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Defrosting Regulatory Chill, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Apr 2024

Defrosting Regulatory Chill, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

In Homer’s Odyssey, King Odysseus asked his men to tie him to the mast of his ship with the hope that he would not jump into the sea after listening to the Sirens. The Odyssey’s hero made a pact to bind himself in the future. He knew that the temptation would be impossible to resist without restraints. Similarly, the creators and advocates of international investment agreements believe that providing rights to foreign investors through international treaties will chill State policies that would harm the interests of investors in the future. The “rope” to tie the State is the threat of …


Rico's Long Arm, Randy D. Gordon Mar 2024

Rico's Long Arm, Randy D. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

RICO has for over 50 years presented something of a parlor game for lawyers, mostly because its text leaves wide latitude in interpretation. And, as is often the case with RICO, resolution of one question begets more. The Supreme Court’s recent decision in Yegiazaryan v. Smagin proves no exception. Here, the Court brought some clarity to a question left open by RJR Nabisco: viz, what must one plead and prove to satisfy the “domestic injury” requirement necessary to invoke an extraterritorial application of RICO. The Court held that a foreign plaintiff can indeed, given the right facts and circumstances, establish …


The International Law Profile Of The Ali, George A. Bermann Jan 2023

The International Law Profile Of The Ali, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

Though its focus, most notably in its Restatements, has traditionally been on domestic U.S. law, the American Law Institute (ALI) has conspicuously turned “international” in recognition of the fact that U.S. law does not, in the present world, operate in isolation from the law of foreign jurisdictions and international institutions. To be sure, the two most prominent Restatements in the field continue to bear the term “U.S.” in their title: “Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States” and “The U.S. Law of International Commercial and Investor-State Arbitration.” But both present bodies of law profoundly influenced by, and …


Anticipatory Deference: What Will Courts Decide And Not Decide Before Enforcing An Agreement To Arbitrate?, George A. Bermann Jan 2023

Anticipatory Deference: What Will Courts Decide And Not Decide Before Enforcing An Agreement To Arbitrate?, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

The question of deference in international arbitration usually arises when the issue before a decision-maker, be it a tribunal or a court, is one that has already been addressed and ruled upon by another decision-maker over an arbitration’s life-cycle. The salience of this question stems from the fact that international arbitration is a highly iterative and staged process over the course of which different actors are successively confronted with the same issue. This is particularly the case in regard to jurisdictional issues because the authority of a tribunal to entertain a dispute is potentially an issue at all stages.

But …


"Keep To The Code”: A Global Code Of Conduct For Third-Party Funders, Victoria Sahani Dec 2022

"Keep To The Code”: A Global Code Of Conduct For Third-Party Funders, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

Global commercial third-party funding has given rise to wide-ranging regulatory approaches worldwide. Consequently, funders can engage in cross-border regulatory arbitrage by exploiting regulatory gaps within and among nations. This Article argues that the global community of nations should articulate a universal approach to the behavioral expectations of third-party funders operating transnationally, independent of local laws regarding the technical business of funding. It asserts that the key to fostering the ethical development of the third-party funding industry is to develop a globally applicable but locally enforced code of conduct or professional responsibility for the industry. Moreover, a successful regime for funder …


In Memoriam: Emmanuel Gaillard, George A. Bermann Jan 2021

In Memoriam: Emmanuel Gaillard, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

It is difficult to add meaningfully to all that has been said and written about the extraordinary Emmanuel Gaillard who left us far too soon. But I shall try.

Emmanuel has been described lately as a “titan” and a “giant.” Though he was those things, they fail to capture the humility and humanity that marked Emmanuel for the length of his career. Notwithstanding the monumental achievements he made, and the recognition he so richly deserved, Emmanuel remained throughout a modest, loyal and supportive member of the international arbitration community.


Costs Allocation In International Arbitration: What Normative Source, If Any?, George A. Bermann Jan 2020

Costs Allocation In International Arbitration: What Normative Source, If Any?, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

Costs in arbitration is one of those many issues that arises constantly (at least in any arbitration that gets underway), but as to which there is by no means any universally accepted standard of judgment. It is also not particularly usual for parties to address the issue of costs directly in their arbitration agreement, or for the matter to be addressed in the law of arbitration of the seat. If the rules of arbitral procedure that the parties may have incorporated into their arbitration agreement address the matter, they may not do so in highly informative terms. The Rules of …


A Hardy Case Makes Bad Law, Victoria Sahani Dec 2019

A Hardy Case Makes Bad Law, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

This Article is the first ever to analyze a direct clash between the inherent power of US courts regarding the enforcement ofjudgments and the obligations of the United States as one of the 163 member countries of the 1965 Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, commonly known as the "ICSID Convention. " The ICSID Convention includes a self-enforcement mechanism whereby the courts of the member countries are obligated to enforce the pecuniary obligations in multimillion (and sometimes over one billion) dollar ICSID arbitration awards as though they were court judgments of the …


International Arbitration: Out Of The Shadows, George A. Bermann Jan 2019

International Arbitration: Out Of The Shadows, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

This article discusses a diverse number of issues that have affected the strength and popularity of international arbitration among its users. It emphasises the importance of the arbitration community recognising the force and validity of a number of critiques of the process and developing strategies for dealing with them. It is an edited version of a Keynote Address delivered at the ADR in Asia Conference on 29 October 2018.


