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Private Inequity: Reform Rule 506 To Safely Accommodate Investment By Nonaccredited Investors, Allen C. Page Nov 2022

Private Inequity: Reform Rule 506 To Safely Accommodate Investment By Nonaccredited Investors, Allen C. Page

William & Mary Business Law Review

In 2012, Congress enacted Title III of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”), which it named the Crowdfund Act, to create an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 that, in the words of President Barack Obama, would allow “ordinary Americans . . . to go online and invest in entrepreneurs that they believe in.” While perhaps well-intentioned in principle, Regulation Crowdfunding imposes material limitations and costs on the issuer, leading most issuers to conclude that the inclusion of unaccredited investors in a crowdfunding campaign is not worth the complexity and expense. Furthermore, the most …


Mergers, Antitrust, And The Interplay Of Entrepreneurial Activity And The Investments That Fund It, Gary Dushnitsky, D. Daniel Sokol May 2022

Mergers, Antitrust, And The Interplay Of Entrepreneurial Activity And The Investments That Fund It, Gary Dushnitsky, D. Daniel Sokol

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article addresses the potentially negative implications of proposed antitrust legislation on the entrepreneurial ecosystem in general, with a particular focus on the venture capitalists (VCs) that fund it. First, it offers a review of how antitrust merger law currently works and how proposed legislative changes to antitrust may threaten the innovative Venture Capital (VC)-backed ecosystem that has made the United States the center of global innovation across many different industries. Accompanying this review are some empirical observations. Second, recognizing that the understanding of innovative entrepreneurial activity calls for a deep appreciation of those who back it, the Article also …


The Case For The Inclusion Of Employee Relations Matters In Mandatory Disclosure And Reporting Requirements For Public Corporations, Derek J. Illar Nov 2021

The Case For The Inclusion Of Employee Relations Matters In Mandatory Disclosure And Reporting Requirements For Public Corporations, Derek J. Illar

Northern Illinois University Law Review

Public companies have no obligation to disclose and to report matters that pertain to equality in the workplace, the payment of wages and benefits, and health and safety issues—“employee relations matters”—under the current statutory and regulatory framework for the capital markets. The absence of this obligation significantly and glaringly handicaps shareholders and other market participants insofar as they are investing in public companies with a limited and distorted understanding of their operations that belies the historical and analytical justifications for mandatory disclosures and reporting. This Article posits that public corporations should publish information about employee relations matters because certain disclosure …


Context Is Key, Limits Are Crucial: Understanding The Scope Of Implied Rights Of Action For Rescission Of Investment Contracts Under The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Luke St. Germain Apr 2021

Context Is Key, Limits Are Crucial: Understanding The Scope Of Implied Rights Of Action For Rescission Of Investment Contracts Under The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Luke St. Germain

Louisiana Law Review

The article discusses the scope of the implied rights of action covering the rescission of investment contracts under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (ICA) in the U.S. to prevent fraud and mismanagement.


A Historical Analysis Of The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Michael B. Weiner Feb 2021

A Historical Analysis Of The Investment Company Act Of 1940, Michael B. Weiner

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

More than 100 million Americans invest $25 trillion in mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (collectively, “funds”) regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Act”), making funds the predominant investment vehicle in the United States. Everyday investors rely on funds to save for retirement, pay for college, and seek financial security. In this way, funds demonstrate how “Wall Street” can connect with “Main Street” to improve people’s lives.

By way of background, funds are created by investment advisers (“advisers”) that provide investment advisory (e.g., stock selection) and other services to their funds in exchange for a fee. …


Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker Feb 2020

Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker

William & Mary Business Law Review

Although the ambition to do good by doing business is not new, the burgeoning realization of this ambition is. As the fields of social entrepreneurship and impact investing advance in size, scope and complexity, questions about the roles of corporations and capital markets in society intensify.

What is legal scholarship contributing to this discussion? This Article reviews the scholarly contributions of 260 articles written by over 150 authors about the fields of social enterprise, social finance, and impact investing. The Article maps the contributions of legal scholarship over the last decade—from 2007 (when the term “impact investing” was first coined) …


Promises Unfulfilled: How Investment Arbitration Tribunals Mishandle Corruption Claims And Undermine International Development, Andrew T. Bulovsky Jan 2019

Promises Unfulfilled: How Investment Arbitration Tribunals Mishandle Corruption Claims And Undermine International Development, Andrew T. Bulovsky

Michigan Law Review

In recent years, the investment-arbitration and anti-corruption regimes have been in tension. Investment tribunals have jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes between investors and host states under international treaties that provide substantive protections for private investments. But these tribunals will typically decline to exercise jurisdiction over a dispute if the host state asserts that corruption tainted the investment. When tribunals close their doors to ag-grieved investors, tribunals increase the risks for investors and thus raise the cost of international investment. At the same time, the decision to decline jurisdiction creates a perverse incentive for host states to turn a blind eye to …


