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Affirmatively Furthering Health Equity, Mary Crossley Jan 2023

Affirmatively Furthering Health Equity, Mary Crossley

Articles

Pervasive health disparities in the United States undermine both public health and social cohesion. Because of the enormity of the health care sector, government action, standing alone, is limited in its power to remedy health disparities. This Article proposes a novel approach to distributing responsibility for promoting health equity broadly among public and private actors in the health care sector. Specifically, it recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services issue guidance articulating an obligation on the part of all recipients of federal health care funding to act affirmatively to advance health equity. The Fair Housing Act’s requirement that …


Prisons, Nursing Homes, And Medicaid: A Covid-19 Case Study In Health Injustice, Mary Crossley Jan 2021

Prisons, Nursing Homes, And Medicaid: A Covid-19 Case Study In Health Injustice, Mary Crossley

Articles

The unevenly distributed pain and suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic present a remarkable case study. Considering why the coronavirus has devastated some groups more than others offers a concrete example of abstract concepts like “structural discrimination” and “institutional racism,” an example measured in lives lost, families shattered, and unremitting anxiety. This essay highlights the experiences of Black people and disabled people, and how societal choices have caused them to experience the brunt of the pandemic. It focuses on prisons and nursing homes—institutions that emerged as COVID-19 hotspots –and on the Medicaid program.

Black and disabled people are disproportionately represented in …


Mhpaea & Marble Cake: Parity & The Forgotten Frame Of Federalism, Taleed El-Sabawi Apr 2020

Mhpaea & Marble Cake: Parity & The Forgotten Frame Of Federalism, Taleed El-Sabawi

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

No abstract provided.


How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has And Should Reshape The American Safety Net, Andrew Hammond, Ariel Jurow Kleiman, Gabriel Scheffler Jan 2020

How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has And Should Reshape The American Safety Net, Andrew Hammond, Ariel Jurow Kleiman, Gabriel Scheffler

UF Law Faculty Publications

The COVID-19 pandemic has delivered an unprecedented shock to the United States and the world. It is unclear precisely how long the twin crises, epidemiological and economic, will last, and it is difficult to gauge the extent and direction of the changes in American life these crises will cause. Nonetheless, it is beyond dispute that the COVID-19 pandemic is putting significant strain on both the ability of Americans to meet basic needs and our government’s capacity to assist them. Federal, state, and local governments have responded in various ways to deploy existing safety net programs like Medicaid, SNAP (food stamps), …


Predetermined? The Prospect Of Social Determinant-Based Section 1115 Waivers After Stewart V. Azar, Griffin Schoenbaum Jan 2019

Predetermined? The Prospect Of Social Determinant-Based Section 1115 Waivers After Stewart V. Azar, Griffin Schoenbaum

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Section 1115 of the Social Security Act allows the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the “Secretary”) to waive some of Medicaid’s requirements so states can enact “demonstration projects.” A demonstration project is an experiment a state can conduct by modifying aspects of its Medicaid program. To waive Medicaid’s requirements for this purpose, the Secretary must determine that the proposed demonstration project will likely assist in promoting Medicaid’s objectives.

Using this standard, President Trump’s Secretary has approved waiver requests to enact demonstration projects that contain “community engagement” requirements. The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia has heard each …


Threats To Medicaid And Health Equity Intersections, Mary Crossley Jan 2019

Threats To Medicaid And Health Equity Intersections, Mary Crossley

Articles

2017 was a tumultuous year politically in the United States on many fronts, but perhaps none more so than health care. For enrollees in the Medicaid program, it was a “year of living precariously.” Long-promised Republican efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act also took aim at Medicaid, with proposals to fundamentally restructure the program and drastically cut its federal funding. These proposals provoked pushback from multiple fronts, including formal opposition from groups representing people with disabilities and people of color and individual protesters. Opposition by these groups should not have surprised the proponents of “reforming” Medicaid. Both people of …


Opioids And Converging Interests, Mary Crossley Jan 2019

Opioids And Converging Interests, Mary Crossley

Articles

Written as part of Seton Hall Law Review’s Symposium on “Race and the Opioid Crisis: History and Lessons,” this Essay considers whether applying the lens of Professor Derrick Bell’s interest convergence theory to the opioid crisis offers some hope of advancing racial justice. After describing Bell’s interest convergence thesis and identifying racial justice interests that African Americans have related to the opioid crisis, I consider whether these interests might converge with white interests to produce real racial progress. Taken at face value, white politicians’ statements of compassion toward opioid users might signal a public health-oriented approach to addiction, representing …


Price And Prejudice: An Empirical Test Of Financial Incentives, Altruism, And Racial Bias, Kristen Underhill Jan 2019

Price And Prejudice: An Empirical Test Of Financial Incentives, Altruism, And Racial Bias, Kristen Underhill

