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International taxation

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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Critical Reassessment Of The Role Of Neutrality In International Taxation, David Elkins Dec 2019

A Critical Reassessment Of The Role Of Neutrality In International Taxation, David Elkins

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Neutrality plays a central role in the literature on international taxation. In its most prevalent form, the concept of neutrality posits that in order to maximize aggregate global welfare, capital needs to flow to where it would produce the highest pretax return. The thesis of this Article is that neutrality is ordinarily inapplicable in the field of international taxation.

When considering neutrality in the international arena, the problem that one encounters is that the term “international taxation” is commonly used to describe a number of very different types of tax regimes (what the Article refers to as “intranational taxation,” “supranational ...


Interest Deductibility And International Taxation In Canada After Beps Action 4, David G. Duff Aug 2019

Interest Deductibility And International Taxation In Canada After Beps Action 4, David G. Duff

All Faculty Publications

Among the ways in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can shift profits from one jurisdiction to another in order to minimize taxes, one of the most simple and widely-employed involves the payment of interest to related parties and third parties. For these reasons, it is not surprising that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) identified the deduction of interest and other financial payments as a significant source of BEPS concerns, and that BEPS Action 4 was charged with developing “recommendations regarding best practices in the design of rules to prevent ...


The Superiority Of The Digital Service Tax Over Significant Digital Presence Proposals, Wei Cui Jul 2019

The Superiority Of The Digital Service Tax Over Significant Digital Presence Proposals, Wei Cui

All Faculty Publications

Responding to calls for reallocating taxing rights over multinationals’ profits to reflect the place of user value creation, the OECD recently announced a Program of Work to implement international tax reform. I use the European Commission’s 2018 proposal to introduce the “significant digital presence” concept into income tax treaties as an example of the type of approach the OECD favors, and argue that it is inferior to recently proposed digital services taxes (DSTs). DSTs directly address the question of where profits should be allocated and taxed, while SDP proposals subordinate this vital question to superfluous treaty conventions. Global tax ...


International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg Mar 2019

International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The “taxation of the digital economy” is currently at the top of the global international tax policymaking agenda. A core claim some European governments are advancing is that user data or user participation in the digital economy justifies a gross tax on digital receipts, new profit attribution criteria, or a special formulary apportionment factor in a future formulary regime targeted specifically at the “digital economy.” Just a couple years ago the OECD undertook an evaluation of whether the digital economy can (or should) be “ring-fenced” as part of the BEPS project, and concluded that it neither can be nor should ...


The Digital Services Tax On The Verge Of Implementation, Wei Cui Jan 2019

The Digital Services Tax On The Verge Of Implementation, Wei Cui

All Faculty Publications

France enacted the digital services tax (DST) in 2019, and similar legislation is pending in the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and other countries. The DST can be viewed as a tax on location-specific rent (LSR), and it arguably solves genuinely new problems in international taxation. The author briefly reviews this justification of the DST and further examines the DST design in light of three criticisms. The first criticism is that certain features of the DST render it similar to distortionary import tariffs. The second is that the DST would not be borne by digital platforms but would only be shifted ...


International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg Oct 2018

International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The “taxation of the digital economy” is currently at the top of the global international tax policymaking agenda. A core claim some European governments are advancing is that user data or user participation in the digital economy justifies a gross tax on digital receipts, new profit attribution criteria, or a special formulary apportionment factor in a future formulary regime targeted specifically at the “digital economy.” Just a couple years ago the OECD undertook an evaluation of whether the digital economy can (or should) be “ring-fenced” as part of the BEPS project, and concluded that it neither can be nor should ...


The Digital Services Tax: A Conceptual Defense, Wei Cui Oct 2018

The Digital Services Tax: A Conceptual Defense, Wei Cui

All Faculty Publications

As 2018 nears its end, a digital service tax (DST) seems imminent in Europe, yet elaborations of the DST’s motivations have so far come primarily from the European Commission and the UK Treasury: academic and practitioner commentators remain largely skeptical. This paper offers a new conceptual defense of the DST that is independent of the existing government positions. I argue that a clear case can be made for the DST as a way of taxing location-specific rent earned by digital platforms. While the DST may also be partially motivated by other, potentially conflicting visions for reforming international taxation, such ...


Residence-Based Formulary Apportionment: (In-)Feasibility And Implications, Wei Cui Oct 2018

Residence-Based Formulary Apportionment: (In-)Feasibility And Implications, Wei Cui

All Faculty Publications

I examine one way of taxing international corporate income that has not previously been studied, “residence-based formulary apportionment” or RBFA. I first offer a new taxonomy of different ways of taxing corporate income by reference to individual shareholders, and distinguish what I call the “shareholder attribution” approach from integration, pass-through, and other approaches. I then argue that although traditional international legal norms had led international tax design to avoid taxing foreign corporations “unconnected” with the taxing jurisdiction (e.g. foreign corporations earning only foreign income), these legal norms have gone through substantial transformations in recent years. The exercise of jurisdiction ...


