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China’S New Law On Foreign Relations: Transforming The Rules-Based International Order With Chinese Characteristics, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo Sep 2023

China’S New Law On Foreign Relations: Transforming The Rules-Based International Order With Chinese Characteristics, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo

International Law Studies

In 2023 China adopted a comprehensive Law on Foreign Relations. Although the law is intended to shape China’s diplomatic relations and its cultural, economic, and other exchanges, as well as China’s relations with the United Nations and other international organizations, implementation of the law will be guided by (inter alia) Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The law makes clear that China’s foreign relations will be conducted to uphold its system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, safeguard its sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity, and promote its economic and social development. This revisionist “rule by …


It’S About Time: Rejection Of The De Minimis Doctrine In State Wage And Hour Laws, Abigail Britton Apr 2023

It’S About Time: Rejection Of The De Minimis Doctrine In State Wage And Hour Laws, Abigail Britton

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Since the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”) in 1938, courts have grappled with how to interpret which activities an employee performs for their employer should be considered “work.” The FLSA requires employers pay a minimum wage, pay overtime, and keep records of their employees’ time. However, to calculate these wages based on hours worked, the employer must know what constitutes “work.” Over the 80 years since its enactment, federal courts have adopted rules to determine what counts as work. One doctrine courts apply is the de minimis doctrine. Under the de minimis doctrine, employers do not need …


Following In California’S Footsteps?: Pennsylvania Eliminates The De Minimis Exception In State Wage And Hour Claims, Lauren E. Stahl Apr 2023

Following In California’S Footsteps?: Pennsylvania Eliminates The De Minimis Exception In State Wage And Hour Claims, Lauren E. Stahl

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”), employers risk receiving wage and hour violations if they fail to compensate employees for all “hours worked” or fail to adhere to minimum wage and overtime requirements. The de minimis doctrine provides an exception to this general rule and excuses employers from compensating employees for insignificant amounts of time spent on otherwise compensable off-the-clock work activities. Examples of de minimis off-the-clock work activities include waiting for a computer to load or waiting to log onto a computer network. These activities are considered de minimis because they take only a minute or less, and …


Ambulatory Versus Fixed Baselines Under The Law Of The Sea, Sean Murphy Jan 2023

Ambulatory Versus Fixed Baselines Under The Law Of The Sea, Sean Murphy

American University Law Review

When “diving” into consideration of sea-level rise issues, one finds various “pools” of international law that are perfectly suited for answering some of the issues we are addressing. For example, Professor Galvão Teles spoke about the protection of persons in the event of sea-level rise. There are, of course, various aspects of human rights law and international law relating to disasters that can be employed to resolve some of the concerns in that regard. It is just a question of applying that law to a new, factual phenomenon.

Having said that, there are some areas where existing international law is …


Human Rights Of Conscientious Objectors Vis-À-Vis Armed Non-State Actors And De Facto Authorities, Michael Wiener, Andrew Clapham Nov 2022

Human Rights Of Conscientious Objectors Vis-À-Vis Armed Non-State Actors And De Facto Authorities, Michael Wiener, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

This article aims at elucidating the human rights of conscientious objectors to military service and offers detailed substantive guidance for protecting their rights vis-à-vis armed non-State actors and de facto authorities. Persons who live in territory controlled by armed groups or de facto authorities often face human rights protection gaps, for example their freedom of conscientious objection may not be recognized or fully implemented. This article analyzes the practice by international human rights mechanisms in their engagement with de facto authorities in Afghanistan (Taliban), Cyprus (northern part), the Republic of Moldova (Transnistrian region), and Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh region), along with the …


International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann Sep 2022

International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann

International Law Studies

The Ukraine-Russia conflict has wreaked disproportionate harms upon children. Hundreds reportedly were killed or wounded within the opening months of the conflict, thousands lost loved ones, and millions left their homes, their schools, and their communities. Yet public discussions of how to settle the conflict contain very little at all about children. This article seeks to change that dynamic. It builds on a relatively recent trend, one that situates human rights within the structure of peace negotiations, to push for particularized treatment of children’s experiences, needs, rights, and capacities in eventual negotiations. The article draws upon twenty-first century projects that …


