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Full-Text Articles in Law

Underwater Mortgages For Underwater Homes: The Elimination Of Signals In The Coastal Lending Market, Peyton J. Klein Oct 2021

Underwater Mortgages For Underwater Homes: The Elimination Of Signals In The Coastal Lending Market, Peyton J. Klein

Vanderbilt Law Review

Climate change and sea level rise threaten to increase the default risk of mortgages on homes in coastal areas. Faced with this reality, small coastal lenders have begun selling more climate-sensitive mortgages to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, thereby transferring the risk of climate-induced default off the lenders’ books. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac play a crucial role in supporting America’s mortgage finance system by purchasing qualifying private home loans, packaging them into investable security pools, and guaranteeing timely payment of principal and interest to outside investors. Through selling mortgages to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, lenders can use ...


Bankruptcy & The Underwater Home: A Case For Real Property Redemption, David Sheinfeld Feb 2021

Bankruptcy & The Underwater Home: A Case For Real Property Redemption, David Sheinfeld

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code exists to satisfy the claims of creditors and preserve an economic “fresh start” for the debtor after bankruptcy. In exchange for surrendering her property to the trustee to have it monetized (i.e., sold), the debtor receives a discharge of her debts and an injunction against future creditor in personam actions to recover them. However, the in personam injunction is insufficient to protect consumer debtors who are in default on mortgages encumbering underwater homes because the creditor’s in rem rights remain; after the conclusion of the case, the creditor can continue ...


Regarding Docket No. Fr-6111-P-02, Hud’S Implementation Of The Fair Housing Act’S Disparate Impact Standard, Sonia Gipson Rankin, Alfred Mathewson, Melanie Moses, G. Matthew Fricke, Kathy Powers, Gabriel R. Sanchez, Christopher Moore, Elizabeth Bradley, Mirta Galesic, Joshua Garland Oct 2019

Regarding Docket No. Fr-6111-P-02, Hud’S Implementation Of The Fair Housing Act’S Disparate Impact Standard, Sonia Gipson Rankin, Alfred Mathewson, Melanie Moses, G. Matthew Fricke, Kathy Powers, Gabriel R. Sanchez, Christopher Moore, Elizabeth Bradley, Mirta Galesic, Joshua Garland

Faculty Scholarship

The is a Comment on the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Proposed Rule: FR-6111-P-02 HUD’s Implementation of the Fair Housing Act’s Disparate Impact Standard . This comment examines how algorithms in housing applications may be inherently biased against certain groups of people.

Their arguments against the proposed legislation:

1. To ensure that an algorithm does not have disparate impact, it is not enough to show that individual input factors are not “substitutes or close proxies” for protected characteristics.

2. It is impossible to audit an algorithm for bias without an adequate level of transparency or access to ...


Jim Crow Credit, Mehrsa Baradaran May 2019

Jim Crow Credit, Mehrsa Baradaran

Faculty Scholarship

The New Deal created a separate and unequal credit market—high-interest, non-bank, installment lenders in black ghettos and low-cost, securitized, and revolving credit card market in the white suburbs. Organized protest against this racialized inequality was an essential but forgotten part of the civil rights movement. After protests and riots drew attention to the reality that the poor were paying more for essential consumer products than the wealthy, the nation’s policymakers began to pay attention. Congress held hearings and agencies, and academics issued reports examining the economic situation. These hearings led to new federal agencies and programs, executive actions ...


Facing The Facts: An Empirical Study Of The Fairness And Efficiency Of Foreclosures And A Proposal For Reform, Debra Pogrund Stark Dec 2018

Facing The Facts: An Empirical Study Of The Fairness And Efficiency Of Foreclosures And A Proposal For Reform, Debra Pogrund Stark

Debra Pogrund Stark

Lenders view real estate foreclosures as too expensive and time consuming a process which needlessly increases the costs of making loans. Others complain that the foreclosure process fails to adequately protect the borrower's equity (the value of the property in excess of the debt secured by the property) in the mortgaged property.

This article tests these views by gathering new data on the fairness and efficiency of the foreclosure process. Based on the data collected (which confirms some assumptions but disproves others), the author proposes a reform of the foreclosure process to promote the interest of both lenders and ...


Innovative Solutions In The Field Of The Institute Of Property Rights And Other Real Rights – The Key To The Liberalization Of The Economy, D. Karahodjaeva Sep 2018

Innovative Solutions In The Field Of The Institute Of Property Rights And Other Real Rights – The Key To The Liberalization Of The Economy, D. Karahodjaeva

Review of law sciences

This article discloses the views on the essence and significance of property rights and other real rights in the contemporary legal order of a market type in the conditions of development and liberalization of the economy; list of real rights, which are new for the domestic civil legislation and are to find their legislative solution; innovative solutions in this field.