Taxation, Competitiveness, And Inversions: A Response To Kleinbard, Michael S. Knoll May 2017

Taxation, Competitiveness, And Inversions: A Response To Kleinbard, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this report, I argue that the inversion situation is more nuanced, complex, and ambiguous than Edward D. Kleinbard acknowledges, and I challenge Kleinbard’s claim that U.S. multinationals are on a tax par with their foreign competitors.


Reactions To Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements And Strategy Suggestions For Korea, Aju Nam May 2017

Reactions To Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements And Strategy Suggestions For Korea, Aju Nam

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project has been one of the biggest issues in international taxation. The OECD refers to BEPS as “tax avoidance strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations.” In 2014, the OECD released BEPS Action 2 as responds on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements (“HMA”s), which are arrangements exploiting differences in the tax treatment of instruments, entities or transfers between two or more countries. Two of the major factors of HMAs are hybrid entities ...


The Luxembourg Effect: Patent Boxes And The Limits Of International Cooperation, Lilian V. Faulhaber Jun 2016

The Luxembourg Effect: Patent Boxes And The Limits Of International Cooperation, Lilian V. Faulhaber

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article uses patent boxes, which reduce taxes on income from patents and other IP assets, to illustrate the fact that the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice has a longer reach than has previously been recognized. This article argues that, along with having effects within the European Union, the ECJ’s decisions can also have effects on countries outside of the EU. In the direct tax context, the ECJ’s jurisprudence has hampered the ability of both EU and non-EU countries to police international tax avoidance.

In 2015, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) proposed restrictions ...


Demanding Corporate Patriotism: A Regulatory Attempt To Curb International Corporate Inversions And Stop Tax Avoidance Schemes, David Khanjyan Apr 2016

Demanding Corporate Patriotism: A Regulatory Attempt To Curb International Corporate Inversions And Stop Tax Avoidance Schemes, David Khanjyan

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


Destination-Based Cash-Flow Taxation: A Critical Appraisal, Wei Cui Sep 2015

Destination-Based Cash-Flow Taxation: A Critical Appraisal, Wei Cui

Wei Cui

This Article offers the first comprehensive appraisal in both the legal and economic literatures of proposals for adopting destination-based cash flow taxation (DCFT) of multinational corporations. The DCFT was a key recommendation for reforming corporate taxation in the U.K., and has subsequently attracted wide attention as a way to fundamentally reform international taxation in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere. The core intuition of the DCFT is to tax profits earned by mobile capital by reference to immobile factors. I distinguish three versions of the DCFT for implementing this intuition: 1. formulary apportionment of business profits by reference to ...


International Tax Policy: The Counter-Story Presented By The Brics, Kim Brooks Jan 2015

International Tax Policy: The Counter-Story Presented By The Brics, Kim Brooks

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter focuses on the international tax policy directions of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). The BRICS countries present something of a counter-story to the narrative that international tax law has harmonized. These five countries, major economic and trade players in the world but not members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), have developed their international tax policy with an eye to the approach suggested by the OECD, but not necessarily in conformity with its strictures. This chapter explores the international tax policy directions of the BRICS jurisdictions under the familiar, broad heads of ...


The Interaction Of Tax And Non-Tax Treaties, Robert A. Green Dec 2014

The Interaction Of Tax And Non-Tax Treaties, Robert A. Green

Robert A. Green

This background note consists of two parts. Part one provides an overview of the extent to which tax matters are currently covered in non-tax treaties. This discussion focuses on the general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement and the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA) (which cover direct tax measures only to a limited extent) and the European Community (EC) treaty (which covers direct tax measures more broadly). Part two outlines the issues raised when tax matters are covered in non-tax treaties.


Taxpayers’ Lack Of Standing In International Tax Dispute Resolutions: An Analysis Based On The Hybrid Norms Of International Taxation, Limor Riza Dec 2014

Taxpayers’ Lack Of Standing In International Tax Dispute Resolutions: An Analysis Based On The Hybrid Norms Of International Taxation, Limor Riza

Pace Law Review

This paper examines whether a taxpayer should have “standing” in international dispute resolutions. To answer this question the primary task is to identify the nature of international taxation. In other words, this paper discusses how to classify the field of international taxation. Is it part of public international law, private international law (i.e., conflict of laws), national (domestic) law, or is it a hybrid field that requires specific attention? Making this distinction is vital for resolving disputes when a taxpayer is taxed twice for cross-border transactions in cases where the double tax convention is unclear and both contracting states ...


