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Full-Text Articles in Law

Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon Jan 2024

Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

In the current global context, millions of people are forced to migrate

yearly for reasons ranging from persecution and violence, internal armed

conflicts, and forced displacement, to lack of employment and climate

change. In the Americas, we recently witnessed the phenomenon of the

“migrant caravans,” where thousands of people, mostly from the Northern

Triangle of Central America—El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala—

were willing to walk hundreds of miles to enter the U.S.-Mexico border to

escape poverty and violence in their countries. Another caravan of close to

10,000 migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America including

Guatemala, El Salvador and …


Haitian Climate Migrants: Heralds Of The United States’ Unprepared Immigration System, Noah Rust Dec 2023

Haitian Climate Migrants: Heralds Of The United States’ Unprepared Immigration System, Noah Rust

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

This note explores the complex relationship between climate change and Human migration, and the ensuing complications for the United States immigration scheme. Climate change can both directly and indirectly contribute to human migration, yet the United States’ regulatory scheme is unprepared for this reality and its consequences. Through analyzing several separate migratory events in Haiti, the specific failures of the United States status quo immigration systems become clearer. Further, the note will identify frameworks that could offer relief to climate-related migrants.


Anti-Corruption’S Next Great Migration?: Strengthening U.S. Refugee And Asylum Law Under Existing U.S. Anti-Corruption Commitments, Bianka Ukleja Aug 2023

Anti-Corruption’S Next Great Migration?: Strengthening U.S. Refugee And Asylum Law Under Existing U.S. Anti-Corruption Commitments, Bianka Ukleja

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

First, this paper will describe the U.S.’s anticorruption commitments under international law. Next, it will present the general features of current U.S. refugee and asylum law, pertaining to particular social group (PSG) and political opinion claims. Last, this paper will discuss how the Biden Anti-Corruption Memo provides fertile ground for DHS to initiate an informal rulemaking process under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) to engage civil society on how U.S. refugee and asylum laws can better support a pathway to citizenship for anti-corruption activists in pursuit of key U.S. foreign policy interests abroad and who find themselves unable to seek …


Can Bilateral Agreements On Migration Control Be A New Way For The Global Compact On Refugees (Gcr) And The Global Compact On Safe, Orderly And Regular Migration (Gcm)?, Ayse Yildiz-Demir Aug 2023

Can Bilateral Agreements On Migration Control Be A New Way For The Global Compact On Refugees (Gcr) And The Global Compact On Safe, Orderly And Regular Migration (Gcm)?, Ayse Yildiz-Demir

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

Both externalization and external dimension of migration control play critical roles in the contained mobility around the world, especially in the southern external borders of the EU in the last decades. Externalization aims to contain mobility of migrants (including irregular migrants, refugees, asylum seekers or economic migrants) beyond national borders of destination states by using different practices such as push-back operations at the sea or keeping migrants in the extraterritorial camps until the evaluation of their asylum claims. On the other hand, the external dimension pursues migration control via carrying out softer policies than externalization. As one of most popular …


Adopting Nationality, Irina D. Manta, Cassandra Burke Robertson Jun 2023

Adopting Nationality, Irina D. Manta, Cassandra Burke Robertson

Washington Law Review

Contrary to popular belief, when a child is adopted from abroad by an American citizen and brought to the United States, that child does not always become an American citizen. Many adoptees have not discovered until years later (sometimes far into adulthood) that they are not actually citizens, and some likely still do not know. To address this problem, the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 (CCA) was enacted to automate citizenship for certain international adoptees, but it does not cover everyone. Tens of thousands of adoptees still live under the assumption that they are American citizens when, in fact, they …


Immigration Law's Missing Presumption, Fatma Marouf May 2023

Immigration Law's Missing Presumption, Fatma Marouf

Faculty Scholarship

The presumption of innocence is a foundational concept in criminal law but is completely missing from quasi-criminal immigration proceedings. This Article explores the relevance of a presumption of innocence to removal proceedings, arguing that immigration law has been designed and interpreted in ways that disrupt formulating any such presumption to facilitate deportation. The Article examines the meaning of “innocence” in the immigration context, revealing how historically racialized perceptions of guilt eroded the notion of innocence early on and connecting the missing presumption to persistent associations between people of color and guilt. By analyzing how a presumption of innocence is impeded …