Faculty Scholarship

Many argue that paying people for good behavior can crowd out beneficial motivations like altruism. But little is known about how financial incentives interact with harmful motivations like racial bias. Two randomized vignette studies test how financial incentives affect bias. The first experiment varies the race of a hypothetical patient in need of a kidney transplant (black or white), an incentive ($18,500 or none), and addition of a message appealing to altruism. Incentives encouraged donation but introduced a significant bias favoring white patients. The second experiment assesses willingness to donate to a patient (black or white) without an incentive and …


Bundling Justice: Medicaid's Support For Housing, Mary Crossley Jan 2018

Bundling Justice: Medicaid's Support For Housing, Mary Crossley

Articles

Achieving safe and stable housing presents a profound and ongoing challenge for many people living in poverty. The challenges include housing that is substandard or unaffordable and continuing risks of eviction. For a growing number, these challenges prove too much, and they become homeless. In addition, housing-related challenges that are part of daily life for many poor people can influence their physical and mental health. Increased attention to the health impacts of inadequate, insecure, and unaffordable housing has prompted some – including public health experts, physicians, and sociologists studying housing – to urge that housing issues, and homelessness in particular, …


Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos Dec 2017

Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

The 2016 election has had significant consequences for American social welfare policy. Some of these consequences are direct. By giving unified control of the federal government to the Republican Party for the first time in a decade, the election has potentially empowered conservatives to ram through a bill to repeal the Affordable Care Act—the landmark “Obamacare” law that marked the most significant expansion of the social welfare state since the 1960s. Other consequences are more indirect. Both the election result itself, and Republicans’ actions since, have spurred a renewed debate within the left-liberal coalition regarding the politics of social welfare …


Community Integration Of People With Disabilities: Can Olmstead Protect Against Retrenchment?, Mary Crossley Jan 2017

Community Integration Of People With Disabilities: Can Olmstead Protect Against Retrenchment?, Mary Crossley

Articles

Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, states have made significant progress in enabling Americans with disabilities to live in their communities, rather than institutions. That progress reflects the combined effect of the Supreme Court’s holding in Olmstead v. L.C. ex rel. Zimring, that states’ failure to provide services to disabled persons in the community may violate the ADA, and amendments to Medicaid that permit states to devote funding to home and community-based services (HCBS). This article considers whether Olmstead and its progeny could act as a check on a potential retrenchment of states’ …


Welfare And Federalism's Peril, Andrew Hammond Jan 2017

Welfare And Federalism's Peril, Andrew Hammond

UF Law Faculty Publications

Recent scholarship on American federalism lacks case studies to inform that scholarship’s trans-substantive insights and claims. This Article examines the last two decades of devolution brought about by the 1996 Welfare Reform Act (PRWORA). It details the history of PRWORA and how the funding mechanism built into Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) — the TANF block grant — guaranteed the program’s deterioration. The Article documents the program’s failure to respond to increased need among poor families after Hurricane Katrina and in the Great Recession, showing how the federal government’s use of TANF in both crises teach us the limits …


Medicaid Maximization And Diversion: Illusory State Practices That Convert Federal Aid Into General State Revenue, Daniel L. Hatcher Apr 2016

Medicaid Maximization And Diversion: Illusory State Practices That Convert Federal Aid Into General State Revenue, Daniel L. Hatcher

All Faculty Scholarship

For years, states have been using illusory schemes to maximize federal aid intended for Medicaid services-and then often diverting some or all of the resulting funds to other use. And states have help. Private revenue maximization consultants are hired by states to increase Medicaid claims, often for a contingency fee. We do not know the exact amount of federal Medicaid funds that has been diverted to state revenue and private profit each year, but it is in the billions.

The states' revenue strategies take advantage of the matching-grant structure of the Medicaid program. When state funds are spent on eligible …


Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Not The Solution To The High Cost Of Long-Term Care For The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik Jan 2016

Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Not The Solution To The High Cost Of Long-Term Care For The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik

Articles

Long-term care can be extremely expensive. As older Americans plan for financing care for their golden years, one option is to purchase a Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) policy. However, despite the potentially steep costs of long-term care, few elderly individuals actually purchase LTCI. This decision is rational for most elderly people. First, LTCI insures a risk that may never occur, as the majority of elderly Americans only need a year or less of long-term care. Second, Medicaid provides a publicly subsidized alternative to LTCI. An elderly person can rely on his or her savings to pay for care and then …


"First Food" Justice: Racial Disparities In Infant Feeding As Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman May 2015

"First Food" Justice: Racial Disparities In Infant Feeding As Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman

Fordham Law Review

Tabitha Walrond gave birth to Tyler Isaac Walrond on June 27, 1997, when Tabitha, a black woman from the Bronx, was nineteen years old. Four months before the birth, Tabitha, who received New York public assistance, attempted to enroll Tyler in her health insurance plan (HIP), but encountered a mountain of bureaucratic red tape and errors. After several trips to three different offices in the city, Tabitha still could not get a Medicaid card for Tyler. Tabitha’s city caseworker informed her that she would have to wait until after Tyler’s social security card and birth certificate arrived to get the …


The Troubled State Of America's Nursing Homes, Albert Moran Aug 2014

The Troubled State Of America's Nursing Homes, Albert Moran

Albert Moran

Even the most cursory search of news coverage involving nursing homes reveals that horror stories are not difficult to come by. Although the grisly details of each individual horror story vary, most of them share the same general story line—through some combination of gross negligence and profound systemic failure, elderly citizens can experience disturbing conditions in nursing homes that result in suffering and sometimes death. While egregious stories make local news headlines every so often and prompt a brief firestorm of public criticism, the everyday reality of nursing homes is much less sensationalized, and arguably even more sobering. Statistics indicate …


Cultural Collisions And The Limits Of The Affordable Care Act, Jasmine E. Harris Jan 2014

Cultural Collisions And The Limits Of The Affordable Care Act, Jasmine E. Harris

All Faculty Scholarship

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (“NFIB”) settled the central constitutional questions impeding the rollout of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”): whether the federal government’s “individual mandate” to purchase or hold health insurance and the federal government’s authority to retract existing federal dollars if states fail to expand Medicaid eligibility violate the Constitution. However, a number of residual questions persist in its wake. While most of the focus this year has been on related constitutional issues — such as religious exemptions from offering contraceptive coverage to employees — NFIB also clears the path for a discussion …


Giving Meaning To 'Meaningful Access' In Medicaid Managed Care, Mary Crossley Jan 2014

Giving Meaning To 'Meaningful Access' In Medicaid Managed Care, Mary Crossley

Articles

As states seek to shift Medicaid recipients with disabilities out of traditional fee-for-service settings and into managed care plans, vexing questions arise about the impact on access to needed care and providers for beneficiaries with medically complex needs. With many states expanding their Medicaid program as part of health care reform and cost-containment pressures continuing to mount, this movement will likely accelerate over the next several years. This Article examines the possibility that disability discrimination law might provide a mechanism for prodding states in the planning stage to anticipate and plan for likely access issues, as well as for challenging …


Advocacy In Health Proceedings In New York State, Kia C. Franklin Apr 2013

Advocacy In Health Proceedings In New York State, Kia C. Franklin

Touro Law Review

Individuals and communities navigating the healthcare system without an advocate often experience devastating outcomes and become burdened with unnecessary costs. These negative outcomes undermine the very utility of our healthcare system. The creation of a legal right to counsel for individuals with critical health related claims would meet an important and unmet need in our health and legal systems by empowering patients, improving the quality of health for many, and preventing unnecessary costs to the health care system.

A dedicated group of healthcare advocates, lawyers, public policy analysts, and other concerned individuals gathered together at Touro Law Center to strategize …


How An Obscure Tennessee Opinion Uncovers The Veil Of Legal Malpractice Between Asset-Protection Trusts And The Uniform Trust Code., Charles Epps Ipock Jan 2013

How An Obscure Tennessee Opinion Uncovers The Veil Of Legal Malpractice Between Asset-Protection Trusts And The Uniform Trust Code., Charles Epps Ipock

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

In the year 2000, the Uniform Law Commissioners approved the Uniform Trust Code (UTC). This was the first effort to provide states with an all-inclusive model for codifying their trust laws. Since then, at least twenty-three states adopted some, or most of the UTC. But this enactment did not come without controversy. Most of the controversies stem from provisions regarding asset-protection trusts. The net result of asset-protection trusts within the UTC essentially disposes of discretionary trusts by requiring them to contain spendthrift language. The undesirable effect of these provisions is that without a spendthrift clause any creditor can attach a …


Reform Of The United States Health Care System: An Overview, Robert B. Leflar Dec 2012

Reform Of The United States Health Care System: An Overview, Robert B. Leflar

Robert B Leflar

This essay, written for readers unfamiliar with the details of American health law and policy, portrays the essential features of the battle for health reform in the United States and of the law that survived the battle: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). The essay summarizes key aspects of the U.S. health care system and how it compares in terms of costs and results with other advanced nations’ systems. The political and legal conflicts leading up to and following PPACA’s enactment are described. The major features of the law, attempting to address problems of access to health care, …


The Unaffordable Health Care Act - A Reponse To Professors Bagley And Horwitz, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn Jan 2011

The Unaffordable Health Care Act - A Reponse To Professors Bagley And Horwitz, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn

Articles

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 has stirred considerable controversy. In the public debate over the program, many of its proponents have defended it by focusing on what is sometimes called the “free-rider” problem. In a prior article, we contended that the free-rider problem has been greatly exaggerated and was not a significant factor in the congressional decision to adopt the Act. We maintained that the free-rider issue is a red herring advanced to trigger an emotional attraction to the Act and distract attention from the actual issues that favor and disfavor its adoption. In a recently …


Free Rider: A Justification For Mandatory Medical Insurance Under Health Care Reform?, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn Jan 2011

Free Rider: A Justification For Mandatory Medical Insurance Under Health Care Reform?, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn

Articles

Section 1501 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act added section 5000A to the Internal Revenue Code to require most individuals in the United States, beginning in the year 2014, to purchase an established minimum level of medical insurance. This requirement, which is enforced by a penalty imposed on those who fail to comply, is sometimes referred to as the “individual mandate.” The individual mandate is one element of a vast change to the provision of medical care that Congress implemented in 2010. The individual mandate has proved to be controversial and has been the subject of a number …


Why It's Called The Affordable Care Act, Nicholas Bagley, Jill R. Horwitz Jan 2011

Why It's Called The Affordable Care Act, Nicholas Bagley, Jill R. Horwitz

Articles

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (“ACA”) raises numerous policy and legal issues, but none have attracted as much attention from lawyers as Section 1501. This provision, titled “Maintenance of Mini-mum Essential Coverage,” but better known as the “individual mandate,” requires most Americans to obtain health insurance for themselves and their dependents by 2014. We are dismayed that the narrow issue of the mandate and the narrower issue of free riding have garnered so much attention when our nation’s health-care system suffers from countless problems. By improving quality, controlling costs, and extending coverage to the uninsured, the …


Core Values In Conflict: The United States Approach To Economic Assistance To The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik Jan 2008

Core Values In Conflict: The United States Approach To Economic Assistance To The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik

Articles

In devising programs to assist the elderly, the United States has, for the most part, rejected the social welfare model, which is premised on a belief that the government has an obligation to care for the elderly. Many Americans believe that beyond a minimum safety net, the government should not, and likely cannot, save everyone from every bad outcome. Individuals must accept personal responsibility and care for themselves. As a result of this conflict in values, the United States does not usually operate programs modeled on social insurance, but rather provides care to those identified as 'needy'. The degree of …


An Essay On The Need For Subsidized, Mandatory Long-Term Care Insurance, Lawrence A. Frolik Jan 2007

An Essay On The Need For Subsidized, Mandatory Long-Term Care Insurance, Lawrence A. Frolik

Articles

Imagine yourself in a room with 100 persons, all age sixty. Of the group, fifty-three are women and forty-seven are men. Racially and ethnically they mirror the population of Americans age sixty. Now answer the question: "Before the 100 die, how many will require long-term care and, on the average, for how many days and at what cost?" Give up? So do I. While it is common knowledge that many of us will need long-term care, no one seems to know how many will need such care or for how long. And some of you will ask, 'What do you …


Linking Low-Income Washingtonians With Health Care Financing Arrangements, Kenneth R. Wing, Michael G. Gordie Jan 2003

Linking Low-Income Washingtonians With Health Care Financing Arrangements, Kenneth R. Wing, Michael G. Gordie

Seattle University Law Review

Following this introductory section, Part II presents a comprehensive description of the health financing arrangements available to low-income residents of Washington State, from federally funded Medicaid programs to state-subsidized insurance. The Article concludes in Part III, outlining the interrelationship between these arrangements and the political process, and suggesting that the Washington State Legislature should be aware of how policy actually affects people.


Medicaid Managed Care And Disability Discrimination Issues, Mary Crossley Jan 1998

Medicaid Managed Care And Disability Discrimination Issues, Mary Crossley

Articles

This article examines issues potentially raised under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by states' decisions whether and how to include disabled Medicaid recipients in the massive shift towards Medicaid managed care. Part II briefly examines the special issues that disabled Medicaid recipients pose with respect to managed care enrollment. These include issues of cost, quality, access, and program design and implementation. Part III describes various approaches that state programs have taken or are proposing to take with respect to the enrollment of disabled Medicaid recipients in managed care. These approaches range from simply excluding the SSI population from managed …


Medical Futility And Disability Discrimination, Mary Crossley Jan 1995

Medical Futility And Disability Discrimination, Mary Crossley

Articles

The concept of medical futility, which originally developed in the medical literature as a basis for allocating between physician and patient decisional authority regarding end-of-life treatment, is increasingly appearing in discussions regarding possible methods of containing medical costs by limiting treatment. This use of medical futility as a rationing mechanism, whether by a state Medicaid program or by a hospital, raises concerns regarding its impact on persons with severe disabilities near the end of life. This article considers how the applicability of the Americans with Disabilities Act to cost-conscious futility policies might be analyzed. After developing arguments that proponents and …