Promoting Diversity As Professionalism, Davis G. Yee Jul 2022

Promoting Diversity As Professionalism, Davis G. Yee

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Jan 2022

Table Of Contents

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Hernández V. Mesa: A Case For A More Meaningful Partnership With The Inter-American Commission On Human Rights, Peyton Jacobsen Jan 2022

Hernández V. Mesa: A Case For A More Meaningful Partnership With The Inter-American Commission On Human Rights, Peyton Jacobsen

Seattle University Law Review

Through an in-depth examination of Hernández, the Inter-American Human Rights System, and the success of Mexico’s partnership with said system, this Note will make a case for embracing human rights bodies— specifically, the Inter-American System on Human Rights—as an appropriate and necessary check on the structures that form the United States government. Part I will look closely at the reasoning and judicially created doctrine that guided the decision in Hernández, with the goal of providing a better understanding of the complicated path through the courts that led to a seemingly straightforward yet unsatisfying result. Part II will illustrate the scope …


Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2021

Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal framework applicable to intelligence sharing in multinational military operations, with a particular focus on complicity scenarios. It first provides a theoretical overview of the role of fault in complicity, of how intent and knowledge can be conceptualized, and of the attribution of fault to States. It then looks in detail at the rule codified in Article 16 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility, and argues that this rule is best understood as employing multiple modes of fault (direct and indirect intent and wilful blindness). The article also argues that international humanitarian …


The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti Jul 2021

The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti

International Law Studies

In 2007, after Hamas’ takeover of the Gaza Strip, the area was subjected to an Israeli land siege, complemented in 2009 by a sea blockade. Since then, the already-dire living conditions in the Strip have declined consistently and the area’s dependence on external aid has grown. This essay examines the duties of a military power in imposing what is effectively a years-long confinement of people and outlines a general argument for expanding the obligations of a party that imposes a prolonged siege or blockade. I consider these obligations in light of three potentially relevant legal frameworks: the law of occupation; …


Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt Mar 2021

Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt

International Law Studies

In the 2020 U.S. elections, Russia authorized and conducted influence operations designed to support former President Trump, although it did not attempt to alter any technical aspect of the voting process. Russia was not alone. Iran mounted a multi-pronged covert influence campaign intended to undercut Trump’s reelection prospects, while other foreign actors–like Lebanese Hizballah, Cuba, and Venezuela–also tried to influence the election. Interestingly, China did not conduct operations designed to alter the outcome, although it did consider doing so. The phenomenon of election meddling, however, extends well beyond the United States to such countries as Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, …


Protection Of Data In Armed Conflict, Robin Geiss, Henning Lahmann Feb 2021

Protection Of Data In Armed Conflict, Robin Geiss, Henning Lahmann

International Law Studies

This article presents a novel way to conceptualize the protection of data in situations of armed conflict. Although the question of the targeting of data through adversarial military cyber operations and its implications for the qualification of such conduct under International Humanitarian Law has been on scholars’ and states’ radar for the last few years, there remain a number of misunderstandings as to how to think about the notion of “data.” Based on a number of fictional scenarios, the article clarifies the pertinent terminology and makes some expedient distinctions between various types of data. It then analyzes how existing international …


Transitional Justice As Communication: Why Truth Commissions And International Criminal Tribunals Need To Persuade And Inform Citizens And Leaders, And How They Can, Jamie O'Connell Jan 2021

Transitional Justice As Communication: Why Truth Commissions And International Criminal Tribunals Need To Persuade And Inform Citizens And Leaders, And How They Can, Jamie O'Connell

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli Dec 2020

The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli

International Law Studies

Since the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, the current international legal framework has drastically changed. In its traditional understanding, aggression is “the supreme international crime” aimed at protecting sovereignty and the territorial integrity of states. On the other hand, the U.N. Charter endorses an understanding of peace in the negative sense, that is, as mere absence of war. As human rights have gained momentum, they have helped reshape the legal landscape, a phenomenon referred to as the humanization of international law. How do peace and aggression fit within the humanized legal framework? This article will investigate the …


Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2020

Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

Are there are any special rules of attribution in international law? Are there, in other words, imputational rules that are not recognized as such in general international law, but are specific to particular branches of international law? This is the first article to systematically analyze the notion of special rules of attribution in international law. In particular, it searches for such rules in international humanitarian law, the law on the use of force, and European human rights law.

