments, running royalties, sublicensing income, milestone payments, equity compensation and cost reimbursement, as well as most-favored and audit clauses. Numerous areas of recent controversy are addressed including the establishment of royalty rates through the entire market value rule (EMVR) versus the smallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) rule, royalties for bundled rights, rules of thumb discredited by the courts, royalty escalation clauses and more. Examples are drawn primarily from biotechnology, high-tech and copyright licensing ...


Pledging Intellectual Property For Covid-19, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Pledging Intellectual Property For Covid-19, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

COVID-19 differs from other recent public health crises with respect to its sudden onset, its rapid spread, the lack of any known vaccine or cure and resulting shortages of critical medical equipment. The convergence of these factors has prompted both governments and IPR holders around the world to seek ways to increase the availability of IPR necessary to combat the pandemic. Governmental compulsory licensing, IPR pools and voluntary IPR pledges have all been used in the past, though in situations that differ in important respects from the COVID-19 pandemic. Each is designed to result, to a greater or lesser degree ...


No License, No Problem – Is Qualcomm’S Ninth Circuit Antitrust Victory A Patent Exhaustion Defeat?, Jorge L. Contreras, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

No License, No Problem – Is Qualcomm’S Ninth Circuit Antitrust Victory A Patent Exhaustion Defeat?, Jorge L. Contreras, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The Ninth Circuit’s recent decision in FTC v. Qualcomm (9th Cir., Aug. 11, 2020) is generally viewed as a resounding victory for Qualcomm. But in praising Qualcomm’s egalitarian approach toward rival chip makers, the Ninth Circuit points out that instead of granting licenses to these rivals, Qualcomm merely “declines to enforce its patents” against them “even though they practice Qualcomm’s patents”. As such, the Ninth Circuit states that Qualcomm’s “policy toward rival chipmakers could be characterized as ‘no license, no problem’”. Yet, from the standpoint of patent exhaustion, this approach could actually be a very big ...


First Sale And Exhaustion, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

First Sale And Exhaustion, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in the forthcoming case book "Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice" addresses issues of first sale and exhaustion for licensing transactions involving patents, copyrights and trademarks. Among the issues considered are licensing versus sale of software, patent exhaustion, post-sale restrictions, international exhaustion and gray market imports.


Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This Chapter offers a broad overview of the impact of U.S. antitrust laws on IP licensing and transactions. A basic understanding of antitrust law is critical to the analysis of IP licensing arrangements, whether concerning patents, copyrights or trademarks. This chapter offers a summary of the antitrust doctrines that arise frequently in IP and technology-focused transactions — price fixing and market allocation, resale price maintenance, tying, monopolization, refusals to deal, standard setting and pay-for-delay settlements, with coverage of the major cases and enforcement agency guidance. Antitrust issues also play a role in the analysis of joint ventures, which are discussed ...


Revisiting The License V. Sale Conundrum, Nancy S. Kim Nov 2020

Revisiting The License V. Sale Conundrum, Nancy S. Kim

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

This Article seeks to answer a question that has become increasingly more important as commerce moves from the tangible to the intangible—to what extent may a business use a contract to control the use of a fully paid product? The characterization of a transaction as a license or a sale determines what may be done with a product, who controls how the product may be used, and what happens in the event of a dispute. The past generation has seen a seismic shift in the way businesses distribute their products to consumers. Businesses often “license” rather than “sell” their ...


It’S Anti-Suit Injunctions All The Way Down – The Strange New Realities Of International Litigation Over Standards-Essential Patents, Jorge L. Contreras Aug 2020

It’S Anti-Suit Injunctions All The Way Down – The Strange New Realities Of International Litigation Over Standards-Essential Patents, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Today’s markets for technology products — from smartphones to home appliances to automobiles — are inherently global. This is especially true of products that embody technical standards — protocols like 5G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB that are covered by hundreds, thousands, or tens of thousands of patents (so-called “standards-essential patents” or “SEPs”). Given the global scope and size of these markets, it is not surprising that patent litigation over standardized products is often conducted on a global scale. This article looks at an increasingly important aspect of these global standards wars: the ability of a court in one jurisdiction to prevent a ...


Association For Molecular Pathology V. Myriad Genetics: A Critical Reassessment, Jorge L. Contreras Aug 2020

Association For Molecular Pathology V. Myriad Genetics: A Critical Reassessment, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics is part of the Court’s recent quartet of patent eligibility decisions, which also includes Bilski v. Kappos, Mayo v. Prometheus and Alice v. CLS Bank. Each of these decisions has significantly shaped the contours of patent eligibility under Section 101 of the Patent Act in ways that have been both applauded and criticized. The Myriad case, however, was significant beyond its impact on Sec-tion 101 jurisprudence. Perhaps one of the most remarkable things about Myriad is that it meant so many different things to so ...


Patent Fakes: How Fraudulent Inventions Threaten Public Health, Innovation, And The Economy, Jorge L. Contreras Aug 2020

Patent Fakes: How Fraudulent Inventions Threaten Public Health, Innovation, And The Economy, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Because there is no practical way for patent examiners to verify that the inventions claimed in patent applications actually work, a surprising number of patents are issued for inventions that have turned out to be imaginary, fraudulent or otherwise non-existent. What's more, as illustrated by the recent attempt by Labrador Diagnostics to assert a patent acquired from now-defunct Theranos against firms developing testing kits for COVID-19, these patents present a genuine threat to businesses operating in important sectors of the economy. While it is unrealistic to expect patent examiners to verify the functionality of every claimed invention, there are ...


