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Full-Text Articles in Law

Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie Nov 2020

Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie

Michigan Law Review

In this Article, we provide a new statistical and legal framework to understand the legality and fairness of predictive algorithms under the Equal Protection Clause. We begin by reviewing the main legal concerns regarding the use of protected characteristics such as race and the correlates of protected characteristics such as criminal history. The use of race and nonrace correlates in predictive algorithms generates direct and proxy effects of race, respectively, that can lead to racial disparities that many view as unwarranted and discriminatory. These effects have led to the mainstream legal consensus that the use of race and nonrace correlates …


A Failure Of The Fourth Amendment & Equal Protection's Promise: How The Equal Protection Clause Can Change Discriminatory Stop And Frisk Policies, Brando Simeo Starkey Sep 2012

A Failure Of The Fourth Amendment & Equal Protection's Promise: How The Equal Protection Clause Can Change Discriminatory Stop And Frisk Policies, Brando Simeo Starkey

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

Terry v. Ohio changed everything. Before Terry, Fourth Amendment law was settled. The Fourth Amendment had long required that police officers have probable cause in order to conduct Fourth Amendment invasions; to administer a "reasonable" search and seizure, the state needed probable cause. But in 1968, the Warren Court, despite its liberal reputation, lowered the standard police officers had to meet to conduct a certain type of search: the so-called "'stop' and 'frisk.'" A "stop and frisk" occurs when a police officer, believing a suspect is armed and crime is afoot, stops the suspect, conducts an interrogation, and pats him …


No Cause Of Action: Video Surveillance In New York City, Olivia J. Greer Jan 2012

No Cause Of Action: Video Surveillance In New York City, Olivia J. Greer

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

In 2010, New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly announced a new network of video surveillance in the City. The new network would be able to prevent future terrorist attacks by identifying suspicious behavior before catastrophic events could take place. Kelly told reporters, "If we're looking for a person in a red jacket, we can call up all the red jackets filmed in the last 30 days," and "[w]e're beginning to use software that can identify suspicious objects or behaviors." Gothamist later made a witticism of Kelly's statement, remarking, "Note to terrorists: red jackets are not a good look for …


To Elect Or Not To Elect: A Case Study Ofjudicial Selection In New York City 1977-2002, Steven Zeidman Apr 2004

To Elect Or Not To Elect: A Case Study Ofjudicial Selection In New York City 1977-2002, Steven Zeidman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article examines the process of judicial selection in New York State in light of the recent court decisions in White and Spargo, which have paved the way for increased campaign speech in judicial elections. Relying on empirical data to compare judicial elections and appointments in New York City between 1977 and 2002, the Article finds that elections produce a judiciary that is more beholden to interest groups than one generated through appointments. The consequence of this greater special interest involvement is an erosion of public trust and confidence in the judiciary. Moreover while elections arguably have increased diversity in …


Reflecting On The Subject: A Critique Of The Social Influence Conception Of Deterrence, The Broken Windows Theory, And Order-Maintenance Policing New York Style, Bernard E. Harcourt Nov 1998

Reflecting On The Subject: A Critique Of The Social Influence Conception Of Deterrence, The Broken Windows Theory, And Order-Maintenance Policing New York Style, Bernard E. Harcourt

Michigan Law Review

In 1993, New York City began implementing the quality-of-life initiative, an order-maintenance policing strategy targeting minor misdemeanor offenses like turnstile jumping, aggressive panhandling, and public drinking. The policing initiative is premised on the broken windows theory of deterrence, namely the hypothesis that minor physical and social disorder, if left unattended in a neighborhood, causes serious crime. New York City's new policing strategy has met with overwhelming support in the press and among public officials, policymakers, sociologists, criminologists and political scientists. The media describe the "famous" Broken Windows essay as "the bible of policing" and "the blueprint for community policing." Order-maintenance …


Police And Thieves, Rosanna Cavallaro May 1998

Police And Thieves, Rosanna Cavallaro

Michigan Law Review

What is it about New York City that has, in the last few years, spawned a series of books attacking the criminal justice system and describing a community in which victims' needs are compelling while the rights of the accused are an impediment to justice? Why does this apocalyptic vision of the system persist, despite statistics demonstrating the sharpest decline in the city's and the nation's crime rates in decades? What explains the acute detachment from the accused that is at the core of this series of books? In Virtual Justice: The Flawed Prosecution of Crime in America, Richard Uviller …


Homelessness: A Historical Perspective On Modern Legislation, Mark Peters Apr 1990

Homelessness: A Historical Perspective On Modern Legislation, Mark Peters

Michigan Law Review

This Note will demonstrate how current legislative responses to homelessness are bound and crippled by the social reform theories of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Before legislators can devise more efficient remedies to tackle current problems, they must identify and transcend earlier, ineffective thinking. This requires viewing the homelessness problem· in historical perspective. Specifically, legislatures must (1) examine the origins of the legal system's underlying conceptions about homelessness, (2) understand how these conceptions undermined earlier legislation designed to deal with the crisis, and (3) isolate, and escape, the modem manifestations of these conceptions.