Value In The Eye Of The Beholder: The Valuation Of Intangibles For Transfer Pricing Purposes, Yariv Brauner Nov 2014

Value In The Eye Of The Beholder: The Valuation Of Intangibles For Transfer Pricing Purposes, Yariv Brauner

Yariv Brauner

This article assesses the desirability of our current, arms' length based, transfer pricing regime by analyzing its theoretical and practical effectiveness in application to transfers of intangibles. A detailed analysis of the practice of valuation of intangibles, which is the key component in the application of this regime, exposes its weaknesses that result in undesirable market incentives. These incentives create a strong bias in favor of large multinational enterprises, yet, even if one favored such bias, it is achieved using an uncontrollable, costly and wasteful legal mechanism. The article particularly criticizes the regime's disregard of the unique characteristics of ...


Peer Pressure: Why America Should Succumb To The Territorial Tax Temptation, Paul Petrick Jan 2014

Peer Pressure: Why America Should Succumb To The Territorial Tax Temptation, Paul Petrick

The Global Business Law Review

This Note argues that the United States should adopt a territorial tax system. Currently, the United States is one of a small group of nations that employs a worldwide system of taxation. Under a worldwide system, income is taxed both in the country where it is earned and in the country where the taxpayer resides. Alternatively, under a territorial system, income is taxed only in the country where it is earned. By adopting a territorial system, the United States would jettison the duplicative taxation inherent in the worldwide system. Additionally, the presence of anti-inversion rules, controlled foreign corporation rules, and ...


Justifications And Proportionality: An Analysis Of The Ecj's Assessment Of National Rules For The Prevention Of Tax Avoidance, Maria Hilling May 2013

Justifications And Proportionality: An Analysis Of The Ecj's Assessment Of National Rules For The Prevention Of Tax Avoidance, Maria Hilling

Maria Hilling

This article deals with the limitations imposed by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) on Member States´right to prevent tax avoidance and protect national tax bases. It focuses on some recent ECJ case law developments. One central question concerns the implications of the legal situation for Member States´ tax legislators.


Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2013

Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

Corporate tax residence is fundamental to our federal income tax system. Whether a corporation is classified as “domestic” or “foreign” for U.S. federal income tax purposes determines the extent of tax jurisdiction the United States has over the corporation and its affiliates. Unfortunately, tax scholars seem to agree that the concept of corporate tax residence is “meaningless.” Underlying this perception are the ideas that corporations cannot have “real” residence because they are imaginary entities and because taxpayers can easily manipulate corporate tax residence tests. Commentators try to deal with the perceived meaninglessness by either trying to identify a normative ...


Technological Innovation, International Competition, And The Challenges Of International Income Taxation, Michael J. Graetz, Rachael Doud Jan 2013

Technological Innovation, International Competition, And The Challenges Of International Income Taxation, Michael J. Graetz, Rachael Doud

Faculty Scholarship

Because of the importance of technological innovation to economic growth, nations strive to stimulate and attract the research and development ("R&D") that leads to that innovation and to make themselves hospitable environments for the holding of intellectual property ("IP"). Tax policies have taken center stage in their efforts to accomplish these goals and to capture a share of the income from technological innovations.

Designing cost-effective methods of supporting technological innovations has, however, become substantially more difficult as the world economy has become more interconnected. Where R&D is performed and where income is earned change in response to the ...


Är Det Möjligt Att Utforma Eu-Förenliga Skatteflyktsregler? En Analys Med Särskilt Fokus På Rättfärdigandegrunden Att Upprätthålla Den Väl Avvägda Fördelningen Av Beskattningsrätten, Maria Hilling Oct 2012

Är Det Möjligt Att Utforma Eu-Förenliga Skatteflyktsregler? En Analys Med Särskilt Fokus På Rättfärdigandegrunden Att Upprätthålla Den Väl Avvägda Fördelningen Av Beskattningsrätten, Maria Hilling

Maria Hilling

No abstract provided.


Foreign Administrative Law And International Taxation: A Case Study Of Tax Treaty Implementation In China, Wei Cui May 2012

Foreign Administrative Law And International Taxation: A Case Study Of Tax Treaty Implementation In China, Wei Cui

Wei Cui

U.S. taxpayers and the IRS increasingly have to take into account the interactions between U.S. and foreign laws, but they have paid little attention to the administrative law backgrounds of foreign tax laws. In a growing range of cases, the need for such attention has become urgent. This Article describes a novel class of cases encountered by U.S. taxpayers that emanate from tax treaty implementation in China. In these cases, U.S. (and other foreign) investors face certain rules that conflict with common treaty interpretations, and that, at the same time, are not legally binding under Chinese ...