Obviousness-Type Double Patenting: Why It Exists And When It Applies, Daniel Kazhdan Jul 2020

Obviousness-Type Double Patenting: Why It Exists And When It Applies, Daniel Kazhdan

Akron Law Review

At least since 1819, courts have prohibited double patenting—where an inventor has two patents on the same or obvious variations of the same invention. There have always been two basic justifications for prohibiting double patenting. The first focused on the patentee: bad actors might try to improperly extend their patent monopoly by filing serial applications. The second focused on the public’s rights: the bargain of the patent is that in exchange for the inventor getting a term-limited patent, the public is entitled to use the claimed invention (and its obvious variations) once the patent expires. This public-rights rationale ...


Kenya’S Intellectual Property Bill, 2020, And Its Shortcomings In Adopting All Lawful Trips Public Health Flexibilities, Brook K. Baker Jun 2020

Kenya’S Intellectual Property Bill, 2020, And Its Shortcomings In Adopting All Lawful Trips Public Health Flexibilities, Brook K. Baker

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Given the importance of access to medicines to human rights and well-being in Kenya, it is appropriate to analyze whether Kenya has currently incorporated the allowed public health flexibilities to the greatest extent possible in its draft Intellectual Property Bill, 2020. This analysis will focus on the patent, utility model, and enforcement measures only as they are the ones directly relevant to access to medicines and other health technologies. The analysis starts with the premise that Kenya wishes to avoid granting unwarranted patents on unworthy inventions, especially with respect to medicines and other health technologies. In particular, the assumption is ...


Quirky Patent Coloring Books: An Outreach Project Focused On Changing The Patent Culture One Patent Coloring Book At A Time, Paulina Borrego May 2020

Quirky Patent Coloring Books: An Outreach Project Focused On Changing The Patent Culture One Patent Coloring Book At A Time, Paulina Borrego

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

No abstract provided.


Issued Patents In A University’S Institutional Repository, Suzanne Reinman, Janet Ahrberg May 2020

Issued Patents In A University’S Institutional Repository, Suzanne Reinman, Janet Ahrberg

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Beginning in 2016, patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) granted to Oklahoma State University were included in SHAREOK (https://shareok.org/.). The joint institutional repository for the Oklahoma State University Libraries (OSU) and the University of Oklahoma Libraries (OU), SHAREOK serves as the home for the intellectual output of both communities and will ultimately include digital dissertations, faculty publications, digital special collections, open access publications, and open educational resources. Including patents has increased the depth of the collection and allows them to be searched or indexed by date, author, title, and subject/classification. Using DSpace ...


Piug: Patent Information Users Group, Inc.: A History Of The International Society For Patent Information Professionals, Barbara J. Hampton May 2020

Piug: Patent Information Users Group, Inc.: A History Of The International Society For Patent Information Professionals, Barbara J. Hampton

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Efforts to view and analyze patents began soon after the first patents were filed in the novel system founded in the U.S. Constitution. In the succeeding 200 plus years, classification and indexing tools have evolved from paper to digital, with searching demanding ever-higher skills. Answering the need of patent researchers and analysts for advocacy, scholarship, and professional education, leading searchers founded the Patent Information Users Group, Inc., now the pre-eminent professional organization for patent searchers in the United States. It offers formal coursework for prospective patent searchers, colloquia, and conferences where novice searchers can master their craft. Searchers, who ...


Intellectual Property's First Sale Doctrine And The Policy Against Restraints On Alienation, Lorie M. Graham, Stephen M. Mcjohn May 2020

Intellectual Property's First Sale Doctrine And The Policy Against Restraints On Alienation, Lorie M. Graham, Stephen M. Mcjohn

Texas A&M Law Review

The first sale doctrine decouples intellectual property and physical property. Suppose, at an auction at Sotheby’s, someone bought a contemporary painting by Chuck Close. The buyer now owns the physical painting, but the copyright to the painting remains with the owner of the copyright—the painter Chuck Close or whomever Close may have transferred the copyright to. Absent the first sale doctrine, if the buyer either sold the painting or displayed it to the public, the buyer would potentially infringe the copyright in the painting. The copyright owner has the exclusive right to display copies (including the original, the ...


Research And Repair: Expanding Exceptions To Patent Infringement In Response To A Pandemic, Jorge L. Contreras Apr 2020

Research And Repair: Expanding Exceptions To Patent Infringement In Response To A Pandemic, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The doctrinal areas on which this essay focuses are two longstanding but narrow exemptions from patent infringement: one that permits scientific research, and one that permits the owner of a patented device to repair it. Though distinct at first glance, both of these doctrines act to permit activity that would otherwise be considered patent infringement. They are exceptions to the exclusivity that the law grants to patent holders – particularly the right to “make” a patented article and, to a lesser degree, to “use” it, and for this reason they are particularly salient when patents may impact critical lifesaving technologies. This ...


Is Biopharma Ready For The Standards Wars?, Jorge L. Contreras Apr 2020

Is Biopharma Ready For The Standards Wars?, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This symposium contribution sheds new light on Momenta v. Amphastar, a recent federal case in which issues relating to standardization and patent disclosure that have previously been observed in the semiconductor, computing and telecommunications sectors found their way into a dispute between two biosimilar manufacturers. One such manufacturer, Momenta, participated in the development of a standard for testing the purity of generic enoxaparin under the auspices of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, but failed to disclose that it had applied for a patent on the testing method. When Momenta later sued Amphastar for infringement based on its use of that ...