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ICTY

Cornell University Law School

2012

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Second-Order Linking Principles: Combining Vertical And Horizontal Modes Of Liability, Jens David Ohlin Sep 2012

Second-Order Linking Principles: Combining Vertical And Horizontal Modes Of Liability, Jens David Ohlin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Both the ICTY and the ICC have struggled to combine vertical and horizontal modes of liability. At the ICTY, the question has primarily arisen within the context of ‘leadership-level’ JCEs and how to express their relationship with the Relevant Physical Perpetrators of the crimes. The ICC addressed the is-sue by combining indirect perpetration with co-perpetration to form a new mode of liability known as indirect co-perpetration. The following article argues that these novel combinations — vertical and horizontal modes of liability — cannot be simply asserted; they must be defended at the level of criminal law theory. Unfortunately, courts that …