Technological Innovation, International Competition, And The Challenges Of International Income Taxation, Michael J. Graetz, Rachael Doud Jan 2012

Technological Innovation, International Competition, And The Challenges Of International Income Taxation, Michael J. Graetz, Rachael Doud

Faculty Scholarship

Because of the importance of technological innovation to economic growth, nations strive to stimulate and attract the research and development (“R&D”) that leads to that innovation and to make themselves hospitable environments for the holding of intellectual property (“IP”). Tax policies have taken center stage in their efforts to accomplish these goals and to capture a share of the income from technological innovations. Designing cost-effective methods of supporting technological innovations has, however, become substantially more difficult as the world economy has become more interconnected. Where R&D is performed and where income is earned change in response to the ...


Introduction, Comparative Income Taxation: A Structured Analysis, Hugh J. Ault, Brian J. Arnold Dec 2011

Introduction, Comparative Income Taxation: A Structured Analysis, Hugh J. Ault, Brian J. Arnold

Hugh J. Ault

This work presents a comparative analysis of some of the structural and design issues which are involved in mature income tax systems. Countries selected for the study are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each of the systems has evolved its own particular set of approaches and principles, outlined in Part One. Ensuing Parts deal with Basic Income Taxation, Taxation of Business Organizations and International Taxation. There is much to learn in the tax field from a comparative analysis of common problems. One need not believe in the existence of a ...


Oecd Project On Harmful Tax Practices, Hugh J. Ault Dec 2011

Oecd Project On Harmful Tax Practices, Hugh J. Ault

Hugh J. Ault

Materials presented in conjunction with a keynote speech delivered on May 15, 2003 at a congress on Tax Competition, organized by the European Tax College and held at Tilburg University, the Netherlands.


A Global E-Commerce Tax To Fund Global Public Goods, Rifat Azam Dr. Aug 2011

A Global E-Commerce Tax To Fund Global Public Goods, Rifat Azam Dr.

Rifat Azam Dr.

A Global E-commerce Tax to Fund Global Public Goods Rifat Azam

Abstract

This article argues for the imposition of a “global e-commerce tax” on global e-commerce income for funding global public goods. The idea is to create an international body (the "global fund"), to vest it with the authority to impose global tax on global e-commerce income, and to use the tax revenues to fund global public goods. I wish to stress that the model rests on two pillars: global taxation and global spending. The article presents, for the first time, an outline for a concrete design and structure of ...


An Equity-Based, Multilateral Approach For Sourcing Income Among Nations, Fred B. Brown Feb 2011

An Equity-Based, Multilateral Approach For Sourcing Income Among Nations, Fred B. Brown

fred b brown

The source of income rules used in the United States and elsewhere in large part establish the contours of tax jurisdiction exercised by countries. The source rules play a vital role in the foreign tax credit system applicable to U.S. persons with foreign investment or business activities. The source rules also play a central role in the United States’ exercise of source taxation over foreign persons with U.S. businesses or investments. Other countries likewise use source rules or their equivalent in applying foreign tax credit or territorial systems to their residents and exercising source taxation over nonresidents. The ...


Reconsidering International Tax Neutrality, Michael S. Knoll Jan 2011

Reconsidering International Tax Neutrality, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For decades, U.S. international tax policy has shifted back and forth between territorial-source-exemption taxation and worldwide-residence-credit taxation. The former is generally associated with capital import neutrality (CIN) and the latter with capital export neutrality (CEN). One reason why national tax policy has shifted back and forth between those benchmarks is because it is widely accepted that a tax system cannot simultaneously satisfy both CEN and CIN unless tax rates on capital are harmonized across jurisdictions. In this essay, I argue that the international tax literature contains two different and conflicting definitions for CIN. Under one definition, which goes back ...


An Equity-Based, Multilateral Approach For Sourcing Income Among Nations, Fred B. Brown Jan 2011

An Equity-Based, Multilateral Approach For Sourcing Income Among Nations, Fred B. Brown

All Faculty Scholarship

The source of income rules used in the United States and elsewhere in large part establish the contours of tax jurisdiction exercised by countries. The source rules play a vital role in the foreign tax credit system applicable to U.S. persons with foreign investment or business activities. The source rules also play a central role in the United States’ exercise of source taxation over foreign persons with U.S. businesses or investments. Other countries likewise use source rules or their equivalent in applying foreign tax credit or territorial systems to their residents and exercising source taxation over nonresidents.

The ...