This Note examines the early twentieth …


Hardly The Trial Of The Century, Franklin E. Zimring May 1989

Hardly The Trial Of The Century, Franklin E. Zimring

Michigan Law Review

A Review of A Crime of Self-Defense: Bernhard Goetz and the Law on Trial by George P. Fletcher


Tempered Zeal: A Columbia Law Professor's Year On The Streets With The New York City Police, Carol J. Sulcoski May 1989

Tempered Zeal: A Columbia Law Professor's Year On The Streets With The New York City Police, Carol J. Sulcoski

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Tempered Zeal: A Columbia Law Professor's Year on the Streets with the New York City Police


United States V. Palestine Liberation Organization: Continued Confusion In Congressional Intent And The Hierarchy Of Norms, Andrew R. Horne Jan 1989

United States V. Palestine Liberation Organization: Continued Confusion In Congressional Intent And The Hierarchy Of Norms, Andrew R. Horne

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note concludes that while the court's rationale is disingenuous and misleading, the final decision was an appropriate reaffirmation of the importance which American jurisprudence places on international obligations. In Part One, this Note discusses whether the dispute resolution provisions of the Headquarters Agreement precluded the district court's jurisdiction over the parties and subject matter of this case. Part Two examines the constitutional hierarchy of the ATA and the Headquarters Agreement to determine which should govern this dispute. If the court had concluded that it lacked jurisdiction, the case would have been dismissed from the U.S. court system, leaving the …


The Birth Of A Public Corporation, Jon C. Teaford Feb 1985

The Birth Of A Public Corporation, Jon C. Teaford

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Public Property and Private Power: The Corporation of the City of New York in American Law, 1730-1870. by Hendrik Hartog


The Politics Of Welfare: The New York City Experience, Michigan Law Review Feb 1984

The Politics Of Welfare: The New York City Experience, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Politics of Welfare: The New York City Experience by Blanche Bernstein


Disorganized Crime: The Economics Of The Visible Hand, Michigan Law Review Feb 1984

Disorganized Crime: The Economics Of The Visible Hand, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Visible Hand by Peter Reuter


Conversion Of Apartments To Condominiums And Cooperatives: Protecting Tenants In New York, Charles M. Cobbe Jan 1975

Conversion Of Apartments To Condominiums And Cooperatives: Protecting Tenants In New York, Charles M. Cobbe

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In recent years, the number of conversions of rental apartments to cooperative and condominium ownership has increased dramatically. Such conversions often result in extreme hardships for tenants in the buildings affected. Those who are unable or unwilling to pay the purchase price of an apartment are generally forced to seek other rental accommodations at a time when these are increasingly difficult to find -a problem which becomes especially severe for elderly tenants and those with low incomes. In addition, tenants who purchase apartments may suffer the abuses which often accompany sales of condominium and cooperative units. A further problem in …


New York City Consumer Protection Law Of 1969, Thomas G. Morgan Jan 1970

New York City Consumer Protection Law Of 1969, Thomas G. Morgan

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In recent years there has been growing concern over the lack of legal protection afforded the American consumer. Comprehensive consumer protection legislation has been introduced at all levels of government, and several significant proposals have been enacted into law. One such enactment at the municipal level is the New York City Consumer Protection Law of 1969, which establishes a framework for a broad ban against unfair trade practices and vests the city's Commissioner of Consumer Affairs with extensive powers of enforcement. In this note, the New York City ordinance will be analyzed and evaluated against the general background of existing …


New York City School Decentralization, Barry D. Hovis Dec 1969

New York City School Decentralization, Barry D. Hovis

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The 1969 New York Education Act grew out of a movement demanding decentralization of the New York City school system. The ultimate goals of this movement were to: (1) encourage community awareness and participation in the development of educational policy, and (2) create sufficient flexibility in the school system to enable administrators to resolve the diverse needs of the varying communities within the city. Support for the plan arose out of more than a decade of dissatisfaction with the centralized system by educators, school administrators, and parents. Supporters of decentralization had pointed in particular to the failure of the centralized …


