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International norms

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Role Of Personal Laws In Creating A “Second Sex”, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Indira Jaising Sep 2016

The Role Of Personal Laws In Creating A “Second Sex”, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Indira Jaising

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The cultural construction of gender determines the role of women and girls within the family in many societies. Gendered notions of power in the family are often shrouded in religion and custom and find their deepest expression in Personal Laws. This essay examines the international law framework as it relates to personal laws and the commonality of narratives of litigators and plaintiffs in the cases from the three different personal law systems in India.


The United States, China, And Freedom Of Navigation In The South China Sea, James W. Houck, Nicole M. Anderson Feb 2016

The United States, China, And Freedom Of Navigation In The South China Sea, James W. Houck, Nicole M. Anderson

James Houck

The need for a uniform understanding of international norms regarding freedom of navigation is increasingly important as more States develop capacity to act in the international maritime realm. Nowhere is the issue of freedom of navigation more contentious, with more potential to spark wider conflict, than in the South China Sea (SCS). Both the United States and China profess an interest in the free navigation of commercial vessels in the region. Beyond commercial shipping, however, the two nations disagree on the important issue of freedom of navigation for military vessels. The United States believes all nations have wide latitude under ...


Nanotechnology, Environmental Risks, And Regulatory Options, Vincent R. Johnson Jan 2016

Nanotechnology, Environmental Risks, And Regulatory Options, Vincent R. Johnson

Faculty Articles

Nanotechnology today is viewed by many as a great advance in the quest for stronger and lighter materials, more effective pharmaceuticals, and better medicine. The critical question—largely unanswered—is whether this kind of science harbors destructive powers which, if fully understood, would call for restrictions or a ban on the use of certain types of nanotechnology. Current regulations in the United States and Europe cover chemicals that may be produced in nanoform. However, those regimes are not well designed to detect the risks posed by nanotechnology because they often fail to appreciate what is unique about nanomaterials. It is ...


Congress's International Legal Discourse, Kevin L. Cope May 2015

Congress's International Legal Discourse, Kevin L. Cope

Michigan Law Review

Despite Congress’s important role in enforcing U.S. international law obligations, the relevant existing literature largely ignores the branch. This omission may stem partly from the belief, common among both academics and lawyers, that Congress is generally unsympathetic to or ignorant of international law. Under this conventional wisdom, members of Congress would rarely if ever imply that international law norms should impact otherwise desirable domestic legislation. Using an original dataset comprising thirty years of legislative histories of pertinent federal statutes, this Article questions and tests that view. The evidence refutes the conventional wisdom. It shows instead that, in legislative ...


Death Penalty Drugs And The International Moral Marketplace, James Gibson, Corinna Barrett Lain Jan 2015

Death Penalty Drugs And The International Moral Marketplace, James Gibson, Corinna Barrett Lain

Law Faculty Publications

Across the country, executions have become increasingly problematic as states have found it more and more difficult to procure the drugs they need for lethal injection.At first blush, the drug shortage appears to be the result of pharmaceutical industry norms; companies that make drugs for healing (mostly in Europe) have refused to be merchants of death. But closer inspection reveals that European governments are the true change agents here. For decades, those governments have tried-and failed-to promote abolition of the death penalty through traditional instruments of international law. Turns out that the best way to export their abolitionist norms ...


The Relevance Of Customary International Norms To The Death Penalty In The United States, Joan Fitzpatrick Oct 2014

The Relevance Of Customary International Norms To The Death Penalty In The United States, Joan Fitzpatrick

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The United States, China, And Freedom Of Navigation In The South China Sea, James W. Houck, Nicole M. Anderson Jan 2014

The United States, China, And Freedom Of Navigation In The South China Sea, James W. Houck, Nicole M. Anderson

Journal Articles

The need for a uniform understanding of international norms regarding freedom of navigation is increasingly important as more States develop capacity to act in the international maritime realm. Nowhere is the issue of freedom of navigation more contentious, with more potential to spark wider conflict, than in the South China Sea (SCS). Both the United States and China profess an interest in the free navigation of commercial vessels in the region. Beyond commercial shipping, however, the two nations disagree on the important issue of freedom of navigation for military vessels. The United States believes all nations have wide latitude under ...