The Howey Test: Are Crypto-Assets Investment Contracts?, Justin Henning Dec 2018

The Howey Test: Are Crypto-Assets Investment Contracts?, Justin Henning

University of Miami Business Law Review

With innovation always comes unknowns. Blockchain technology and crypto–assets are no different. Often times, innovators are so worried about getting their product to market or scaling at mass that they overlook the legal ramifications of their innovations. As Mark Zuckerberg infamously said, “move fast and break things.” Facebook was in no way alone in this style of innovation. However, with respect to crypto–assets, the SEC has stepped in and is attempting to prevent the “break things” aspect. One of the major issues relating to crypto–assets is that many people still do not understand what they are, or how the underlying …


Legal Prospects For Creating A Favorable Investment Sphere In The Republic Of Uzbekistan, M.U. Kurbonov Mar 2018

Legal Prospects For Creating A Favorable Investment Sphere In The Republic Of Uzbekistan, M.U. Kurbonov

Review of law sciences

This article reveals the basic prerequisites for improving the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of investment activities. Also, proposals for the revision of the regulatory and legal framework of our country and the removal of barriers arising in practice are reflected as well.


Fostering Innovation And Entrepreneurship: Shark Tank Shouldn't Be The Model, Brian Kingsley Krumm Jan 2018

Fostering Innovation And Entrepreneurship: Shark Tank Shouldn't Be The Model, Brian Kingsley Krumm

Arkansas Law Review

For the past half century, innovation has driven the economic growth that has made the American economy the envy of the world. For most of this period, venture capitalists provided not only the capital that new innovative companies needed, but also the management expertise.


Survivor Funds, Jonathan Barry Forman, Michael J. Sabin Mar 2017

Survivor Funds, Jonathan Barry Forman, Michael J. Sabin

Pace Law Review

This Article explains how to create “survivor funds”—short-term investment funds that would pay more to those investors who live until the end of the fund’s term than to those who die before then. For example, instead of just investing in a ten-year bond and dividing the proceeds among the investors at the end of the bond term, a survivor fund would invest in that ten-year bond but divide the proceeds only among those who survived the full ten years. These survivor funds would be attractive investments because the survivors would get a greater return on their investments, while the decedents, …


The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera Dec 2016

The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article is concerned with the applicability of sovereign immunity to the so-called sovereign wealth funds (“SWFs”) within the U.S. legal system. While sovereign immunity has existed for at least two centuries, SWFs and the types of investment activities they conduct on behalf of their parent foreign states are a rather recent phenomenon. As a result, the issue of the applicability of the rules on sovereign immunity to the SWFs poses novel legal challenges and difficulties. In a nutshell, this article is intended to answer the following questions: Are SWFs entitled to invoke sovereign immunity before U.S. courts? If so, …


Treaty Of Amity, Commerce, And Navigation Between Brazil And The U.S., Prof. Dr. Attila S.L. Andrade Jr. Aug 2016

Treaty Of Amity, Commerce, And Navigation Between Brazil And The U.S., Prof. Dr. Attila S.L. Andrade Jr.

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

This Article deals with the analytical history of the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between the U.S. and Brazil. In the first part of the Article, the author analyzed all the provisions of the Treaty entered into between the two countries on December 12, 1828. The second part examined the historical causes for the early termination of the Treaty, 13 years after its execution. It suggests and evidences that the historical cause lies in a political factor, that is, the conflicts between a Republican form of government and the Brazilian Imperial political system. The third and final part of …


Why Low-Income Workers Need To Save For Retirement And How They Can Do It, Philip C. Aka, Chidera Oku, Elizabeth Arnott-Hill, Aref A. Hervani Jan 2016

Why Low-Income Workers Need To Save For Retirement And How They Can Do It, Philip C. Aka, Chidera Oku, Elizabeth Arnott-Hill, Aref A. Hervani

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Private Equity Investments In Microfinance In India, Hugh Manahan Sep 2015

Private Equity Investments In Microfinance In India, Hugh Manahan

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

A trail connects a skyscraper in Manhattan’s Financial District to a tiny food stand in a village in the southeast Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Initially wild and overgrown, the trail now resembles a well-developed road, cleared and shaped. The trail does not connect customers to call centers or raw materials to laborers; the path connects lenders seeking abnormal returns on their investments to borrowers living in poverty. This is the path of private equity investments in microfinance. Microfinance is a powerful financial innovation that has changed personal finance in many parts of the world. While microfinance began as non-profit …