¿Por Qué No Vale La Pena Salvarnos? Experiencias De Mujeres Inmigrantes Latinoamericanas Con Políticas De Inmigración Post-9/11 Y Solicitantes De Asilo En Los Estados Unidos, Kaye Romans Jan 2023

¿Por Qué No Vale La Pena Salvarnos? Experiencias De Mujeres Inmigrantes Latinoamericanas Con Políticas De Inmigración Post-9/11 Y Solicitantes De Asilo En Los Estados Unidos, Kaye Romans

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Esta tesis aborda la Crimmigration—la convergencia de las políticas criminales y la ley de inmigración—en un mundo post-9/11 en lo que se refiere a las mujeres inmigrantes latinoamericanas que buscan asilo en los Estados Unidos. Utilizando la jurisprudencia, la legislación y la erudición legal, sitúo estas políticas en el contexto más amplio de la ley de inmigración tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, centrándome en la legislación y políticas claves posteriores al 9/11 tales como la Operation Streamline, la Operation Liberty Shield y el Title 42, así como la jurisprudencia clave posterior al 9/11 que trata con las mujeres latinoamericanas …


Why Are We Not Worth Saving? Latin American Immigrant Women's Experiences With Post-9/11 Crimmigration Policies And Asylum-Seeking In The United States, Kaye Romans Jan 2023

Why Are We Not Worth Saving? Latin American Immigrant Women's Experiences With Post-9/11 Crimmigration Policies And Asylum-Seeking In The United States, Kaye Romans

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis discusses Crimmigration—the convergence of criminal policies and immigration law—in a post-9/11 world as it relates to Latin American Immigrant women seeking asylum in the United States. Utilizing case law, legislation, and legal scholarship, I situate these policies in the broader context of immigration law both nationally and internationally, focusing on key post-9/11 legislation and policies such as Operation Streamline, Operation Liberty Shield, and Title 42, as well as key post-9/11 case law dealing with Latin American women seeking asylum in the United States. With these foundational understandings, I provide possible solutions that would lessen the harms presented to …


Deportations For Drug Convictions In The United States And The European Union: Creating A More Compassionate Approach Toward Drug Convictions In The Immigration Law, Megan Smith Dec 2022

Deportations For Drug Convictions In The United States And The European Union: Creating A More Compassionate Approach Toward Drug Convictions In The Immigration Law, Megan Smith

San Diego International Law Journal

This Comment begins by examining and comparing the legal framework for deportation and other immigration consequences for convictions of drug offenses in the United States, the European Union, and the United Kingdom. This Comment then looks at the harsh effects of current immigration policy on individuals and marginalized communities. Finally, this Comment argues that immigration law should be reformed to adopt a more humanitarian approach toward non-citizens convicted of drug offenses. Deportation and other harsh immigration consequences for drug offenses levy disproportionately severe punishments toward vulnerable minority immigrant communities, exposing them to consequences much harsher than non-immigrants would face for …


Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla Dec 2022

Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Regional Immigration Enforcement, Fatma Marouf Aug 2022

Regional Immigration Enforcement, Fatma Marouf

Faculty Scholarship

Regional disparities in immigration enforcement have existed for decades, yet they remain largely overlooked in immigration law scholarship. This Article theorizes that bottom-up pressure from states and localities, combined with top-down pressures and policies established by the President, produce these regional disparities. The Article then provides an empirical analysis demonstrating enormous variations in how Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s twenty-four field offices engage in federal enforcement around the United States. By analyzing data related to detainers, arrests, removals, and detention across these field offices, the Article demonstrates substantial differences between field offices located in sanctuary and anti-sanctuary regions, as well as …


Crossing Borders: The Overlap And Conflict Of International And Domestic Laws Regarding Refugees And Asylum Seekers, Yunha Hwang, Belle De La Rosa, Editor Apr 2022