Unity And Diversity In International Law, William W. Park Jan 2019

Unity And Diversity In International Law, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

The primordial Greek sea-god Proteus could alter his shape at will, notwithstanding that his divine substance remained the same. Reinventing himself by adapting to new circumstances, Proteus still stayed unchanged in essence.

Unlike the sea-god’s protean nature, the substance of international law may well undergo alterations when examined through the telescope of legal culture, or with predispositions of divergent educational backgrounds. For the thoughtful reader, scholarly speculation on such variations will be triggered by reading Is International Law International?. In that book, Professor Anthea Roberts explores a variety of elements in the teaching and practice of international law, viewed …


European Union Law And International Arbitration At A Crossroads, George A. Bermann Jan 2019

European Union Law And International Arbitration At A Crossroads, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

It is no exaggeration to describe the relationship between the European Union and international arbitration as the most dramatic confrontation between two international legal regimes seen in a great many years. International law scholars commonly lament the "fragmentation" of international law, i.e., the co-existence of multiple international legal regimes whose competences overlap and whose policies may differ, resulting in a degree of regulatory disorder. However, seldom do these regimes actually "collide." By contrast, the two international regimes in which we are interested this evening international arbitration and the European Union may be described, without hyperbole, as on a collision course. …


Retour Sur L’Affaire De L’Alabama: De L’Utilité Et De L’Histoire Pour L'Arbitrage International, William W. Park, Bruno De Fumichon Jan 2019

Retour Sur L’Affaire De L’Alabama: De L’Utilité Et De L’Histoire Pour L'Arbitrage International, William W. Park, Bruno De Fumichon

Faculty Scholarship

For any aficionado of international law and international arbitration, the 1872 Alabama case represents a rich historical landmark, as promising a mine as the wreck of the Confederate Ship Alabama itself, sunk off Cherbourg, in 1864, by the United States Ship Kearsarge. This arbitration represents a turning point in relations between the United States and Great Britain, from repeated conflict to a “Special Relationship” that has grown stronger during the past century and a half. The case also marked the revival of international arbitration, after centuries of uncertainty. Not least, the case introduced long-lasting procedural innovations: the neutral collegial tribunal, …


A Conversation With Professor William W. (Rusty) Park, William W. Park Nov 2018

A Conversation With Professor William W. (Rusty) Park, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

ABBY COHEN SMUTNY*: The ITA’s Academic Council has an interesting and very useful project, which is called Preserving Perspectives. It is a project to interview leading arbitrators regarding the development and evolution of international arbitration. This has led to a series of wonderful videos that are posted on ITA’s website. These videos are a tremendously rich resource and I encourage you to check them out on ITA’s website.

I’m now delighted to introduce to you the next interview in this important series. Professor and member of our academic council Catherine Rogers will be interviewing Professor Rusty Park, and …


The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Jan 2018

The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

The paper is a response piece to Deborah Hensler and Damira Khatam’s new article, Re-inventing Arbitration: How Expanding the Scope of Arbitration Is Re-Shaping Its Form and Blurring the Line Between Private and Public Adjudication. Their main argument regarding the public-private distinction is that the arbitral procedure has changed as a consequence of the substantive issues resolved in this particular ADR system. According to them the arbitral system, which was originally conceived for commercial purposes, has become another way of litigating public law, but without the accountability mechanisms attached to public courts. In this paper, I agree in large part …


Reshaping Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani Feb 2017

Reshaping Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

Third-party funding is a controversial business arrangement whereby an outside entity—called a third-party funder—finances the legal representation of a party involved in litigation or arbitration or finances a law firm’s portfolio of cases in return for a profit. Attorney ethics regulations and other laws permit nonlawyers to become partial owners of law firms in the District of Columbia, England and Wales, Scotland, Australia, two provinces in Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and other jurisdictions around the world. Recently, a U.S.-based third-party funder that is publicly traded in England started its own law firm in England. In addition, some U.S. …


Judging Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani Feb 2016

Judging Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

Third-party funding is an arrangement whereby an outside entity finances the legal representation of a party involved in litigation or arbitration. The outside entity—called a “third-party funder”—could be a bank, hedge fund, insurance company, or some other entity or individual that finances the party’s legal representation in return for a profit. Third-party funding is a controversial, dynamic, and evolving phenomenon. The practice has attracted national headlines and the attention of the Advisory Committee on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (Advisory Committee). The Advisory Committee stated in a recent report that “judges currently have the power to obtain information about …


Africa's New Economic Partnerships And Dispute Settlement, Victoria Sahani Jan 2016

Africa's New Economic Partnerships And Dispute Settlement, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

This panel was convened at 11:00 a.m., Thursday, March 31, 2016, by its moderator Uche Ewelukwa of the University of Arkansas School of Law, who introduced the panelists: Victoria Shannon Sahani of Washington and Lee University School of Law; David H. Shinn of George Washington University School of Law; and Thomas R. Snider of Greenberg Traurig LLP.