Resolving The Conflict Between Fiduciary Duties And Socially Responsible Investing, William Sanders Jun 2015

Resolving The Conflict Between Fiduciary Duties And Socially Responsible Investing, William Sanders

Pace Law Review

Part I of this Article clarifies and strictly defines the frequently nebulous idea of socially responsible investing (“SRI”), explaining its history, trends, and current status. To give perspective and perhaps temper hype, Part II discusses the efficacy of SRI as a method of change, concluding that while SRI may not have much effect on air quality or oppressive foreign governments, there are situations where SRI is useful and even necessary. Part III looks at the conflict between SRI and the fiduciary duties of trustees, investment advisers, and broker-dealers. It shows the contractual nature of fiduciary duties and why this is …


The Fragmented Regulation Of Investment Advice: A Call For Harmonization, Christine Lazaro, Benjamin P. Edwards Dec 2014

The Fragmented Regulation Of Investment Advice: A Call For Harmonization, Christine Lazaro, Benjamin P. Edwards

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Decades of short-term thinking and regulatory fixes created the bewilderingly complex statutory and regulatory structures governing the giving of personalized investment advice to retail customers. Although deeply flawed, the current systems remain entrenched because of the difficulties inherent in making radical alterations. Importantly, the current patchwork systems do not seem to serve retail customers particularly well. Retail customers tend to make predictable and costly mistakes in allocating their assets. Some of this occurs because many investors lack basic financial literacy. A recent study released by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on financial literacy among investors …


The Volcker Rule, Banking Entities, And Covered Funds Activities, Jeffrey Koh, Kyle Gaughan Dec 2014

The Volcker Rule, Banking Entities, And Covered Funds Activities, Jeffrey Koh, Kyle Gaughan

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

With the passage of the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, Congress instituted a host of new laws attempting to protect consumers from the types of risky trading that led to the 2008 economic crisis. However, many of the new rules and regulations, including the Volcker Rule, are yet to fully take effect. Among other restrictions, the Volcker Rule attempts to curtail risky trading by limiting banking entity investments in private equity and venture capital funds. As the Volcker Rule nears its implementation deadline, banking entities are concerned that they will face substantial losses in having to comply with the Volcker Rule by …


Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina Dec 2014

Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina

Michigan Law Review

For the average investor trying to save for retirement or a child’s college fund, the world of investing has become increasingly complex. These retail investors must turn more frequently to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisers, to get sound investment advice. Such intermediaries perform different duties for their clients, however. The investment adviser owes his client a fiduciary duty of care and therefore must provide financial advice that is in the client’s best interests, while the broker-dealer must merely provide advice that is suitable to the client’s interests—a lower standard than the fiduciary duty of care. And yet …


Too Complex To Perceive? Drafting Cash Distribution Waterfalls Directly As Code To Reduce Complexity And Legal Risk In Structured Finance, Master Limited Partnership, And Private Equity Transactions, Ralph C. Mayrell Jul 2014

Too Complex To Perceive? Drafting Cash Distribution Waterfalls Directly As Code To Reduce Complexity And Legal Risk In Structured Finance, Master Limited Partnership, And Private Equity Transactions, Ralph C. Mayrell

Pace Law Review

This Article proposes that complex structured finance transactions involving sophisticated investors should adopt an analogous solution to the home construction agreements’ strategy of contracting by reference to blueprints. First, dealmakers should, preferably by choice, place as much of their waterfall distribution specification and related inputs as possible into automated, programmatic representations that will be used to make the actual distribution. In many cases, these agreements already have programmatic representations, so this change should pose relatively few practical challenges logistically. Second, they should, like their counterparts in construction contracts, define the terms of those waterfalls by reference to their functional representations. …


Enhancing The Legal And Regulatory Environment For Investment In Social Enterprise, Dilpreet K. Minhas Jan 2014

Enhancing The Legal And Regulatory Environment For Investment In Social Enterprise, Dilpreet K. Minhas

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The objectives of this Note are: 1) to provide readers interested in social enterprise and entrepreneurship an introduction to these endeavors and the growing trend toward using them; 2) to present the challenges stemming from the legal and financial frameworks surrounding social investment activity, which can inhibit the survival and growth of social enterprises; and 3) to propose suggestions for addressing such challenges and limitations in order to better support the survival of social enterprise. Part II and Part III provide a broad perspective of the types of investment in and nurturing of social entrepreneurship in the U.S. Part IV …


Dragon's House Of Cards: Perils Of Investing In Variable Interest Entities Domiciled In The People's Republic Of China And Listed In The United States, Serena Y. Shi Jan 2014

Dragon's House Of Cards: Perils Of Investing In Variable Interest Entities Domiciled In The People's Republic Of China And Listed In The United States, Serena Y. Shi