Crossing Borders: The Overlap And Conflict Of International And Domestic Laws Regarding Refugees And Asylum Seekers, Yunha Hwang, Belle De La Rosa, Editor

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

The policies of the United States regarding refugees and asylum seekers within the past decade have consistently conflicted with international standards, in regards to the 1951 Refugee Convention and the following 1967 Protocol. Especially in recent years, the United States has been producing a line of increasingly exclusive policies and caps that hinder the resettlement process and as a result, has been causing increased violations against the principles listed in Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper analyzes the discrepancy and overlap between international laws and domestic laws in the United States. Especially at a …


Reimagining Sovereignty To Protect Migrants, Pooja R. Dadhania Apr 2022

Reimagining Sovereignty To Protect Migrants, Pooja R. Dadhania

Faculty Scholarship

The concept of sovereignty in international law allows states to exclude and expel most categories of migrants, subject only to very narrow exceptions from international human rights and refugee law. Inverting the state sovereignty paradigm traditionally used to exclude migrants, this Essay reimagines sovereignty to protect migrants by drawing on the international law doctrine of state responsibility. The doctrine of state responsibility requires states to remedy the consequences of their actions in violation of international law. States that violate the sovereignty of other states, more specifically their territorial integrity or political independence, and thereby cause forced migration should have an …


Non-State Actors "Under Color Of Law": Closing A Gap In Protection Under The Convention Against Torture, Anna R. Welch, Sangyeob Kim Apr 2022

Non-State Actors "Under Color Of Law": Closing A Gap In Protection Under The Convention Against Torture, Anna R. Welch, Sangyeob Kim

Faculty Publications

The world is experiencing a global restructuring that poses a serious threat to international efforts to prevent and protect against torture. The rise of powerful transnational non-state actors such as gangs, drug cartels, militias, and terrorist organizations is challenging states’ authority to control and govern torture committed within their territory.

In the United States, those seeking protection against deportation under the Convention Against Torture (“CAT”) must establish a likelihood of torture at the instigation of or by consent or acquiescence of a public official acting in an official capacity or other person acting in an official capacity. However, what is …


International Efforts To Fight Illegal Immigration, Abdullah Ali Abbo Feb 2021

International Efforts To Fight Illegal Immigration, Abdullah Ali Abbo

UAEU Law Journal

The phenomenon of illegal immigration is one of the serious problems facing the international community as a whole. This phenomenon means the entry of person(s) to a country other than their country illegally or in an irregular way.

This phenomenon has several terms such as irregular immigration, illegal immigration, and illegitimate immigration, hidden or covert immigration. All of these terms mean, in the end, the illegality of this migration in the consideration of national and international law.

This phenomenon has evolved by the development of relations among countries, and different economic and social conditions and political conditions in the various …


It Is Time To Get Back To Basics On The Border, Donna Coltharp Oct 2020

It Is Time To Get Back To Basics On The Border, Donna Coltharp

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


Donald Trump, Twitter, And Islamophobia: The End Of Dignity In Presidential Rhetoric About Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2020

Donald Trump, Twitter, And Islamophobia: The End Of Dignity In Presidential Rhetoric About Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Donald Trump’s rhetoric is markedly different than that of just about every other American president. Trump’s speeches on terrorism and his related Islamophobia and anti-immigrant rhetoric are examined in this chapter. Trump’s use of Twitter and view of the presidency as a “permanent campaign” keep his followers in a state of near-permanent mobilization. Trump uses the rhetoric of fear to push his followers against Muslims and immigrants by linking terrorism to both groups. As Jeffrey Tulis opines, Trump is America’s first demagogue. This chapter highlights how Trump’s demagoguery and novel method for communicating with his followers has framed the terror …


The Shortcomings Of The “Public Charge” Doctrine: Why The Dhs Final Rule Should Be Abandoned And Why The United States Should Look To The Progressive Immigration Policies Of Sweden, Emily Demetree Feb 2020

The Shortcomings Of The “Public Charge” Doctrine: Why The Dhs Final Rule Should Be Abandoned And Why The United States Should Look To The Progressive Immigration Policies Of Sweden, Emily Demetree

