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Full-Text Articles in Law

Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2021

Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal framework applicable to intelligence sharing in multinational military operations, with a particular focus on complicity scenarios. It first provides a theoretical overview of the role of fault in complicity, of how intent and knowledge can be conceptualized, and of the attribution of fault to States. It then looks in detail at the rule codified in Article 16 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility, and argues that this rule is best understood as employing multiple modes of fault (direct and indirect intent and wilful blindness). The article also argues that international ...


The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti Jul 2021

The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti

International Law Studies

In 2007, after Hamas’ takeover of the Gaza Strip, the area was subjected to an Israeli land siege, complemented in 2009 by a sea blockade. Since then, the already-dire living conditions in the Strip have declined consistently and the area’s dependence on external aid has grown. This essay examines the duties of a military power in imposing what is effectively a years-long confinement of people and outlines a general argument for expanding the obligations of a party that imposes a prolonged siege or blockade. I consider these obligations in light of three potentially relevant legal frameworks: the law of ...


Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt Mar 2021

Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt

International Law Studies

In the 2020 U.S. elections, Russia authorized and conducted influence operations designed to support former President Trump, although it did not attempt to alter any technical aspect of the voting process. Russia was not alone. Iran mounted a multi-pronged covert influence campaign intended to undercut Trump’s reelection prospects, while other foreign actors–like Lebanese Hizballah, Cuba, and Venezuela–also tried to influence the election. Interestingly, China did not conduct operations designed to alter the outcome, although it did consider doing so. The phenomenon of election meddling, however, extends well beyond the United States to such countries as Austria ...


The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli Dec 2020

The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli

International Law Studies

Since the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, the current international legal framework has drastically changed. In its traditional understanding, aggression is “the supreme international crime” aimed at protecting sovereignty and the territorial integrity of states. On the other hand, the U.N. Charter endorses an understanding of peace in the negative sense, that is, as mere absence of war. As human rights have gained momentum, they have helped reshape the legal landscape, a phenomenon referred to as the humanization of international law. How do peace and aggression fit within the humanized legal framework? This article will investigate ...


“Something There Is That Doesn’T Love A Wall:” A Reflection On The Constitutional Vulnerabilities Of The Southwest Border Wall, Hope M. Babcock Oct 2020

“Something There Is That Doesn’T Love A Wall:” A Reflection On The Constitutional Vulnerabilities Of The Southwest Border Wall, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2020

Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

Are there are any special rules of attribution in international law? Are there, in other words, imputational rules that are not recognized as such in general international law, but are specific to particular branches of international law? This is the first article to systematically analyze the notion of special rules of attribution in international law. In particular, it searches for such rules in international humanitarian law, the law on the use of force, and European human rights law.

The article argues that, to the extent special rules of attribution exist, they are rare and never uncontroversial. In most situations, putative ...


The Syrian Refugee Crisis Within Europe: A Matter Of Politics, Not Capacity, Anita Frances Shenoi Jan 2020

The Syrian Refugee Crisis Within Europe: A Matter Of Politics, Not Capacity, Anita Frances Shenoi

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines factors that enabled the influx of Syrian refugees to the European Union and traces their plight in Europe as one of the greatest humanitarian crises since World War II. The migration of refugees to European countries is a result of Syrians facing religious, racial, and social persecution, and immediate danger from proximity to on the ground conflict in Syria. The Syrian refugee crisis in Europe is occurring, in part, because there is a concentrated effort on behalf of Member States to change the definition of displacement to fit narratives more conducive to each countries’ individual preferences. European ...


Emerging Challenges In The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law And International Human Rights Law, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon, Claudia Martin Jan 2020

Emerging Challenges In The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law And International Human Rights Law, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon, Claudia Martin

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Untangling The Yemen Crisis, Paul Williams, Laura Graham, Jim Johnson, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio Jan 2020

Untangling The Yemen Crisis, Paul Williams, Laura Graham, Jim Johnson, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


The Rohingya Genocide, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, Jenny Domino, Rebecca Hamilton, Michael P. Scharf, Meilena Sterio Jan 2020

The Rohingya Genocide, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, Jenny Domino, Rebecca Hamilton, Michael P. Scharf, Meilena Sterio

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


International Surrogacy Arrangements: A Human Rights Case, Marisa Araújo Oct 2019

International Surrogacy Arrangements: A Human Rights Case, Marisa Araújo

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The scientific development in Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART), especially IFV solutions, are promoting the development of our reproductive options. Surrogacy is now one of these solutions and new ethical and legal problems arise.

Domestic Laws have the most different positions. If there are countries that admit surrogacy arrangements, even commercial ones like the Florida State in the USA (and the particular case of India); others criminalize these procedures and others, like the UK (and Portugal), have a middle term position.

Considering the frontier zone in which surrogacy takes its place, the debate is more exuberant since the concrete legal solution ...


Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin Feb 2019

Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin

International Law Studies

The potential for urban violence is increasing as the world population continues to migrate towards cities. Recent examples of urban warfare with insurgent groups has occurred in Damascus, Mosul, Raqqa, Marawi, Ramadi, and Fallujah, although non-State actor conflict covers a wide range of violence from ordinary crime, to terrorism and transnational crime, to near conventional conflict. Further, transnational terrorist groups have sought to extend the conflict into countries seen as the “far enemy.” A key issue is determining if an armed conflict is in existence so that the protective focus of international humanitarian law regarding the provision of medical care ...


Dog Whistles And Beachheads: The Trump Administration, Sexual Violence, And Student Discipline In Education, Nancy Chi Cantalupo Jan 2019

Dog Whistles And Beachheads: The Trump Administration, Sexual Violence, And Student Discipline In Education, Nancy Chi Cantalupo

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Talking Foreign Policy: North Korea Summit, Paul Williams, Shannon French, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio, Tim Webster Jan 2019

Talking Foreign Policy: North Korea Summit, Paul Williams, Shannon French, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio, Tim Webster

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


The Rock: The Role Water Plays In Our Lives, Ronald Griffin Jan 2019

The Rock: The Role Water Plays In Our Lives, Ronald Griffin

Faculty Books and Book Contributions

We witness increasing interconnectedness of issues, internationalization of flows of goods and movement of labor, intergovernmental cooperation, new attitudes to personal rights and meaning of family, including human rights, as well as changes of values, moral principles and ethical conceptions.We live in a pervious world. Traditional boundaries have become permeable. One of the great challenges of our time is the response of the law to current developments. The authors of the collection of essays offered in this book seek to analyze some of these challenges.The essays are revised versions based on presentations at the International Conferences on Law ...


October 1, 2019 Broadcast: 'The Rohingya Genocide', Rebecca Hamilton Jan 2019

October 1, 2019 Broadcast: 'The Rohingya Genocide', Rebecca Hamilton

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Use Of Force In Humanitarian Crises: Addressing The Limitations Of U.N. Security Council Authorization, Paul Williams, Sophie Pearlman Jan 2019

Use Of Force In Humanitarian Crises: Addressing The Limitations Of U.N. Security Council Authorization, Paul Williams, Sophie Pearlman

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The original 2001 United Nations (UN) codification of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) granted the UN Security Council exclusive control over authorizing use of force in sovereign states. Unfortunately, as demonstrated over the past 20 years, the need for humanitarian intervention has not changed and the use of force in the name of humanitarian intervention has not always occurred even when the need for such intervention was dire. When the UN Security Council is deadlocked, and a humanitarian crisis is at hand, it is necessary to have a means of using low-intensity military force to prevent mass atrocity crimes. In ...


Talking Foreign Policy: Responding To Rogue States, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, James Johnson, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio Jan 2019

Talking Foreign Policy: Responding To Rogue States, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, James Johnson, Michael P. Scharf, Milena Sterio

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


The Contributions Of United Nations Security Council Resolutions To The Law Of Non-International Armed Conflict: New Evidence Of Customary International Law, Gregory H. Fox, Isaac Jenkins, Kristen E. Boon Jan 2018

The Contributions Of United Nations Security Council Resolutions To The Law Of Non-International Armed Conflict: New Evidence Of Customary International Law, Gregory H. Fox, Isaac Jenkins, Kristen E. Boon

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


The Peace Vs. Justice Debate And The Syrian Crisis, Paul Williams, Lisa Dicker, C. Danae Paterson Jan 2018

The Peace Vs. Justice Debate And The Syrian Crisis, Paul Williams, Lisa Dicker, C. Danae Paterson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Peace negotiators often face the difficult decision of whether to pursue peace at the potential cost of achieving justice, or to pursue justice at the potential cost of achieving near term peace. There are abiding ethical and moral debates surrounding this tension between peace and justice. In Syria—where the death toll has exceeded 470,000, 11 million have been displaced, and there are over 14,000 documented cases of torture to the point of death—the peace versus justice debate is a living dilemma with which negotiators are currently grappling. This article strives to examine a timely facet of ...


Finding The Forum That Fits: Child Immigrants And Fair Process, Lenni Benson Jan 2018

Finding The Forum That Fits: Child Immigrants And Fair Process, Lenni Benson

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Autonomous Weapons And Weapon Reviews: The Uk Second International Weapon Review Forum, James Farrant, Christopher M. Ford Aug 2017

Autonomous Weapons And Weapon Reviews: The Uk Second International Weapon Review Forum, James Farrant, Christopher M. Ford

International Law Studies

This article considers how military lawyers completing weapon reviews might approach their legal duties if confronted with a weapon system that incorporates autonomous technology or artificial intelligence. The article begins by reviewing current and likely near future technological capabilities before considering whether existing international humanitarian law can adequately regulate these technologies. While noting the widespread lack of compliance with Article 36 of Additional Protocol I, the article argues that, properly applied, Article 36 is an effective gatekeeper for keeping unlawful weapon systems from the battlefield. After assessing the feasibility of a preemptive ban on autonomous weapons based on “meaningful human ...