Fordham International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


New Challenges To Investor's Counsel: Legal Risk Analysis And The Work-Out Perspective In Ldc Investment, Allen P.K. Keesee May 2013

New Challenges To Investor's Counsel: Legal Risk Analysis And The Work-Out Perspective In Ldc Investment, Allen P.K. Keesee

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Advising The Individual Investor: Comparing The Federal Regulation Of Investment Advisers, Banks, And Broker-Dealers, Alan M. Ahart Feb 2013

Advising The Individual Investor: Comparing The Federal Regulation Of Investment Advisers, Banks, And Broker-Dealers, Alan M. Ahart

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Investing In Cannabis: Inconsistent Government Regulation And Constraints On Capital, Adrian A. Ohmer Jan 2013

Investing In Cannabis: Inconsistent Government Regulation And Constraints On Capital, Adrian A. Ohmer

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This note’s focus is on the future of investing in the growing legalized cannabis industry. In Part II, it will provide a brief history of federal and state regulation of cannabis. Part III will discuss the current role of the federal government in regulating the cannabis industry. Part IV will explore the current avenues of access to capital for the cannabis industry. Lastly, Part V will provide suggestions for the federal government and state governments to reduce investment risk that exists in the cannabis industry.


Recent Changes In U.S. And U.K. Overseas Anti-Corruption Enforcement Under The Fcpa And The U.K. Bribery Law: Private Equity Compliance, Isaac A. Binkovitz Jan 2013

Recent Changes In U.S. And U.K. Overseas Anti-Corruption Enforcement Under The Fcpa And The U.K. Bribery Law: Private Equity Compliance, Isaac A. Binkovitz

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The following discussion provides a preliminary guide for those tasked with steering private equity firms through the shifting obstacle course of overseas anti-corruption compliance. Section I briefly reviews the centrality of overseas anti-corruption enforcement and its role in creating a more hospitable business climate in emerging markets. Section I also examines the American and British enforcement regimes in general before analyzing the most recent changes–specifically, changes as to the scope of liability and expansion of their jurisdiction. This section is designed to help determine whether investments or acquisitions fall within the purview of either enforcement regime. Section II discusses various …


Cook Islands Asset Protection Trust Law, David R. Mcnair Jan 2012

Cook Islands Asset Protection Trust Law, David R. Mcnair

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Delaware Series Llc: Sophisticated And Flexible Business Planning, Ann E. Conaway, Peter I. Tsoflias Jan 2012

The Delaware Series Llc: Sophisticated And Flexible Business Planning, Ann E. Conaway, Peter I. Tsoflias

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The authors conclude that the Delaware series supplies a beneficial, efficient use of a combined contractual Delaware entity form when pooled with sensible, informed planning by sophisticated business attorneys. Such benefits are particularly noticeable in investment vehicles where managers embark to minimize risk by diversifying the fund’s assets or receive funding with specific covenants attached that limit the acceptable uses of the funds. The series is not, however, for general practitioners who have the occasional client wishing for the latest benefit Delaware has to offer its investors. To provide context, Parts II-IV of this article provide a brief overview of …


Mezzanine Finance And Preferred Equity Investment In Commercial Real Estate: Security, Collateral & Control, Jon S. Robins, David E. Wallace, Mark Franke Jan 2012

Mezzanine Finance And Preferred Equity Investment In Commercial Real Estate: Security, Collateral & Control, Jon S. Robins, David E. Wallace, Mark Franke

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This article will review both the genesis and the rise in popularity of preferred equity and mezzanine debt, examine their legal and structural differences, and provide some exposition as to how these financing techniques work from security, collateral and control standpoints. We do not undertake in this article to address the differences in tax and accounting treatment between mezzanine loans and preferred equity investments both for either the mezzanine lender or preferred equity investor on the one hand, or for the mezzanine borrower or the common equity investor, on the other hand. In deciding upon which structure to use, transaction …


Venture Capital Investments In China: The Use Of Offshore Financing Structures And Corporate Relocations, Jing Li Jan 2012

Venture Capital Investments In China: The Use Of Offshore Financing Structures And Corporate Relocations, Jing Li

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Based on an analysis of the relevant Chinese laws and regulations governing the corporate governance structure of venture capital (“VC”)-invested firms, as well as a discussion on the feasibility of employing different alternatives to make direct and indirect VC investments in Chinese portfolio firms, this article studies a hand-collected sample consisting of the twenty-nine VCbacked Chinese portfolio firms that have been financed and listed from 1990 to 2005 in order to empirically show how these investments were actually made in practice. The findings show that twenty-three out of the twentynine firms received their VC investments in various offshore holding entities, …