The Evolution Of A Collective Bargaining Relationship In Public Education: New York City's Changing Seven-Year History, Ida Klaus Mar 1969

The Evolution Of A Collective Bargaining Relationship In Public Education: New York City's Changing Seven-Year History, Ida Klaus

Michigan Law Review

The bargaining relationship between the New York City Board of Education and its teachers had its roots in the social forces of the mid-fifties and its formal origins in the events of the early sixties. The relationship came about without benefit of law or executive policy. No law permitting public employees to bargain collectively was in effect anywhere in those years, and Mayor Wagner's 1958 Executive Order-the culmination of three years of study and public inquiry-did not apply to teachers. Instead, the impetus came directly from the persistent and increasingly powerful drive of the teachers themselves. They demanded a substantial …


Strikes And Impasse Resolution In Public Employment, Arvid Anderson Mar 1969

Strikes And Impasse Resolution In Public Employment, Arvid Anderson

Michigan Law Review

Experience indicates that in most instances the right to strike is not an essential part of the public employment collective bargaining process.18 Thus, the crucial issue is not really whether strikes should be permitted or prohibited in the public sector, but whether the collective bargaining process itself can be made so effective absent the right to strike that the need for work stoppages will be obviated. It is my conclusion that certain proven impasse resolution procedures--mediation, fact-finding, and in some cases, even arbitration--can be substituted for the strike weapon in public employment without substantial loss in the effectiveness of collective …


Constitutional Law - Civil Rights - Recent New York City Ordinance Bans Discrimination In Certain Private Housing Facilities, W. Stanley Walch May 1958

Constitutional Law - Civil Rights - Recent New York City Ordinance Bans Discrimination In Certain Private Housing Facilities, W. Stanley Walch

Michigan Law Review

A recent New York City ordinance is the first anti-discrimination legislation affecting the sale and rental of privately-owned housing to minority groups. The ordinance contains three principal provisions: It (1) forbids racial or religious discrimination by private owners in the selection of tenants or buyers for any "housing accommodation which is located in a multiple dwelling," (2) bans discrimination in the selection of purchasers by a seller of ten or more contiguous housing units, and (3) prohibits the owner or lessor of housing accommodations covered by the ordinance from discriminating because of race or religion in setting the terms of …


Constitutional Law-Equal Protection-Traffic Regulation Forbidding Advertising On Moving Vehicles, W. M. Myers S.Ed. Nov 1949

Constitutional Law-Equal Protection-Traffic Regulation Forbidding Advertising On Moving Vehicles, W. M. Myers S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

A traffic regulation of the City of New York provides that "[n]o person shall operate, or cause to be operated, in or upon any street an advertising vehicle; provided that nothing herein contained shall prevent the putting of business notices upon business delivery vehicles, so long as such vehicles are engaged in the usual business or regular work of the owner and not used merely or mainly for advertising.'' Railway Express Agency, Inc., which owns and operates about 1,900 trucks in New York City, sold the space on the exteriors of these trucks for advertising unconnected with its own business. …


Constitutional Law-Taxation-Gross Receipts Taxes In Relation To Interstate Commerce-Freeman V. Hewit, Irving Slifkin S.Ed. Nov 1947

Constitutional Law-Taxation-Gross Receipts Taxes In Relation To Interstate Commerce-Freeman V. Hewit, Irving Slifkin S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The scope of state taxation of interstate commerce has been redefined in two recent Supreme Court cases involving the application of state gross receipts taxes. In Freeman v. Hewit and Joseph v. Carter and Weekes Stevedoring Co., the Court discarded the cumulative burdens test, which for the past eight years had served as the basis for determining the extent of state taxation of interstate commerce, and readopted the direct and indirect burden test.