The article argues that, to the extent special rules of attribution exist, they are rare and never uncontroversial. In most situations, putative …


Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque May 2019

Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque

International Law Studies

Controversy and confusion pervade the law of armed conflict. Its most basic rules may seem ambiguous, vague, incomplete, or inconsistent. The prevailing view of customary international law confronts serious problems, in principle and in practice, when applied to the customary law of armed conflict. Legal indeterminacy, in its different forms, might be reduced or resolved in light of the object and purpose of the law of armed conflict, or by taking into account other relevant rules of international law. Unfortunately, the purpose of the law of armed conflict is itself the subject of deep disagreement. So is the relationship between …


Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin Feb 2019

Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin

International Law Studies

The potential for urban violence is increasing as the world population continues to migrate towards cities. Recent examples of urban warfare with insurgent groups has occurred in Damascus, Mosul, Raqqa, Marawi, Ramadi, and Fallujah, although non-State actor conflict covers a wide range of violence from ordinary crime, to terrorism and transnational crime, to near conventional conflict. Further, transnational terrorist groups have sought to extend the conflict into countries seen as the “far enemy.” A key issue is determining if an armed conflict is in existence so that the protective focus of international humanitarian law regarding the provision of medical care …


Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin Nov 2017

Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin

International Law Studies

This article proposes an alternative to the conventional way of deciding when a State may target or detain members of an armed group. Instead of asking whether there is an armed conflict between the State and the group, this article argues that we should look at the State’s justification for the use of force against the group or its members. In a non-international context, this justification is rooted in human rights law. For this reason, the authorization for the resort to force operates on an individual basis, and the State is only justified in using force against individual members of …


Revisiting The Definition Of Particular Social Group In The Refugee Convention & Increasing The Refugee Quota As A Means Of Ameliorating The International Displaced Person's Crisis, Brienna Bagaric Oct 2017

Revisiting The Definition Of Particular Social Group In The Refugee Convention & Increasing The Refugee Quota As A Means Of Ameliorating The International Displaced Person's Crisis, Brienna Bagaric

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Autonomous Weapons And Weapon Reviews: The Uk Second International Weapon Review Forum, James Farrant, Christopher M. Ford Aug 2017

Autonomous Weapons And Weapon Reviews: The Uk Second International Weapon Review Forum, James Farrant, Christopher M. Ford

International Law Studies

This article considers how military lawyers completing weapon reviews might approach their legal duties if confronted with a weapon system that incorporates autonomous technology or artificial intelligence. The article begins by reviewing current and likely near future technological capabilities before considering whether existing international humanitarian law can adequately regulate these technologies. While noting the widespread lack of compliance with Article 36 of Additional Protocol I, the article argues that, properly applied, Article 36 is an effective gatekeeper for keeping unlawful weapon systems from the battlefield. After assessing the feasibility of a preemptive ban on autonomous weapons based on “meaningful human …


The Conduct Of Hostilities And International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Of 21st Century Warfare, International Law Association Study Group On The Conduct Of Hostilities In The 21st Century Aug 2017

The Conduct Of Hostilities And International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Of 21st Century Warfare, International Law Association Study Group On The Conduct Of Hostilities In The 21st Century

International Law Studies

The International Law Association Study Group on the Conduct of Hostilities in the 21st Century was established in 2011 and held its first meeting in 2012. The Study Group has explored numerous issues arising from the relationship between international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law in the conduct of military operations, technological challenges posed by new weapons systems, and the basic principles of IHL in the conduct of hostilities. In 2015, the Study Group established three working groups focusing on core issues within IHL in relation to the conduct of hostilities in modern warfare. These working group topics …


The Future Of U.S. Detention Under International Law: Workshop Report, International Committee Of The Red Cross (Icrc), Harvard Law School Program On International Law And Armed Conflict (Hls Pilac), Stockton Center For The Study Of International Law (U.S. Naval War College) Jun 2017