Social Protection Afforded To Irregular Migrant Workers: Thoughts On International Norms, The Southern African Development Community, Botswana And South Africa, Bruno Ps Van Eck, Felicia Snyman Mar 2013

Social Protection Afforded To Irregular Migrant Workers: Thoughts On International Norms, The Southern African Development Community, Botswana And South Africa, Bruno Ps Van Eck, Felicia Snyman

Bruno PS Van Eck

The majority of migrant workers target those countries in southern Africa that have stronger economies. Irregular migrants are in a particularly vulnerable position, and this article discusses the protection that this category of persons may expect to experience in the southern African region. The authors recommend that the broad notion of “social protection”, rather than the narrower concept “social security” should be emphasized. International, continental and regional instruments providing protection to irregular migrants are traversed and the constitutional and legislative frameworks in relation to social protection in Botswana and South Africa are compared. The article concludes that there are significant ...


Questioning The Peremptory Status Of The Prohibition Of The Use Of Force, James A. Green Feb 2011

Questioning The Peremptory Status Of The Prohibition Of The Use Of Force, James A. Green

Michigan Journal of International Law

It is incontrovertible that the prohibition of the unilateral use of force is a fundamental aspect of the United Nations (U.N.) era system for governing the relations between states. Given this fact, the prohibition, as set out most crucially in Article 2(4) of the U.N. Charter, is often seen as the archetypal example of a jus cogens norm (a "peremptory norm" of general international law). Certainly, an overwhelming majority of scholars view the prohibition as having a peremptory character. Similarly, the International Law Commission (ILC) has taken this view and it is arguable that the International Court ...


Bespoke Custom, Edward T. Swaine Jan 2010

Bespoke Custom, Edward T. Swaine

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Curtis Bradley and Mitu Gulati’s stimulating article, “Withdrawing from International Custom,” argues for a view of customary international law (CIL) in which unilateral exit rights may be revitalized. This response suggests that Bradley and Gulati’s understanding of the intellectual history of CIL is contestable and that, they tend both to understate the novelty of their approach and overstate the rigidity of the views to which they react. Their tentativeness in endorsing exit options makes it difficult to assess the normative implications of their position, but their argument notably lacks a comprehensive consideration of alternative lawmaking forms.


Religious Extremism And International Legal Norms: Perfidy, Preemption, And Irrationality, Louis Rene Beres Jan 2008

Religious Extremism And International Legal Norms: Perfidy, Preemption, And Irrationality, Louis Rene Beres

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

No abstract provided.


Of Neocolonialism, Common Law And Uncodifiable Shari’A: A Reply To Professor An-Na’Im, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar Apr 2007

Of Neocolonialism, Common Law And Uncodifiable Shari’A: A Reply To Professor An-Na’Im, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In an earlier article -- Robinson et al., Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & the Freedom to Invent New Forms, http://ssrn.com/abstract=941443 -- the authors report the challenges and opportunities that arose during their commission by the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of the Maldives to produce the first modern comprehensive criminal code based upon Shari'a. In this brief essay they respond to published criticisms of that project, which asserted, among other things, that Shari'a cannot be codified, that it should not be codified, that the project was a shameful exercise in neocolonialism, that the ...


Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer Nov 2006

Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Program and the Republic of the Maldives, a small Muslim country with a constitutional democracy, commissioned this project to craft the country's first system of codified penal law and sentencing guidelines. This Article describes the special challenges and opportunities encountered while drafting a penal code based on Shari'a (Islamic law). On the one hand, such comprehensive codification is more important and more likely to bring dramatic improvements in the quality of justice than in many other societies, due in large part to the problems of assuring fair notice and fair adjudication in the uncodified ...


Restoring (And Risking) Interest In International Law, Edward T. Swaine Jan 2006

Restoring (And Risking) Interest In International Law, Edward T. Swaine

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Jack Goldsmith of Harvard Law School and Eric Posner of the University of Chicago Law School articulate a comprehensive and engaging theory of state behaviors in their new book, “The Limits of International Law,” but with several internal flaws. Their book uses rational choice theory to explain how states act rationally to maximize their interests, and how, in doing so, states align themselves (sometimes) with international law. This book review argues that while Limits is a skilled and pioneering work that deserves to be taken seriously, it also suffers from tensions and over-generalizations that undermine its claims. As a result ...