Constitutional Law - Due Process Of Law - Freedom Of Expression In Commercial Handbills, Edward W. Adams Feb 1942

Constitutional Law - Due Process Of Law - Freedom Of Expression In Commercial Handbills, Edward W. Adams

Michigan Law Review

Petitioner desired to display for profit a privately owned submarine. Upon application, he was denied permission to tie up at the New York City docks, and so he obtained permission to use state-owned docks. He petitioned the police commissioner for permission to distribute handbills advertising his display, but because of a New York City ordinance providing that any handbill which was commercial in nature could not be circulated, this was refused. Petitioner then prepared a handbill with commercial matter referring to the display on one side, and on the other side a protest against the city's refusal to allow petitioner …


Taxation - Commerce Clause - Tax By Seller State On Contract To Sell Interstate, Walter B. Connolly Jan 1941

Taxation - Commerce Clause - Tax By Seller State On Contract To Sell Interstate, Walter B. Connolly

Michigan Law Review

Appellants were partners in the securities business with offices in New York City. In the course of their business they agreed to sell shares of stock to two firms, one engaged in business in Philadelphia, the other in Washington, D. C. The securities were mailed to banks in Philadelphia and Washington for delivery upon payment of sight drafts attached. Under the tax law of the state of New York, a tax was levied on the sale of this stock. Appellants sought a refund of the tax on the ground that the statute imposed an unconstitutional burden on interstate commerce. Held …


International Law - Treaty Interpretation - Immunity Of Consul From Civil Suit Dec 1935

International Law - Treaty Interpretation - Immunity Of Consul From Civil Suit

Michigan Law Review

Tarcuanu, the vice-consul in charge of the Roumanian consulate in New York City, was served with a summons ma civil suit. This case involves his motion to have the summons vacated because of article 2 of the treaty of 1881 between the United States and Roumania, the pertinent part of which says: "The consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls and consular agents of each of the two high contracting parties shall enjoy reciprocally in the States of the other, all the privileges, exemptions and immunities that are enjoyed by officers of the same rank and quality of the most favored nation." In this …


Contracts--Change Of Circumstances-Constructive Promise Dec 1934

Contracts--Change Of Circumstances-Constructive Promise

Michigan Law Review

In 1921 plaintiff and defendant entered into a contract whereby defendant agreed to give plaintiff "one-half of all moneys" which should be received "from any revivals of" the play" 'Alias Jimmy Valentine' including productions in New York City, 'on the road,' or 'in stock.' " Plaintiff's share was to be mailed direct to him under division orders from wherever the play was being produced, accompanied by box office statements. It was stipulated that "all contracts . . . or other arrangements . . . affecting the title to the dramatic rights ( exclusive of motion picture rights) . . . …


Waste - Improvement Of Premises By Life Tenant Mar 1932

Waste - Improvement Of Premises By Life Tenant

Michigan Law Review

The possible difficulties of a life tenant and some of the rigid and anachronistic doctrines of the law of waste are suggested by the recent case of Brokaw v. Fairchild, 135 Mis. 70, 237 N. Y. S. 6 (1929); aff'd 231 App. Div. 704,245 N. Y. S. 402 (1930), Finch, J., dissenting; aff'd, 177 N. E. 186 (1931), without opinion.


Carriers-Liability For Loss Of Goods-Connecting Carriers In Foreign Commerce Apr 1931

Carriers-Liability For Loss Of Goods-Connecting Carriers In Foreign Commerce

Michigan Law Review

A box of furs, shipped from London, England, to New York City, U. S. A., over the line of the defendant navigation company, was delivered to the defendant trucking company at the order of the United States because the duties had not been paid. The trucking company delivered it to the defendant warehouse where it remained a week before being moved by the same trucking company to the United States Appraisal Stores. Here it was discovered that some of the furs had been stolen from the box. Held, the defendant navigation company was not liable as initial carrier under …


Taxation-Situs Of Intangibles For Succession Tax Feb 1929

Taxation-Situs Of Intangibles For Succession Tax

Michigan Law Review

Decedent died domiciled in Connecticut, leaving as part of his estate, bonds and treasury certificates of the United States, which at the time of his death, and for a long time prior thereto had been physically placed and kept in safety deposit vaults in New York city, and had never been in Connecticut. The superior court of Fairfield county, on the advice of the supreme court of errors of Connecticut held that the bonds and certificates were not subject to a succession tax in Connecticut at the domicil of the decedent. The supreme court reached its decision by applying its …


Rent Regulations Under The Police Power, Alan W. Boyd Apr 1921

Rent Regulations Under The Police Power, Alan W. Boyd

Michigan Law Review

Conditions resulting from the widespread housing shortage caused by the cessation of building during the war have given rise to legislation which must seem startling indeed to much of the legal talent surviving from a generation ago. The outstanding example is to be found in the New York laws which so far have succeeded admirably in eluding the constitutional pitfalls relied upon to nullify them. Three provisions have borne the brunt of the attack. The first prevents the recovery of an unreasonable rent in an action at law, and places the burden of showing reasonableness upon the landlord." Another suspends …