Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

International trade

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 723

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander Jan 2024

The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The desire for trade propelled the growth of data privacy law across the world. Countries with strong privacy laws sought to ensure that their citizens’ privacy would not be compromised when their data traveled to other countries. Even before this vaunted Brussels Effect pushed privacy law across the world through the enticement of trade with the European Union, Brussels had to erect privacy law within the Union itself. And as the Union itself expanded, privacy law was a critical condition for accession.

But this coupling of privacy and trade leaves a puzzle: how did the U.S. avoid a comprehensive privacy …


Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu Sep 2023

Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews China’s engagement with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the past twenty years. It begins by highlighting TRIPS-related developments in the first decade of China’s WTO membership. The chapter then discusses the country’s ‘innovative turn’ in the mid-2000s and the ramifications of its changing policy positions. This chapter continues to examine the US-China trade war, in particular the second TRIPS complaint that the United States filed against China in March 2018. It concludes with observations about the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on China, China’s impact on that agreement and how the …


Cuban Embargo: An Insufficient Measure To Encourage Us Foreign Policy Interests, Esme Jm Prowse May 2023

Cuban Embargo: An Insufficient Measure To Encourage Us Foreign Policy Interests, Esme Jm Prowse

Major Papers

This major paper examines the Cuban embargo as an ineffective hard power policy and explores the potential of soft, hard, and smart power as alternative approaches to resolve the failures of the 60-year-old blockade. The paper analyzes the historical context and rationale behind the embargo and assesses its impact on Cuban-American relations, regional stability, and U.S. national interests. The study argues that the embargo has failed to achieve its intended goals and has instead perpetuated a cycle of hostility, isolation, and human rights abuses. By drawing on the theoretical frameworks of soft, hard, and smart power, the paper presents policy …


Standards And The Law, Cary Coglianese Apr 2023

Standards And The Law, Cary Coglianese

All Faculty Scholarship

The world of standards and the world of laws are often seen as separate, but they are more closely intertwined than many professionals working with laws or standards realize. Although standards are typically considered to be voluntary and non-binding, they can intersect with and affect the law in numerous ways. They can serve as benchmarks for determine liability in tort or contract. They can facilitate domestic and international transactions. They can prompt negotiations over the licensing of patents. They can govern the development of forensic evidence admissible in criminal courts. And standards can even become binding law themselves when they …


A Canadian Perspective On Fifty Years Of International Economic Law, J. Anthony Van Duzer Apr 2023

A Canadian Perspective On Fifty Years Of International Economic Law, J. Anthony Van Duzer

Dalhousie Law Journal

In 1970, “international economic law” (IEL) was not a distinct academic subject. Fifty years later, IEL has become an important and well-recognized field of legal enquiry, though its boundaries remain unclear. Globalization of trade and investment activity and the concomitant proliferation of trade and investment treaties over the last 50 years have been key drivers of academic interest in IEL and its transformation. The impacts of trade and investment on the protection of the environment and health, Indigenous, labour, and human rights, development, and other policy priorities have become significant subjects of academic discourse and are increasingly addressed in trade …


Toothless Trade? Implications Of The Federal Circuit’S Clearcorrect Decision For The Enforceability Of Intellectual Property Protections In Digital Trade Under Usmca, Alissa Chase Mar 2023

Toothless Trade? Implications Of The Federal Circuit’S Clearcorrect Decision For The Enforceability Of Intellectual Property Protections In Digital Trade Under Usmca, Alissa Chase

Catholic University Law Review

Digital trade is growing faster than trade in goods and services and comprises a key area for innovation and intellectual property concerns. The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (“USMCA”) acknowledged this development by including chapters devoted to both digital trade and intellectual property. In 2015, the Federal Circuit held that the International Trade Commission (“ITC”) does not have jurisdiction over unfairly traded digital goods. Without exclusion orders issued by the ITC, the United States lacks a powerful tool to enforce the USMCA provisions protecting intellectual property in unfairly traded digital goods. This comment explores the implications of the Federal Circuit’s 2015 ClearCorrect …


Public Ownership And The Wto In A Post-Covid-19 Era: From Trade Disputes To A 'Social' Function, Paolo Davide Farah, Davide Zoppolato Mar 2023

Public Ownership And The Wto In A Post-Covid-19 Era: From Trade Disputes To A 'Social' Function, Paolo Davide Farah, Davide Zoppolato

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Deploying The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement (Gpa) To Enhance Sustainability And Accelerate Climate Change Mitigation, Robert D. Anderson, Antonella Salgueiro, Steven L. Schooner, Marc Steiner Jan 2023

Deploying The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement (Gpa) To Enhance Sustainability And Accelerate Climate Change Mitigation, Robert D. Anderson, Antonella Salgueiro, Steven L. Schooner, Marc Steiner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Mitigating climate change and promoting sustainability are defining challenges of our time. Public procurement has a vital role to play in responding to the current crises. This article makes the case that the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), and specifically the Work Programme on Sustainable Procurement that has been initiated pursuant to the Agreement, can serve as important instruments to promote sustainable approaches to public procurement internationally, consistent with the goals of climate change mitigation.