Final Report Of The Maldivian Penal Law & Sentencing Codification Project: Text Of Draft Code (Volume 1) And Official Commentary (Volume 2), Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group -- University Of Pennsylvania Jan 2006

Final Report Of The Maldivian Penal Law & Sentencing Codification Project: Text Of Draft Code (Volume 1) And Official Commentary (Volume 2), Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group -- University Of Pennsylvania

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Programme and the Government of the Maldives commissioned the drafting of a penal code based upon existing Maldivian law, which meant primarily a codification of Shari'a. This is the Final Report of that codification project. A description of the process that produced this Report and the drafting principles behind it, as well as a discussion of the special challenges of codifying Islamic criminal law, are contained in an article at http://ssrn.com/abstract=941443.


Fragmentation In A Positive Light, Bruno Simma Jan 2004

Fragmentation In A Positive Light, Bruno Simma

Michigan Journal of International Law

The organizers of the present symposium demonstrated a keen sense of topicality when they chose "Diversity or Cacophony? New Sources of Norms in International Law?" as the subject-matter of the 25th Anniversary Symposium of the Michigan Journal of International Law. For the last decade or so, the question whether the international legal order finds itself in the process of fragmentation, and if so, what the consequences of this development will be, has been a popular area of study for many jurists; most of them expressing their concern about what they consider to constitute a threat to the unity of international ...


Pros And Cons Ensuing From Fragmentation Of International Law, Gerhard Hafner Jan 2004

Pros And Cons Ensuing From Fragmentation Of International Law, Gerhard Hafner

Michigan Journal of International Law

The system of international law has become increasingly fragmented, particularly since the end of the Cold War. This paper intends to present the main features of this development and its implications.


Commentary To Professor Hafner, Annika Tahvanainen Jan 2004

Commentary To Professor Hafner, Annika Tahvanainen

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Comment is a response to Professor Hafner's presentation in which he considered fragmentation as an unavoidable consequence of the increasing number of norms and judicial mechanisms, as well as of the regionalization of international law and the weakening of the state system.


The Reality Of Private Rights, Duties, And Participation In The International Legal Process, Jordan J. Praust Jan 2004

The Reality Of Private Rights, Duties, And Participation In The International Legal Process, Jordan J. Praust

Michigan Journal of International Law

In a realistic and descriptive sense, international law is a complex and dynamic legal process profoundly interconnected with regional and domestic legal processes throughout the globe. There are no single sources or evidences of international law; no single set of participants; and no single arenas or institutional arrangements for the creation, invocation, application, change or termination of such law. Like all human law, it is full of human choice and rich in individual and group participation and inter-affectation. Awareness of this reality can have significant consequences with respect to identification of international legal norms, realistic meaning or content, remedies, and ...


Bridging Fragmentation And Unity: International Law As A Universe Of Inter-Connected Islands, Joost Pauwelyn Jan 2004

Bridging Fragmentation And Unity: International Law As A Universe Of Inter-Connected Islands, Joost Pauwelyn

Michigan Journal of International Law

The fragmentation of the international legal system is not new. The consent-based nature of international law inevitably led to the creation of almost as many treaty regimes, composed of different constellations of states, as there are problems to be dealt with. Traditionally, these different regimes operated in virtual isolation from each other. Most importantly, the Bretton Woods institutions (World Bank, IMF, and GATT, now WTO) focused on the world's economic problems, while the UN institutions tackled the world's political problems. Both the IMF and World Bank articles of agreement, for example, explicitly state that political factors cannot be ...


Democratic Governance: An Emerging Customary Norm?, Jackson N. Maogoto Dec 2002

Democratic Governance: An Emerging Customary Norm?, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Democratic entitlement as a universal human right is a complex and multifaceted issue. The Article has as its modest aim a general reflection on the enshrinement of democracy as a universal entitlement and the movement of international law in a pro-democratic direction The Article will seek to highlight the general uncertainties that continue to plague the democratic entitlement. The Article deliberately focuses on the United Nations system with reference also being given to regional efforts. The Article does not discuss the legal justifications and nature of measures to address undemocratic regimes. While such measures are significant in pro-democratic discourse, it ...