The Future Of U.S. Detention Under International Law: Workshop Report, International Committee Of The Red Cross (Icrc), Harvard Law School Program On International Law And Armed Conflict (Hls Pilac), Stockton Center For The Study Of International Law (U.S. Naval War College)

International Law Studies

The International Committee of the Red Cross Regional Delegation for the United States and Canada, the Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict, and the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law at the U.S. Naval War College recently hosted a workshop titled Global Battlefields: The Future of U.S. Detention under International Law. The workshop was designed to facilitate discussion on international law issues pertaining to U.S. detention practices and policies in armed conflict. Workshop participants included members of government, legal experts, practitioners and scholars from a variety of countries. This report attempts to capture the …


Fragmented Wars: Multi-Territorial Military Operations Against Armed Groups, Noam Lubell May 2017

Fragmented Wars: Multi-Territorial Military Operations Against Armed Groups, Noam Lubell

International Law Studies

Recent years have seen the emergence of significant legal debate surrounding the use of force against armed groups located in other States. With time, it has become clear that in many cases such operations are not confined to the territory of one other State, but expand to encompass multiple territories and often more than one armed group. This article examines multi-territorial conflicts with armed groups through the lens of several legal frameworks. Among other topics, it analyses the questions surrounding the extension of self-defense into multiple territories, the classification of the hostilities with the group and between involved States, the …


Land Of The Free, Home Of The Slave: Human Trafficking Legislation In South Carolina, Caroline A. Ross Apr 2017

Land Of The Free, Home Of The Slave: Human Trafficking Legislation In South Carolina, Caroline A. Ross

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention – A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lackner Mar 2017

The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention – A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lackner

International Law Studies

Since their publication in the 1950s and the 1980s respectively, the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 have become a major reference for the application and interpretation of these treaties. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), together with a team of renowned experts, is currently updating these Commentaries in order to document developments and provide up-to-date interpretations. The work on the first updated Commentary, the Commentary on the First Geneva Convention relating to the protection of the wounded and sick in the armed forces, has already been finalized. This article provides …


A Human Rights Perspective To Global Battlefield Detention: Time To Reconsider Indefinite Detention, Yuval Shany Mar 2017

A Human Rights Perspective To Global Battlefield Detention: Time To Reconsider Indefinite Detention, Yuval Shany

International Law Studies

This article discusses one principal challenge to detention without trial of suspected international terrorists—the international human rights law (IHRL) norm requiring the introduction of an upper limit on the duration of security detention in order to render it not indefinite in length. Part One of this article describes the “hardline” position on security detention, adopted by the United States in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks (followed, with certain variations, by other countries, including the United Kingdom and the State of Israel), according to which international terrorism suspects can be deprived of their liberty without trial for the …


The Limits Of Inviolability: The Parameters For Protection Of United Nations Facilities During Armed Conflict, Laurie R. Blank Mar 2017

The Limits Of Inviolability: The Parameters For Protection Of United Nations Facilities During Armed Conflict, Laurie R. Blank

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal protections for United Nations humanitarian assistance and other civilian facilities during armed conflict, including under general international law, setting forth the immunities of the United Nations, and the law of armed conflict (LOAC), the relevant legal framework during wartime. Recent conflicts highlight three primary issues: (1) collateral damage to UN facilities as a consequence of strikes on military objectives nearby and military operations in the immediate vicinity; (2) the misuse of UN facilities for military purposes; and (3) direct attacks on fighters, weapons or other equipment that cause damage to such facilities. To identify …


Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham Feb 2017

Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

Does international law entitle armed groups to detain people? And what obligations are imposed on such non-state actors when they do detain? This article sets out suggested obligations for armed groups related to the right to challenge the basis for any detention and considers some related issues of fair trial and punishment. The last part of this article briefly considers the legal framework governing state responsibility and individual criminal responsibility for those that assist armed groups that detain people in ways that violate international law.


Human Rights Law And The Taxation Consequences For Renouncing Citizenship, William Thomas Worster Jan 2017

Human Rights Law And The Taxation Consequences For Renouncing Citizenship, William Thomas Worster

Saint Louis University Law Journal

No abstract provided.