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

The United States has a longstanding history of denying aliens admission based on a wide range of grounds that we have deemed to demonstrate the alien would be either dangerous to society or a financial burden on the state. “Self-sufficiency” has been a basic principle of US immigration law since the country’s earliest immigration statutes. It is the contention of the Department of Homeland Security that the availability of public benefits can create an incentive for immigration to the United States at a rate that cannot be financially supported by the government. Certain European countries, such as Sweden, see a …


Paper Terrorists: Independence Movements And The Terrorism Bar, Pooja R. Dadhania Jan 2020

Paper Terrorists: Independence Movements And The Terrorism Bar, Pooja R. Dadhania

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores the application of the terrorism bar in immigration law to noncitizens who have participated in an independence movement. It proposes a uniform standard that immigration adjudicators can use to determine whether a foreign entity is a state in order to promote accurate applications of the terrorism bar. The terrorism bar in the Immigration and Nationality Act is broad — it can bar most forms of immigration relief, including asylum, and reaches far beyond ordinary definitions of terrorism. For example, the terrorism bar can block immigration relief for noncitizens who nonviolently supported a militia fighting for independence against …


Abuse Of Power: Immigration Courts And The Attorney General's Referral Power, Julie Menke Jan 2020

Abuse Of Power: Immigration Courts And The Attorney General's Referral Power, Julie Menke

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

In June 2018, then Attorney General Jeff Sessions issued Matter of A-B-. This decision vacated the holding of the 2014 Board of Immigration Appeals decision, Matter of A-R-C-G-. In A-R-C-G-, the adjudicator held that, depending on the specific facts of the case, “married women in Guatemala who are unable to leave their relationship” constitutes a particular social group. Membership in a particular social group is one of five ways to qualify for asylum in the United States. Membership is based on a fact specific analysis conducted by an immigration adjudicator. Sessions’s decision to vacate Matter of A-R-C-G- had a devastating …


Enter At Your Own Risk: Criminalizing Asylum-Seekers, Thomas M. Mcdonnell, Vanessa H. Merton Nov 2019

Enter At Your Own Risk: Criminalizing Asylum-Seekers, Thomas M. Mcdonnell, Vanessa H. Merton

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In nearly three years in office, President Donald J. Trump’s war against immigrants and the foreign-born seems only to have intensified. Through a series of Executive Branch actions and policies rather than legislation, the Trump Administration has targeted immigrants and visitors from Muslim-majority countries, imposed quotas on and drastically reduced the independence of Immigration Court Judges, cut the number of refugees admitted by more than 80%, cancelled DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals), and stationed Immigration Customs and Enforcement (“ICE”) agents at state courtrooms to arrest unauthorized immigrants, intimidating them from participating as witnesses and litigants. Although initially saying that …


The Promise And Challenge Of Humanitarian Protection In The United States: Making Temporary Protected Status Work As A Safe Haven, Andrew I. Schoenholtz Oct 2019

The Promise And Challenge Of Humanitarian Protection In The United States: Making Temporary Protected Status Work As A Safe Haven, Andrew I. Schoenholtz

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The humanitarian program Congress created in 1990 to allow war refugees and those affected by significant natural disasters to live and work legally in the United States has only partially achieved its goals. More than 400,000 individuals have received temporary protected status (TPS). In many cases, the crisis ended, along with temporary protection. However, in about half of the designated nationalities—including the largest groups—conflict and instability continued, making this humanitarian protection program anything but temporary. Unfortunately, Congress did not provide the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with the tools it needed to address such long-term crises. That was purposeful—Congress worried …


The Right-To-Work For Rohingya In Thailand, Lara Thiele Jan 2019

The Right-To-Work For Rohingya In Thailand, Lara Thiele

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The world finds itself currently in the biggest refugee crisis in history. Many individuals have to leave their home country and escape to a new home, hoping to remain there and begin a productive and dignified life. The stateless Rohingya are a group that has been part of this migratory movement due to the group’s maltreatment in Myanmar. Many Rohingya have gone to Thailand, where they have remained for over twenty years, without the permission to work or remain in the country lawfully. In fact, the current Thai laws neglect to allow for the Rohingya to remain lawfully in Thailand …


Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2019

Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons

All Faculty Scholarship

International political borders have historically performed one overriding function: the delimitation of a state’s territorial jurisdiction, but today they are sites of intense security scrutiny and law enforcement. Traditionally they were created to secure peace through territorial independence of political units. Today borders face new pressures from heightened human mobility, economic interdependence (legal and illicit), and perceived challenges from a host of nonstate threats. Research has only begun to reveal what some of these changes mean for the governance of interstate borders. The problems surrounding international borders today go well-beyond traditional delineation and delimitation. These problems call for active forms …


No Way, Usa!: The Lack Of A Repatriation Agreement With Cuba And Its Effects On U.S. Immigration Policies, Annasofia A. Roig Jan 2019

No Way, Usa!: The Lack Of A Repatriation Agreement With Cuba And Its Effects On U.S. Immigration Policies, Annasofia A. Roig

FIU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Immigration's Future: Closing The Door On The American Dream?, Ritcy Canelon Jan 2019

Immigration's Future: Closing The Door On The American Dream?, Ritcy Canelon

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reflections On The Christchurch Massacre: Incorporating A Critique Of Islamophobia And Twail, Cyra Akila Choudhury Dec 2018

Reflections On The Christchurch Massacre: Incorporating A Critique Of Islamophobia And Twail, Cyra Akila Choudhury

Faculty Publications

On March 15, 2019 in Christchurch, New Zealand, a white supremacist entered a mosque full of worshippers and gunned down over 50 people. He was welcomed into the house of worship as Muslim immigrants and converts were about to start their Friday prayers. News of the attack spread quickly across the globe. Social media news feeds and online sources provided near-instantaneous updates. There were calls to prioritize the lives and stories of the victims and survivors. Although there were calls not to glorify or even humanize the shooter, people understandably professed interest in his writings and his motivation. Once it …


Reflections On The Christchurch Massacre: Incorporating A Critique Of Islamophobia And Twail, Cyra A. Choudhury Dec 2018

Reflections On The Christchurch Massacre: Incorporating A Critique Of Islamophobia And Twail, Cyra A. Choudhury

Cyra A. Choudhury

On March 15, 2019 in Christchurch, New Zealand, a white supremacist entered a mosque full of worshippers and gunned down over 50 people. He was welcomed into the house of worship as Muslim immigrants and converts were about to start their Friday prayers. News of the attack spread quickly across the globe. Social media news feeds and online sources provided near-instantaneous updates. There were calls to prioritize the lives and stories of the victims and survivors. Although there were calls not to glorify or even humanize the shooter, people understandably professed interest in his writings and his motivation. Once it …


The Best Interests Of The Child Or The State? The Rights Of The Child In Non-Lpr Cancellation Of Removal, Lizzie Bird Dec 2018

The Best Interests Of The Child Or The State? The Rights Of The Child In Non-Lpr Cancellation Of Removal, Lizzie Bird

Master's Theses

This thesis argues that the United States is failing to fulfill its obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in its adjudication of the hardship standard in non-LPR cancellation of removal. It is well-documented that the current interpretation of the “exceptional and extremely unusual hardship” standard results in the separation of families and de facto deportation of children, many of whom are U.S. citizens. This thesis contends that this practice is not only unjust, but also unlawful.

First, it argues that the CRC in general and Article 3 (the “best interests” principle) in particular have risen …


America's Past-Time And The Art Of Diplomacy, Alyson St. Pierre Jul 2018

America's Past-Time And The Art Of Diplomacy, Alyson St. Pierre

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

As organizations and corporations construct an international reach, they become influential actors in foreign relations between sovereign countries. Particularly, while Major League Baseball continues to recruit players and build a large fan base across the globe, it increases its ability to facilitate civil relations between the United States and other nations. An exploration of how professional baseball provides a useful platform to improve diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba best exemplifies how the League can promote change. Although the United States and Cuba have had a rather tumultuous relationship in recent history, a coordinated effort to improve the …