African Courts, International Law, And Comparative Case Law: Chimera Or Emerging Human Rights Jurisprudence?, Mirna E. Adjami Jan 2002

African Courts, International Law, And Comparative Case Law: Chimera Or Emerging Human Rights Jurisprudence?, Mirna E. Adjami

Michigan Journal of International Law

Though the potential creation of a supranational human rights court has brought international attention to the African human rights system, international law and human rights scholars rarely turn to African examples when studying the domestic application of international human rights norms. This Article seeks to fill that gap by analyzing cases from several Anglophone common law countries in sub-Saharan Africa that invoke international law and comparative case law as interpretive support in their national fundamental rights jurisprudence.


The Law Of Peoples. By John Rawls. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press, 1999. (Book Review), Patrick O. Gudridge Jan 2001

The Law Of Peoples. By John Rawls. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press, 1999. (Book Review), Patrick O. Gudridge

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Imposition Of The Death Penalty In The United States Of America: Does It Comply With International Norms?, Beverly Mcqueary Smith Jan 1999

The Imposition Of The Death Penalty In The United States Of America: Does It Comply With International Norms?, Beverly Mcqueary Smith

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Mrs. Watu: Seven Steps To Trade Sanctions Analysis, Raj Bhala Jan 1999

Mrs. Watu: Seven Steps To Trade Sanctions Analysis, Raj Bhala

Michigan Journal of International Law

An earlier version of this article was published as MRS. WATU and International Trade Sanctions, 33 INT'L LAW Spring 1999. The first draft of this article was presented in Washington, D.C. on 14 May 1998 at The Department of Commerce-George Washington University Third Annual Institute on International Trade and Investment.


The Concept Of Compliance As A Function Of Competing Conceptions Of International Law, Benedict Kingsbury Jan 1998

The Concept Of Compliance As A Function Of Competing Conceptions Of International Law, Benedict Kingsbury

Michigan Journal of International Law

The purpose of this article is to challenge the tendency in the existing literature to view "compliance" simply as "correspondence of behavior with legal rules." This tendency is intelligibly based in a theoretical view that law can properly be defined and understood as a body of rules and expresses a practical concern to get on with the important task of producing empirical studies of compliance. The logical corollary is that a reasonable degree of conformity between these rules and actual behavior is necessary to an efficacious legal system, so that recurrent and widespread non-conformity with rules would usually call into ...


Why Nations Behave, Jose E. Alvarez Jan 1998

Why Nations Behave, Jose E. Alvarez

Michigan Journal of International Law

The idea for this symposium on "implementation, compliance and effectiveness" grew out of the 1997 annual meeting of the American Society of International Law (ASIL), devoted to that theme. As one of the co-chairs of that meeting, I suggested to the student editors of this journal that they solicit articles on a topic that has seized the attention of researchers within international law as well as in seemingly unrelated fields. As Professor Thomas Franck has indicated in a recent well-received book, an ever increasing number of scholars are going beyond well-worn debates about whether international law is truly "law" to ...


Agenda: Boundaries And Water: Allocation And Use Of A Shared Resource, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center Jun 1989

Agenda: Boundaries And Water: Allocation And Use Of A Shared Resource, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center

Boundaries and Water: Allocation and Use of a Shared Resource (Summer Conference, June 5-7)

Conference organizers and/or faculty included University of Colorado School of Law professors David H. Getches, Lawrence J. MacDonnell and Charles F. Wilkinson.

Boundaries and Water: Allocation and Use of a Shared Resource is the topic of the Center's annual summer program on water this June. Most of the major rivers in the western United States are shared between two or more states. Often tribal governments play an important role in water allocation and use decisions. International considerations also may be involved in some cases. These interjurisdictional issues extend to groundwater as well as surface water.

This conference will ...


Allocation And Use Of International Rivers: Recent Developments In International Law, Daniel Barstow Magraw Jun 1989

Allocation And Use Of International Rivers: Recent Developments In International Law, Daniel Barstow Magraw

Boundaries and Water: Allocation and Use of a Shared Resource (Summer Conference, June 5-7)

26 pages.

Contains references.