The Conduct Of Hostilities And International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Of 21st Century Warfare, International Law Association Study Group On The Conduct Of Hostilities In The 21st Century Aug 2017

The Conduct Of Hostilities And International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Of 21st Century Warfare, International Law Association Study Group On The Conduct Of Hostilities In The 21st Century

International Law Studies

The International Law Association Study Group on the Conduct of Hostilities in the 21st Century was established in 2011 and held its first meeting in 2012. The Study Group has explored numerous issues arising from the relationship between international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law in the conduct of military operations, technological challenges posed by new weapons systems, and the basic principles of IHL in the conduct of hostilities. In 2015, the Study Group established three working groups focusing on core issues within IHL in relation to the conduct of hostilities in modern warfare. These working group topics ...


The Future Of U.S. Detention Under International Law: Workshop Report, International Committee Of The Red Cross (Icrc), Harvard Law School Program On International Law And Armed Conflict (Hls Pilac), Stockton Center For The Study Of International Law (U.S. Naval War College) Jun 2017

The Future Of U.S. Detention Under International Law: Workshop Report, International Committee Of The Red Cross (Icrc), Harvard Law School Program On International Law And Armed Conflict (Hls Pilac), Stockton Center For The Study Of International Law (U.S. Naval War College)

International Law Studies

The International Committee of the Red Cross Regional Delegation for the United States and Canada, the Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict, and the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law at the U.S. Naval War College recently hosted a workshop titled Global Battlefields: The Future of U.S. Detention under International Law. The workshop was designed to facilitate discussion on international law issues pertaining to U.S. detention practices and policies in armed conflict. Workshop participants included members of government, legal experts, practitioners and scholars from a variety of countries. This report attempts ...


Fragmented Wars: Multi-Territorial Military Operations Against Armed Groups, Noam Lubell May 2017

Fragmented Wars: Multi-Territorial Military Operations Against Armed Groups, Noam Lubell

International Law Studies

Recent years have seen the emergence of significant legal debate surrounding the use of force against armed groups located in other States. With time, it has become clear that in many cases such operations are not confined to the territory of one other State, but expand to encompass multiple territories and often more than one armed group. This article examines multi-territorial conflicts with armed groups through the lens of several legal frameworks. Among other topics, it analyses the questions surrounding the extension of self-defense into multiple territories, the classification of the hostilities with the group and between involved States, the ...


The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention – A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lackner Mar 2017

The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention – A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lackner

International Law Studies

Since their publication in the 1950s and the 1980s respectively, the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 have become a major reference for the application and interpretation of these treaties. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), together with a team of renowned experts, is currently updating these Commentaries in order to document developments and provide up-to-date interpretations. The work on the first updated Commentary, the Commentary on the First Geneva Convention relating to the protection of the wounded and sick in the armed forces, has already been finalized. This article provides ...


A Human Rights Perspective To Global Battlefield Detention: Time To Reconsider Indefinite Detention, Yuval Shany Mar 2017

A Human Rights Perspective To Global Battlefield Detention: Time To Reconsider Indefinite Detention, Yuval Shany

International Law Studies

This article discusses one principal challenge to detention without trial of suspected international terrorists—the international human rights law (IHRL) norm requiring the introduction of an upper limit on the duration of security detention in order to render it not indefinite in length. Part One of this article describes the “hardline” position on security detention, adopted by the United States in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks (followed, with certain variations, by other countries, including the United Kingdom and the State of Israel), according to which international terrorism suspects can be deprived of their liberty without trial ...


The Limits Of Inviolability: The Parameters For Protection Of United Nations Facilities During Armed Conflict, Laurie R. Blank Mar 2017

The Limits Of Inviolability: The Parameters For Protection Of United Nations Facilities During Armed Conflict, Laurie R. Blank

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal protections for United Nations humanitarian assistance and other civilian facilities during armed conflict, including under general international law, setting forth the immunities of the United Nations, and the law of armed conflict (LOAC), the relevant legal framework during wartime. Recent conflicts highlight three primary issues: (1) collateral damage to UN facilities as a consequence of strikes on military objectives nearby and military operations in the immediate vicinity; (2) the misuse of UN facilities for military purposes; and (3) direct attacks on fighters, weapons or other equipment that cause damage to such facilities. To identify ...


Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham Feb 2017

Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

Does international law entitle armed groups to detain people? And what obligations are imposed on such non-state actors when they do detain? This article sets out suggested obligations for armed groups related to the right to challenge the basis for any detention and considers some related issues of fair trial and punishment. The last part of this article briefly considers the legal framework governing state responsibility and individual criminal responsibility for those that assist armed groups that detain people in ways that violate international law.


Building Prevention To Protect: The Inter-American Human Rights System, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon Jan 2017

Building Prevention To Protect: The Inter-American Human Rights System, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.