The Work Programme, which was established at the time of the GPA’s modernization in 2012 and on which important work has …


Analysis Of The Relationship Between International Trade And Economic Growth Of Jordan, Mohammed Ali Salem Shubeilat Oct 2022

Analysis Of The Relationship Between International Trade And Economic Growth Of Jordan, Mohammed Ali Salem Shubeilat

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Could A More Limited Environmental Goods Agreement Resolve Continued Issues In Cities Compliance?, Andrew Coccoli Oct 2022

Could A More Limited Environmental Goods Agreement Resolve Continued Issues In Cities Compliance?, Andrew Coccoli

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Note will adopt an economic perspective while advocating for the most sustainable practices in natural resources management. It will first conduct a series of case studies of natural resources for which there is transnational or international demand, but unsustainable management. While CITES-listed resources will be considered with particular attention, unlisted and more conventional resources will also be considered. In its second part, this Note will consider mechanisms currently available in international trade to accommodate environmental progress, then will set forth various new measures the WTO could adopt to incentivize sustainable management of the Part I resources. Part III will …


Cambodia's Law On Secured Transaction, Timothy J. Holzer, Pho Sotheaphal Mar 2022

Cambodia's Law On Secured Transaction, Timothy J. Holzer, Pho Sotheaphal

Akron Law Review

Cambodian law permits the taking of and the perfecting of a security interest in movables (e.g., goods) and in intangibles (e.g., legally enforceable rights, such as contracts and rights in property.) Cambodia’s system is strongly patterned after Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code as developed in the United States. Perfection (i.e. notice to third parties that a security interest exists) is usually effected by the filing of a notice at the Secured Transactions Filing Office (the “STFO”) of the Ministry of Commerce, although sometimes physical possession may be required. However, conflicting or ambiguous provisions in other Cambodian laws may …


Sustaining Vietnamese Economic Development By Improving The Transparency Of Choice Of Law Decisions, Luong Duc Doan, Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen Mar 2022

Sustaining Vietnamese Economic Development By Improving The Transparency Of Choice Of Law Decisions, Luong Duc Doan, Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen

Akron Law Review

Without a doubt, Vietnam has enjoyed outstanding economic performance since the adoption of doi moi in 1986. To a significant extent, Vietnam has accomplished this through the dramatic increase in international trade and investment. However, further economic progress will be undermined if international partners begin to question the fairness of the Vietnamese legal system – especially in the application of choice of law principles. At best, a perceived lack of transparency in choice of law decisions will increase uncertainty; at worst, it will foster the impression that Vietnamese Courts do not treat international parties fairly. Accordingly, this article recommends that …


Patents And Competition: Commercializing Innovation In The Global Ecosystem For 5g And The Internet Of Things, Thomas D. Grant, F. Scott Kieff Jan 2022

Patents And Competition: Commercializing Innovation In The Global Ecosystem For 5g And The Internet Of Things, Thomas D. Grant, F. Scott Kieff

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Times are changing as our global ecosystem for commercializing innovation helps bring new technologies to market, networks grow, interconnections and transactions become more complex around standards and otherwise, all to enable vast opportunities to improve the human condition, to further competition, and to improve broad access. The policies that governments use to structure their legal systems for intellectual property, especially patents, as well as for competition—or antitrust—continue to have myriad powerful impacts and raise intense debates over challenging questions. This Chapter explores a representative set of debates about policy approaches to patents, to elucidate particular ideas to bear in mind …


European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis May 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The purpose of this update is to present the main events that have taken place each six months in the food law sector in the European Union (E.U.). This presentation will cover June through December 2004, but is not exhaustive. This update will not include detailed discussions of regulations, such as authorizations of new additives for animal feed or registrations of new geographic names. Instead it will concentrate on fundamental topics and focus on food, which excludes from our scope questions regarding the management of agricultural products (Common Agricultural Policy, or CAP). However, some questions which legally pertain to the …