Innovative Solutions In The Field Of The Institute Of Property Rights And Other Real Rights – The Key To The Liberalization Of The Economy, D. Karahodjaeva Sep 2018

Innovative Solutions In The Field Of The Institute Of Property Rights And Other Real Rights – The Key To The Liberalization Of The Economy, D. Karahodjaeva

Review of law sciences

This article discloses the views on the essence and significance of property rights and other real rights in the contemporary legal order of a market type in the conditions of development and liberalization of the economy; list of real rights, which are new for the domestic civil legislation and are to find their legislative solution; innovative solutions in this field.


Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green Sep 2018

Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Since the financial crisis of 2008, “shadow banking” or financial transactions by “non-banks,” has skyrocketed. Non-banks are not depositary institutions and as such, they roam free, largely outside the purview of the bank regulators. They occupy all parts of the credit markets, from mortgage loan origination to payday lenders. Untethered, they operate without government guarantees, such as deposit insurance and have no access to emergency government lending facilities, such as the Federal Reserve's discount window.

There are both positives and negatives in the rise of non-banks. On the positive side is market liquidity and greater diversity of funding sources ...


Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green May 2018

Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green

Cleveland State Law Review

Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government adopted programs and policies toward safe and decent housing for all. The initiatives included the creation of the Federal Housing Administration that, among other things, spurred mortgage lending by guaranteeing mortgage loans to low- and moderate-income borrowers. The creation of the secondary mortgage market by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (GSEs) helped provide more liquidity for loan originators. However, somewhere along the way, these GSEs lost their way, as they pursued profitability without regard to risk and heedlessly bought mortgages without considering quality.

The overabundance of poor quality mortgages led to the housing ...


Privacy Of Information And Dna Testing Kits, Shanna Raye Mason Jan 2018

Privacy Of Information And Dna Testing Kits, Shanna Raye Mason

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

In modern times, consumers desire for more control over their own health and healthcare. With this growing interest of control, direct to consumer DNA testing kits have never been more popular. However, many consumers are unaware of the potential privacy concerns associated with such use. This comment examines the popularity and privacy risks that are likely unknown to the individual consumer. This comment also addresses the shortcomings of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as well as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) in regard to protecting individual’s genetic information from misuse. This ...


Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green Jan 2018

Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government adopted programs and policies toward safe and decent housing for all. The initiatives included the creation of the Federal Housing Administration that, among other things, spurred mortgage lending by guaranteeing mortgage loans to low- and moderate-income borrowers. The creation of the secondary mortgage market by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (“GSEs”) helped provide more liquidity for loan originators. However, somewhere along the way, these GSEs lost their way, as they pursued profitability without regard to risk and heedlessly bought mortgages without considering quality.

The overabundance of poor quality mortgages led to the housing ...


Postal Banking's Public Benefits, Mehrsa Baradaran Jan 2018

Postal Banking's Public Benefits, Mehrsa Baradaran

Scholarly Works

The basic idea of postal banking is to have a public bank that would offer a wide range of transaction services, including deposit-taking and small lending. Post offices could offer these services at a much lower cost than banks and the fringe banking industry because (1) they can use natural economies of scale and scope to lower the costs of the products; (2) their existing infrastructure significantly reduces overhead costs, and (3) they do not have profit-demanding shareholders and would be able to offer products at cost.


Consumer Bitcredit And Fintech Lending, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2017

Consumer Bitcredit And Fintech Lending, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

The digital economy is changing everything, including how we borrow money. In the wake of the 2008 crisis, banks pulled back in their lending and, as a result, many consumers and small businesses found themselves unable to access credit. A wave of online firms called fintech lenders have filled the space left vacant by traditional financial institutions. These platforms are fast making antiques out of many mainstream lending practices, such as long paper applications and face-to-face meetings. Instead, through underwriting by automation — utilizing big data (including social media data) and machine learning — loan processing that once took days for mainstream ...


Real Property E-Conveyances And E-Recordings: The Solution Or Cause Of Mortgage Fraud, Spencer Hale Sep 2017

Real Property E-Conveyances And E-Recordings: The Solution Or Cause Of Mortgage Fraud, Spencer Hale

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Financial Reform: Making The System Safer And Fairer, Michael S. Barr Jan 2017

Financial Reform: Making The System Safer And Fairer, Michael S. Barr

Articles

In the fall of 2008, the financial crisis crushed the U.S. economy and plunged the country into the Great Recession. The crisis shuttered American businesses, cost millions of Americans their jobs, and wiped out home values and household savings. The macro effects hit hardest and were the longest lasting for those least able to bear the brunt of the crisis. It was devastating to middle-income families and perhaps even more so to low- and moderate-income households, who had little financial buffer (Barr 2012a). Financial stability, never robust for these families, dropped precipitously (Barr and Schaffa 2016). Both in the ...


Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren A. Prum May 2016

Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren A. Prum

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

A United Nations Environmental Programme report addressing climate change states that the built environment in both emerging and developed countries accounts for more than forty percent of global energy usage and at least one third of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. The report further asserts that the built environment offers an unsurpassed opportunity to supply cost effective, lasting, and meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In response to this call to action, state and local governments in the U.S. have turned to a variety of policies to ensure that real estate developments within their jurisdictions further green building ...


Force-Placed Insurance: The Lending Industry's "Dirty Little Secret", Dana Cronkite May 2016

Force-Placed Insurance: The Lending Industry's "Dirty Little Secret", Dana Cronkite

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Force-placed insurance, also called lender-placed insurance, is the insurance policy mortgage lenders obtain on behalf of borrowers when borrowers fail to maintain hazard insurance on their homes. Although the possibility of force-placed insurance is contemplated by mortgage contracts, the policies often provide little coverage and are much costlier than insurance policies acquired on the open market. Lenders obtain the policies at unfairly high prices and sometimes receive kickbacks from the force-placed insurance companies, while borrowers alone bear the burden of paying for them. As such, lenders have no incentive to obtain force-placed insurance at fair prices with adequate coverage. The ...


Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren Prum Jan 2016

Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren Prum

Darren A. Prum

In a report from the United Nations Environmental Program that addressed climate change, the authors point out that the built environment in both emerging and developed countries accounts for more than forty percent of the global energy usage while also emitting at least one third of the world’s greenhouse gasses. They further assert that the built environment offers an unsurpassed opportunity to supply cost effective, lasting, and meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In response to such a call to action, many state and local governments turned to a variety of policies to ensure that the real estate developments ...


Dividing The Single Indivisible Transaction: Balancing The Interests Of Mortgagees And Innocent Occupants, Vincent Ooi Sep 2015

Dividing The Single Indivisible Transaction: Balancing The Interests Of Mortgagees And Innocent Occupants, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection School Of Law

When a mortgagee provides the funds necessary to purchase a property, the law protects the priority of the mortgagee’s security interest from any other interests in the property created after that property was purchased (unless consented to by the mortgagee). The House of Lords affirmed this principle in Abbey National Building Society v Cann (‘Cann’), and rejected the technical argument based on a scintilla temporis in favour of the policy argument concerning the need to ensure that housing loans are available and affordable. The effect of this principle is to allow the mortgagee to enforce the security interest in ...


Priority Of Liens Between Construction Mortgagee And Mechanic's Lienors; Wayne Building & Loan Of Wooster V. Yarborough, Allan S. Hoffman Aug 2015

Priority Of Liens Between Construction Mortgagee And Mechanic's Lienors; Wayne Building & Loan Of Wooster V. Yarborough, Allan S. Hoffman

Akron Law Review

Ohio follows the generally accepted rule that where there is a mortgage securing future advances such advances create liens only as they are actually made, unless the mortgagee is obligated to make the advances. In the latter case the mortgagee's lien will date from the time of its recording. In addition to this nonstatutory method by which a mortgagee can obtain lien priority, there is a statutory method by which he can do so, namely the procedure provided by § 1311.14 of Ohio Rev. Code. This statute is not new, having been enacted in 1915. However, in 1919 the ...


The Emperor’S New Clothes: How The Judicial System And The Housing-Mortgage Market Have Turned A Blind Eye To The Destruction Of The Negotiability Of Mortgage Promissory Notes, Roy D. Oppenheim, Jacquelyn K. Trask-Rahn Apr 2015

The Emperor’S New Clothes: How The Judicial System And The Housing-Mortgage Market Have Turned A Blind Eye To The Destruction Of The Negotiability Of Mortgage Promissory Notes, Roy D. Oppenheim, Jacquelyn K. Trask-Rahn

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article examines the common notions of negotiable instruments as they relate to the modern day promissory note in the context of residential mortgage lending. The Article further addresses the destruction of the negotiability of such promissory notes through various undertakings added for the benefit of the banking industry, often to the detriment of a borrower. The use of negotiable instruments commenced in the 1800s in England as a way of ensuring a fluid market between trades as there was no fiat currency system in place. The fundamental purpose behind the concept of negotiability was subsequently abrogated by the modernization ...


Lending Discrimination, The Foreclosure Crisis And The Perpetuation Of Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Homeownership In The U.S., Aleatra P. Williams Apr 2015

Lending Discrimination, The Foreclosure Crisis And The Perpetuation Of Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Homeownership In The U.S., Aleatra P. Williams

William & Mary Business Law Review

For decades the agencies charged with minding the ‘fair credit and lending’ shop turned a blind eye to those (lenders) who pilfered minority homeownership (and consequently minority wealth) by extending mortgage lending products that were, in many cases, unequal to similarly situated non-minority counterparts. Since the 1950s, when the federal government endorsed homeownership policies for minorities, and the 1960s, when antidiscriminatory D9lending laws were enacted, access to fair mortgage credit has been unattainable. Unbridled lending discrimination culminated in massive foreclosures for a disproportionate number of minority homeowners during the Housing and Foreclosure Crisis. Lenders disparately foreclosed upon upper class, middle ...


