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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Law

Official Indiscretions: Considering Sex Bargains With Government Informants, Susan S. Kuo Jun 2005

Official Indiscretions: Considering Sex Bargains With Government Informants, Susan S. Kuo

Faculty Publications

This article addresses an alarming new investigatory practice employed by law enforcement officials: requiring arrestees to carry out sexual tasks as confidential informants. Requiring arrestee informants to engage in sexual activities in exchange for a reduction or possible elimination of criminal penalties they might otherwise incur raises constitutional concerns. Informants can and do accept a variety of investigative assignments. But, as this article shows by drawing on sociological research, sex tasks differ fundamentally from more conventional informant undertakings. The importance of this distinction is that while adult individuals undoubtedly can provide consent to sexual matters, the validity of such consent …


‘Code’ And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Ronald Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops May 2005

‘Code’ And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Ronald Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops

ExpressO

The notion of software code replacing legal code as a mechanism to control human behavior – ‘code as law’ – is often illustrated with examples in intellectual property and freedom of speech. This article examines the neglected issue of the impact of ‘code as law’ on privacy. To what extent is privacy-related ‘code’ being used, either to undermine or to enhance privacy? On the basis of cases in the domains of law enforcement, national security, E-government, and commerce, it is concluded that technology rarely incorporates specific privacy-related norms. At the same time, however, technology very often does have clear effects …


Intellectual Property Rights In Digital Media: A Comparative Analysis Of Legal Protection, Technological Measures And New Business Models Under E.U. And U.S. Law, Nicola Lucchi May 2005

Intellectual Property Rights In Digital Media: A Comparative Analysis Of Legal Protection, Technological Measures And New Business Models Under E.U. And U.S. Law, Nicola Lucchi

ExpressO

The production of digital content is a phenomenon which has completely changed the conditions of access to knowledge. Within this framework it becomes even more important to find and to formulate a new settlement for intellectual property rights balancing contrasted rights. Owners of the old technology and policy makers have found two different solutions and remedies for intellectual property rights: legal and technological. When both remedies work together any rights that a consumer may have under copyright law could be replaced by a unilaterally defined contractual term and condition. To balance this inequity this article analyses different solutions under U.S. …


Countering Terrorism: From Wigged Judges To Helmeted Soldiers - Legal Perspectives On America's Counter-Terrorism Responses, Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto May 2005

Countering Terrorism: From Wigged Judges To Helmeted Soldiers - Legal Perspectives On America's Counter-Terrorism Responses, Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article aims to evaluate the international legal perspectives attendant to U.S. counter-terrorism measures and policy and the attendant strictures an implications. Part II commences by grappling with the uneasy relationship that legal and political complexities have foisted on the UN's ability to address terrorism and the difficult issue of the definition of terrorism. Within the context of this part, the Article also addresses the two dominant counter-terrorism paradigms-law enforcement and conflict management. Part III oves on to evaluate the law enforcement paradigm which treats terrorism as a crime engaging domestic law enforcement. This part offers a discussion of the …


Sting Operations, Undercover Agents, And Entrapment, Bruce Hay Apr 2005

Sting Operations, Undercover Agents, And Entrapment, Bruce Hay

Missouri Law Review

This Article focuses on two distinct functions of sting operations. One is the informational, or investigatory, function of identifying individuals who are engaged in (or likely to engage in) criminal activity. The second is the behavioral function of deterring individuals from engaging in (independent) criminal activity: the threat of being caught in a sting may scare individuals away from genuine criminal opportunities that would otherwise seem appealing. Though complementary in some respects, these functions are also in some tension with each other. A sting operation that does not serve informational purposes may be good for deterrent purposes, and vice versa. …


The Ku Klux Klan Act And The Civil Rights Revolution: How Civil Rights Litigation Came To Regulate Police And Correctional Officer Misconduct., Alan W. Clarke Mar 2005

The Ku Klux Klan Act And The Civil Rights Revolution: How Civil Rights Litigation Came To Regulate Police And Correctional Officer Misconduct., Alan W. Clarke

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Modern civil rights litigation stems from the Ku Klux Klan Act, otherwise known as the Civil Rights Act of 1871. Congress codified this Act in the United States Code under Section 1983 of Title 42. No other law is more central to present day police and correctional officer accountability. The Civil Rights statute effectuates broad constitutional protections set in place in the aftermath of the Civil War. Congress designed this Act to change over time and intertwine with a continuing history of expanding rights. Section 1983 provides a remedy to any person who experienced another person, acting under the color …


Neurocops: The Politics Of Prohibition And The Future Of Enforcing Social Policy From Inside The Body , Richard Glen Boire Jan 2005

Neurocops: The Politics Of Prohibition And The Future Of Enforcing Social Policy From Inside The Body , Richard Glen Boire