Wto Reform: A China Round, Henry S. Gao Mar 2021

Wto Reform: A China Round, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China's exports have been growing exponentially. In 2009, China became the world's top goods exporter. Four years later, China unseated the United States as the top trading nation in the world. In contrast to the burgeoning Chinese economy, the United States and Europe have been suffering from economic decline since the global financial crisis in 2008. China regards its rise as a long overdue restoration of its rightful position, as it has been the largest economy in the world for most of its history, except the brief aberration over the past …


Liberalization Of World Trade Agreements And Their Impact On The Legal System Of International Contracts, Bin Ahmed, Al-Haj Feb 2021

Liberalization Of World Trade Agreements And Their Impact On The Legal System Of International Contracts, Bin Ahmed, Al-Haj

UAEU Law Journal

In the contemporary period, international trade is based on two ideas: the first is that the market transcends country boundaries and thus can build a spontaneous law and supranational legal rules; the second concerns the State, which has no jurisdiction to impose its legal system on commercial relations.

So there is a phenomenon of legal pluralism, a state of legal order and as a spontaneous supranational legal order, which finds its source in commercial practices, arbitrations, and model contracts.

Globalization of trade has provided very important interests of economic operators, alos, it threatens the sovereignty of the State and its …


The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz Jan 2021

The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

During the past several years, the US government has negotiated two regional trade agreements with far reaching labor provisions — the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). Signed in early 2016, the TPP labor chapter enhances second-generation worker rights in several significant ways: First, the TPP obligates each party to "adopt and maintain" statutes, regulations, and practices governing acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health, as determined by that party. Second, the obligation not to waive or derogate from fundamental labor rights or conditions of work is …


Facilitating Investment Through Iias: The Case Of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, Stefanie Schacherer Jan 2021

Facilitating Investment Through Iias: The Case Of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, Stefanie Schacherer

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

As many recently concluded IIAs, the RCEP agreement includes provisions on investment facilitation. Following ASEAN’s “built-in work program” approach, the agreement provides flexibility for RCEP parties to further implement investment facilitation measures. Such flexibility can arguably be an opportunity to set a collaborative framework for investment facilitation in the region.


Three Essays On International Trade Policies, Xin Yi Jun 2020

Three Essays On International Trade Policies, Xin Yi

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

This dissertation studies the empirical and quantitative implications of trade policies. The first chapter examines the effects of trade policies on quality specialization across cities within a country. Specifically, we complement the quality specialization literature in international trade and study how larger cities within a country produce goods with higher quality. We first establish three stylized facts on how product quality is related to agglomeration, firm productivity, and worker skills. We then rationalize these facts in a spatial equilibrium model where all the elements mentioned above are present and firms are free to choose their locations. Using firm-level data from …


The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: The United States, Trade Sanctions, And International Blocking Acts, Meaghan Jennison May 2020

The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: The United States, Trade Sanctions, And International Blocking Acts, Meaghan Jennison

Catholic University Law Review

When the United States unilaterally withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (“JCPOA,” colloquially known as the Iran Nuclear Deal) in May of 2018, that withdrawal signaled not only the United States withdrawal from that deal, of which it had been one of the chief negotiators, but also of a new level of trade engagement by the United States and the Trump Administration within the international community. European countries, in an attempt to continue existing business relationships with the Iranians, pulled an old tool from their toolbox – the blocking statute – to attempt to allow European and multinational …


One Nation Under Trump: More Power To Him?, Jessica Hernandez Mar 2020

One Nation Under Trump: More Power To Him?, Jessica Hernandez

University of Miami Business Law Review

This note examines the following question: to what extent has the Trump administration heralded an expansion of presidential trade powers with respect to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962? It proceeds by first providing an overview of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. It then looks at the Section 232 investigations which (a) preceded Trump’s assumption of office and (b) resulted in presidential trade action. After reviewing the aforementioned investigations, this note examines the Section 232 investigations initiated under the Trump administration. Attention is paid to how the Trump administration has defined ‘national security’ more broadly. The …


Dismantling The Wto: The United States’ Battle Against World Trade, Aaron Seals Mar 2020

Dismantling The Wto: The United States’ Battle Against World Trade, Aaron Seals

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Section 230 And The Duty To Prevent Mass Atrocities, David Sloss Jan 2020

Section 230 And The Duty To Prevent Mass Atrocities, David Sloss

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

"Of course, any proposal to create a statutory exception to section 230 immunity raises a set of complex questions about the proper scope of such an exception. This article identifies the key issues that would need to be resolved if Congress decided to create an exception along these lines. The remainder of this article consists of three parts. The first part explains why removal of immunity from civil liability is an appropriate mechanism to help prevent use of social media to incite or induce commission of mass atrocity crimes. The second part contends that the exception to section 230 immunity …