Gateway-Schmateway: An Exchange Between George Bermann And Alan Rau, Alan Scott Rau, George Bermann Jan 2016

Gateway-Schmateway: An Exchange Between George Bermann And Alan Rau, Alan Scott Rau, George Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

What role do national courts play in international arbitration? Is international arbitration an “autonomous dispute resolution process, governed primarily by non-national rules and accepted international commercial rules and practices” where the influence of national courts is merely secondary? Or, in light of the fact that “international arbitration always operates in the shadow of national courts,” is it not more accurate to say that national courts and international arbitration act in partnership? On April 27, 2015, the Pepperdine Law Review convened a group of distinguished authorities from international practice and academia to discuss these and other related issues for a symposium …


Dramatic Sideshows At The Hearing, George A. Bermann Jan 2015

Dramatic Sideshows At The Hearing, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

International arbitration has plenty of dramatic moments, strewn across the arbitration life cycle. They can surface quite early, as in the context of petitions for interim relief, document production, challenges to the arbitrator or various dispositive motions. They are less likely to occur at the post-award stage (i.e. annulment or opposition to the recognition or enforcement of awards), due in part to the fact that that stage typically plays out in the sober atmosphere of a national court. But more often than not, the drama associated with international arbitration takes place in and around the arbitral hearing room.

In my …


The Cohasset Marshlands Dispute: International Arbitration In Colonial New England, William W. Park Oct 2014

The Cohasset Marshlands Dispute: International Arbitration In Colonial New England, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

One of the earliest international arbitrations in the Americas arose from rival claims to hayfields contested between two groups of religious dissidents. The dispute resolution process which unfolded in 1640 between the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies takes special significance as an epochal step toward the robust cross-border cooperation that ultimately united thirteen disparate colonies into a single nation.


Arbitration's Discontents: Between The Pernicious And The Precarious, William W. Park Oct 2014

Arbitration's Discontents: Between The Pernicious And The Precarious, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

Arbitration has become a victim of its own success, as its wider use has triggered a flood of doubt, disapproval and denunciation. In consequence, higher visibility for arbitral proceedings and awards has led to increased criticism, both just and unjust, with respect to arbitrator independence and impartiality. A robust dispute resolution process requires balance between fairness and efficiency, keeping arbitrators free from taint while at the same time reducing the prospect of dilatory tactics aimed at sabotaging proceedings. If litigants hope to have their disputes resolved by intelligent and experienced individuals, criteria for arbitrator impartiality and independence will need to …


Third-Party Funding In International Arbitration: The Icca Queen-Mary Task Force, William W. Park, Catherine A. Rogers Oct 2014

Third-Party Funding In International Arbitration: The Icca Queen-Mary Task Force, William W. Park, Catherine A. Rogers

Faculty Scholarship

Third-party funding raises a host of ethical and procedural issues for international arbitration, perhaps most notably in connection with arbitrator comportment. The need for sustained study of these concerns prompted establishment of a Task Force on Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration, convened by the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) along with Queen Mary College at the University of London. The Task Force, comprised of stakeholders from a range of viewpoints and backgrounds, will assess both real and perceived concerns that this relatively new practice raises, as well as what might be done, and why. This article outlines the Task …


Chapter 16: Transnational Legal Process Theories, Maya Steinitz Feb 2014

Chapter 16: Transnational Legal Process Theories, Maya Steinitz

Faculty Scholarship

THIS chapter is devoted to transnational legal process theories. In 1955, Philip Jessup, in his Storrs Lectures at Yale, famously coined the term “transnational law” as he searched for a concept that would capture the legal regulation of actions or events that transcend national boundaries and that can accommodate both public and private international law. Further, while the traditional concept of “international law” referred to the law regulating relationships between states, the new term encompassed legal relationships of and amongst individuals, corporations, and organizations as well as states.