Journal of Law and Health

Over the next decade an increasing number of new "pharmacotherapy" medications will become available with the potential to tremendously impact the use and abuse of illegal drugs and the overall direction of national and international drug policy. These pharmacotherapy medications are designed to block or significantly reduce the "highs" elicited by illegal drugs. Used as part of a drug treatment program, pharmacotherapy medications may provide valuable assistance for people voluntarily seeking a chemical aid in limiting or eliminating the problem drug use. However, the tremendously politicized nature of the "drug war" raises substantial concerns that, in addition to those who …


Difficult Times In Kentucky Corrections—Aftershocks Of A "Tough On Crime" Philosophy, Robert G. Lawson Jan 2005

Difficult Times In Kentucky Corrections—Aftershocks Of A "Tough On Crime" Philosophy, Robert G. Lawson

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The objective of this article is to cast some light on corrections system problems brought on by elevated (and possibly unnecessary) levels of incarceration, and especially on problems that trouble the Kentucky corrections system and threaten to undermine the effectiveness of the state's justice system. Part II describes how the country came to embrace sentencing policies and practices capable of producing "a penal system of a severity unmatched in the Western world.” Part III describes Kentucky's embrace of equally harsh sentencing policies and practices and the inmate population explosion that has occurred as a direct result of those policies and …


Fordham Urban Law Journal - Essay- Local Policing In A Post - 9/11 World Jan 2005

Fordham Urban Law Journal - Essay- Local Policing In A Post - 9/11 World

Fordham Urban Law Journal

The era following September 11, 2001 will be remembered as the golden age of law enforcement, the age of a bold paradigm shift inspired by the great challenges we face. It is instructive first to reflect on the old paradigm: as law enforcement agencies, we moved like swimmers in different lanes, all going the same direction with the same mission, yet also working by and for ourselves. Each criminal justice agency dealt with its own issues, staying—for the most part—in its own lane. Then, 9/11 changed everything. Indeed, it is our turn to be the greatest generation. Just as World …


Challenges To International Law Enforcement Cooperation For The United States In The Middle East And North Africa: Extradition And Its Alternatives, David P. Warner Jan 2005

Challenges To International Law Enforcement Cooperation For The United States In The Middle East And North Africa: Extradition And Its Alternatives, David P. Warner

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Community Self Help, Neal K. Katyal Jan 2005

Community Self Help, Neal K. Katyal

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper advocates controlling crime through a greater emphasis on precautions taken not by individuals, but by communities. The dominant battles in the literature today posit two central competing models of crime control. In one, the standard policing model, the government is responsible for the variety of acts that are necessary to deter and prosecute criminal acts. In the other, private self-help, public law enforcement is largely supplanted by providing incentives to individuals to self-protect against crime. There are any number of nuances and complications in each of these competing stories, but the literature buys into this binary matrix.


Complexity Of School-Police Relationships Challenge Special Needs Doctrine, Joshua Gupta-Kagan Jan 2005

Complexity Of School-Police Relationships Challenge Special Needs Doctrine, Joshua Gupta-Kagan

Faculty Scholarship

On November 5, 2003, concern regarding suspected drug activity led to a massive police search of Stratford High School in the Berkeley School District, north of Charleston, South Carolina. (See Police, School District Defend Drug Raid, available at http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/South/11/07/school.raid/index.html.) Fourteen police officers assumed strategic positions inside and outside the school. Accompanied by a drug-sniffing clog, officers. Some with guns drawn, secured a school hallway and ordered more than I 00 students to get on their knees and face the wall, handcuffing at least 12 who failed to immediately obey the police orders. Alerted by the clog. police physically searched students, …


The Theory Of Penalties And The Economics Of Criminal Law, Keith N. Hylton Jan 2005

The Theory Of Penalties And The Economics Of Criminal Law, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents a model of penalties that reconciles the conflicting accounts optimal punishment by Becker, who argued penalties should internalize social costs, and Posner, who suggested penalties should completely deter offenses. The model delivers specific recommendations as to when penalties should be set to internalize social costs and when they should be set to completely deter offensive conduct. I use the model to generate a positive account of the function and scope of criminal law doctrines, such as intent, necessity, and rules governing the distinction between torts and crimes. The model is also consistent with the history of criminal …


Subpoenas And Privacy, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2005

Subpoenas And Privacy, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This symposium article, the first of two on regulation of government's efforts to obtain paper and digital records of our activities, analyzes the constitutional legitimacy of subpoenas. Whether issued by a grand jury or an administrative agency, subpoenas are extremely easy to enforce, merely requiring the government to demonstrate that the items sought pursuant to the subpoena are "relevant" to a investigation. Yet today subpoenas and pseudo-subpoenas are routinely used not only to obtain business records and the like, but also documents containing significant amounts of personal information about individuals, including medical, financial, and email records. Part I provides an …