Mortgage Foreclosure Proceedings: Where We Have Been And Where We Need To Go, Bryan E. Meek Apr 2015

Mortgage Foreclosure Proceedings: Where We Have Been And Where We Need To Go, Bryan E. Meek

Akron Law Review

The primary purpose for this comment is to provide an overview of the foreclosure process while introducing the laws and regulations that would govern an “ideal” foreclosure system. First, it provides a general introduction to the mortgage/foreclosure process. This introduction is crucial; it will help many to understand the way financial institutions have complicated the foreclosure process. Next, it analyzes various states, labeling them as either having “strict” foreclosure laws and regulations or having “lenient” foreclosure laws and regulations. Lastly, this comment discusses the pros and cons of various foreclosure requirements. The ultimate goal of this comment is to ...


Tmi About Pmi: A Basic Guide To Private Mortgage Insurance, Marie Sarantakis Jan 2015

Tmi About Pmi: A Basic Guide To Private Mortgage Insurance, Marie Sarantakis

Marie Sarantakis

Purchasing a home for the first time can be an intimidating and overwhelming experience for the average consumer. In an economic downturn, Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) is a commonly utilized mechanism that affords homebuyers the ability to purchase a residence with a minimal down payment while insulating the lender as the beneficiary of the policy. PMI is an often dreaded and misunderstood expense. This basic guide provides a rudimentary understanding of PMI for a real estate novice.


Usury And Loan Transfers, Roger Bernhardt, Alex Volkov Jan 2015

Usury And Loan Transfers, Roger Bernhardt, Alex Volkov

Publications

This Article is primarily concerned with the effect of transferring a mortgage loan from its originating loan broker to a group of small investors when that loan was at its inception usurious. However, because the rules applicable to that situation are not confined to mortgage law, we begin with a general explanation of usury rules before dealing with the particular real estate loan transaction mentioned.


Super Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2014

Super Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

In a time of limited resources and sluggish economic growth, competition between cities has become palpable, and the race for new investment often dictates the public agenda. To that end, the explosive growth of public-private partnerships between local governments and private investors has resulted in the creation of a myriad of special taxing districts, the purposes of which are limited only by the imagination. Of particular concern has been the growth of certain real estate development-related districts. Although first conceived to fund critical improvements where conventional credit was not available, in more recently years these special districts have been used ...


Super-Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2014

Super-Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

In a time of limited resources and sluggish economic growth, competition between cities has become palpable, and the race for new investment often dictates the public agenda. To that end, the explosive growth of public-private partnerships between local governments and private investors has resulted in the creation of a myriad of special taxing districts, the purposes of which are limited only by the imagination. Of particular concern has been the growth of certain real estate development-related districts. Although first conceived to fund critical improvements where conventional credit was not available, in more recently years these special districts have been used ...


It Takes A Village: Municipal Condemnation Proceedings And Public/Private Partnerships For Mortgage Loan Modification, Value Preservation, And Local Economic Recovery, Robert Hockett Dec 2014

It Takes A Village: Municipal Condemnation Proceedings And Public/Private Partnerships For Mortgage Loan Modification, Value Preservation, And Local Economic Recovery, Robert Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

Respected real estate analysts forecast that the U.S. is now poised to experience a renewed round of home mortgage foreclosures over the coming six years. Up to eleven million underwater mortgages will be affected. Neither our families, our neighborhoods, nor our state and national economies can bear a resumption of crisis on this order of magnitude.

I argue that ongoing and self-worsening slump in the primary and secondary mortgage markets is rooted in a host of recursive collective action challenges structurally akin to those that brought on the real estate bubble and bust in the first place. Collective action ...


Kentucky Law Survey: Property, Carolyn S. Bratt Dec 2014

Kentucky Law Survey: Property, Carolyn S. Bratt

Carolyn S. Bratt

Law students, and probably practitioners, are often perplexed by the multitude of topics covered under the rubric of property law. Unfortunately, this Survey article does nothing to dispel the impression of property law as a hodgepodge of unrelated topics. This Survey of recent decisions in Kentucky discusses topics ranging literally from "a" to "z"-adverse possession to zoning.


To Lien Strip Or Not To Lien Strip: Fourth Circuit Blesses Controversial Chapter 20 Valueless Lien Stripping In Re Davis, Timothy M. Todd Jul 2014

To Lien Strip Or Not To Lien Strip: Fourth Circuit Blesses Controversial Chapter 20 Valueless Lien Stripping In Re Davis, Timothy M. Todd

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.