In other words, as early as the 1950s, and thereafter with increased …


Finding Order In The Morass: The Three Real Justifications For Piercing The Corporate Veil, Jonathan Macey, Joshua Mitts Jan 2014

Finding Order In The Morass: The Three Real Justifications For Piercing The Corporate Veil, Jonathan Macey, Joshua Mitts

Faculty Scholarship

Few doctrines are more shrouded in mystery or litigated more often than piercing the corporate veil. We develop a new theoretical framework that posits that veil piercing is done to achieve three discrete public policy goals, each of which is consistent with economic efficiency: (1) achieving the purpose of an existing statute or regulation; (2) preventing shareholders from obtaining credit by misrepresentation; and (3) promoting the bankruptcy values of achieving the orderly, efficient resolution of a bankrupt's estate. We analyze the facts of veil-piercing cases to show how the outcomes are explained by our taxonomy. We demonstrate that a supposed …


Recent Developments In Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani Jan 2013

Recent Developments In Third-Party Funding, Victoria Sahani

Faculty Scholarship

This article addresses recent developments in third-party funding that occurred during late 2012 and early 2013 in the three leading jurisdictions: Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The most important developments are the following. On 22 April 2013, the Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC) issued regulatory guidelines clarifying the status of funders with respect to ASIC’s regulations and detailing how funders should manage conflicts of interest and handle certain provisions of their funding arrangements. In the United Kingdom, the Jackson Reforms took effect on 1 April 2013, bringing sweeping changes to the allowable fee agreements, discovery rules …


Whose Claim Is This Anyway? Third Party Litigation Funding, Maya Steinitz Jan 2011

Whose Claim Is This Anyway? Third Party Litigation Funding, Maya Steinitz

Faculty Scholarship

Third party litigation funding, or litigation finance, is a new industry composed of institutional investors who invest in litigation by providing finance in return for an ownership stake in a legal claim and a contingency in the recovery. Its emergence has been recognized as one of the most significant developments in civil litigation today. It will transform access to justice, and affect numerous areas of the law including corporate law, torts, intellectual property, environmental law, employment law and international law. Hailing from the U.K. and Australia, the practice is de facto prohibited in the U.S., largely through ethical rules disallowing …


Reconciling European Union Law Demands With The Demands Of International Arbitration, George A. Bermann Jan 2011

Reconciling European Union Law Demands With The Demands Of International Arbitration, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

European Union ("EU" or "Union") law and the law of international arbitration have traditionally occupied largely separate worlds, as if arbitral tribunals would rarely be the fora for the resolution of EU law claims and as if EU law, in turn, had little concern with arbitration. For several reasons, this pattern has recently been altered, although the relationship between EU law and international arbitration law is at present anything but settled. From the present perspective, the past looks like an age of innocence, for as these two worlds have begun to intersect, they have not done so entirely harmoniously.

Part …


A Comparative Look At Domestic Enforcement Of International Tribunal Judgments, Lori Fisler Damrosch Jan 2009

A Comparative Look At Domestic Enforcement Of International Tribunal Judgments, Lori Fisler Damrosch

Faculty Scholarship

Problems of compliance with international arbitral and judicial decisions have been with us for as long as such tribunals have existed. In general, the consensual foundations for the jurisdiction of international tribunals have ensured that the parties were in principle willing to have their disputes resolved by the tribunal and thus were usually prepared to carry out the resulting award or judgment. Commentators on international arbitration generally characterize the compliance record as favorable.

Occasions when states refuse to carry out arbitral awards are rare, but when they do occur, states have sometimes asserted the nullity of the award on the …


Restating The U.S. Law Of International Commercial Arbitration, George A. Bermann Jan 2009

Restating The U.S. Law Of International Commercial Arbitration, George A. Bermann

Faculty Scholarship

The American Law Institute's new Restatement of the U.S. Law of International Commercial Arbitration is only barely underway, and the reporters began with a chapter, on the recognition and enforcement of awards, that should represent for them a comfort zone of sorts within the overall project. Yet already a number of difficult, and to some extent unexpectedly difficult, questions have arisen. Some of the difficulties stem from the very nature of an ALl Restatement project. Others stem from the nature of arbitration itself and, more particularly, from the inherent tension between arbitral and judicial functions in the arbitration arena. Still …


Only One Kick At The Cat: A Contextual Rubric For Evaluating Res Judicata And Collateral Estoppel In International Commercial Arbitration, Randy D. Gordon Aug 2006

Only One Kick At The Cat: A Contextual Rubric For Evaluating Res Judicata And Collateral Estoppel In International Commercial Arbitration, Randy D. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

Arbitration is the preferred method of resolving disputes arising out of international commercial transactions. It stands outside national legal systems because contracting parties agree in advance that they want neutral arbitrators — not local judges and juries — deciding who is at fault when a commercial relationship breaks down. But arbitration nevertheless butts up against litigation from time to time, often because one party attempts to arbitrate a matter that has been litigated to conclusion or vice versa. This article examines — through a contextual approach — questions of preclusion that thereby arise and ultimately suggests that res judicata and …