Why Ricardo's Theory Of Comparative Advantage Regarding Foreign Trade Doesn't Work In Today's Global Economy, Charles W. Murdock Jan 2020

Why Ricardo's Theory Of Comparative Advantage Regarding Foreign Trade Doesn't Work In Today's Global Economy, Charles W. Murdock

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The theoretical basis for international trade is Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage. Paul Samuelson, one of the leading lights in the economics profession in the 20th century, referred to it as one of the most beautiful ideas in economics. Yet, no one seems to have considered its validity in the context of the current global trade environment.

What free-trade advocates have not done is to look at the bases underlying Ricardo’s theory, namely, that capital is loyal to the country of origin and that the value of currencies is responsive to imbalances in trade. This article demonstrates that capital is …


Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Trump administration is mulling an executive order that would trigger U.S. withdrawal from the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), according to reports from Bloomberg and POLITICO. Withdrawal from the GPA would deprive U.S. suppliers of a key point of access to public procurement markets internationally, under a world-wide agreement which has set global standards and opened over a trillion dollars annually in business opportunities. See, e.g., Anderson et al., “Assessing the Value of Future Accessions to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA): Some New Data Sources, Provisional Estimates, and An Evaluative Framework for Individual WTO Members Considering …


Misaligned Lawmaking, Timothy Meyer Jan 2020

Misaligned Lawmaking, Timothy Meyer

Faculty Scholarship

This Article makes three contributions. First, it introduces the Misalignment Thesis in the context of U.S. trade policy. The Misalignment Thesis is a descriptive claim about how the structure of a legislative bargain influences the long-term stability and effectiveness of that bargain. Second, the Article introduces the normative corollary to the Misalignment Thesis: if political stability hinges on respecting the legislative bargain, interdependent policies should be subject to renegotiation on the same timeline and implementation on the same terms. In light of this prescription, I offer three concrete proposals for aligning trade liberalization and trade adjustment assistance in order to …


Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The COVID-19 crisis upended markets and assumptions in public procurement, and posed an almost existential threat to traditional procurement systems. Seismic changes in economic relationships – governments were no longer monopsonists, government officials failed as economic intermediaries between suppliers and the public, and supplies that were traditionally treated as private (such as medical equipment) suddenly became “public” goods under worldwide demand. Traditional trade rules were rendered irrelevant, as the goal was no longer simply to open individual procurements but rather to open borders to intense global demand. Although the disruption was revolutionary, ironically the solution is to return to first …


The Digital Challenge To International Trade Law, Wentong Zheng Jan 2020

The Digital Challenge To International Trade Law, Wentong Zheng

UF Law Faculty Publications

The rise of the Internet and so-called digital trade has significantly transformed international trade. International trade law, however, has lagged behind in regulating the phenomenon. Decades-long negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO) over digital trade have largely stalled, while efforts to deal with the issue at the bilateral and regional levels have resulted in inconsistent and fragmented rules. This article discusses the challenges posed by digital trade to international trade law and the best ways to meet those challenges. It contributes to the discourse on digital trade by advocating for a back-to-basics approach. It argues that instead of undertaking …


The Integrative Effects Of Global Legal Pluralism, Monica Hakimi Jan 2020

The Integrative Effects Of Global Legal Pluralism, Monica Hakimi

Faculty Scholarship

International lawyers widely understand that legal pluralism is a fact of global life and that it can, in certain settings, be desirable. But many still approach it with some trepidation. A prominent skeptical claim is that pluralist structures lack the integrative resources that unify people around a shared governance project. This claim has been prominent with respect to two kinds of conflicts that are routine in international law: (1) conflicts that play out within a single international legal arrangement, and (2) conflicts that cut across multiple legal arrangements. For both, the skeptical claim is directed at the pluralist structure itself. …


Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman Oct 2019

Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Ganesh Sitaraman

There are two paradigms through which to view trade law and policy within the American constitutional system. One paradigm sees trade law and policy as quintessentially about domestic economic policy. Institutionally, under the domestic economics paradigm, trade law falls within the province of Congress, which has legion Article I authorities over commercial matters. The second paradigm sees trade law as fundamentally about America’s relationship with foreign countries. Institutionally, under the foreign affairs paradigm, trade law is the province of the President, who speaks for the United States in foreign affairs. While both paradigms have operated throughout American history, the domestic …