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Full-Text Articles in Law

Constitutional Equality And Executive Action: A Comparative Perspective To The Comparator Problem, Kenny Chng Mar 2023

Constitutional Equality And Executive Action: A Comparative Perspective To The Comparator Problem, Kenny Chng

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A general right to equality is a common feature of written constitutions around the world. Interesting questions arise when one seeks to apply such rights to discrete executive acts. The subject of such acts has necessarily been singled out from a multitude of possibilities for the purposes of the act. To determine whether a differentiation has occurred such that like cases have not been treated alike, to what or whom should this subject be compared? The question of how one selects the proper comparator becomes especially significant when one notes that whether the equal protection guarantee is triggered at all …


The Relevance Of Purpose In Constitutional Equal Protection Challenges To Executive Action, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng Jul 2022

The Relevance Of Purpose In Constitutional Equal Protection Challenges To Executive Action, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Written constitutions often include generalized guarantees of equal protection which imply a proscription on unconstitutional differential treatment. This paper will examine what the analytical focus ought to be when evaluating challenges to executive action based on such rights, a particularly relevant issue given recent developments in Hong Kong’s and Singapore’s equal protection jurisprudence. These developments suggest that there are three possible analytical focal points, each of which takes a different perspective on the relevance of the executive’s purpose in utilizing differential treatment: (1) the connection between the chosen differentiation and the specific purpose of the challenged executive action; (2) the …


'Good Administration' And The 'Good': The Normative Foundation For The Protection Of Legitimate Expectations, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng Dec 2021

'Good Administration' And The 'Good': The Normative Foundation For The Protection Of Legitimate Expectations, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

An idea that has gained significant traction in both case law and academic commentary as a justification for the protection of legitimate expectations is the concept of ‘good administration’. Going beyond the usual criticisms of the concept’s ambiguity, this article aims to highlight an additional set of difficulties with the invocation of ‘good administration’ as the normative justification for the doctrine. This article’s central argument is that the concept of ‘good’ invoked by the idea of ‘good administration’ inevitably falls to be substantiated by a particular conception of what the ‘good’ requires as a matter of political philosophy. And given …


To Stay Or Not To Stay? A Clash Of Arbitration And Insolvency Regimes, Darius Chan, Sidharrth B Rajagopal Aug 2021

To Stay Or Not To Stay? A Clash Of Arbitration And Insolvency Regimes, Darius Chan, Sidharrth B Rajagopal

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In the wake of the global Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a rise in creditorinitiated winding-up proceedings is likely to be impending in coming years (See e.g., RCMA Asia Pte. Ltd. v. Sun Electric Power Pte. Ltd. [2020] SGHC 205). At the same time, geopolitical developments, such as the scale and ambition of Belt & Road Initiative projects, have raised questions over the issue of debt sustainability. Given the prevalence of arbitration clauses in modern international commercial and project agreements, the interplay and relationship between insolvency and dispute resolution, and especially arbitration, requires careful attention. While the intersections between the …


An Umbrella Of Autonomy: The Validity Of The Hong Kong Protests, Ciera Lehmann Dec 2020

An Umbrella Of Autonomy: The Validity Of The Hong Kong Protests, Ciera Lehmann

Senior Honors Theses

Hong Kong has been fighting for democracy and to retain its autonomy from China, and the world has been watching. Over time, Hong Kongers have seen Beijing blatantly tighten its grip before time was up for the fifty-year agreement since the handover in 1997. In 2014, and again in 2019, hundreds of thousands of citizens filled the streets to participate in pro-democracy demonstrations with the protests only gaining momentum and influence. While there has mostly been support for Hong Kong’s independence movement, there has been argument that Beijing’s actions are completely justified. Should Hong Kong remain autonomous from China, and …


Transnational Corporate Governance Codes: Lessons From Regulating Related Party Transactions In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen, Wai Yee Wan Nov 2019

Transnational Corporate Governance Codes: Lessons From Regulating Related Party Transactions In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Many jurisdictions around the world, includingAsia, have corporate governance codes largely based on the transnational codedrafted by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).The core ideas underpinning the OECD’s principles of corporate governance are boardindependence and proper management of conflicts of interest. These ideas, drawnfrom the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, are designed to protectcompanies and their shareholders. However, the question remains as to whether atransnational corporate governance code is always appropriate and effective, particularlywhen the kinds of companies listed on the stock exchange significantly differfrom the Anglo-American model. In this article, we examine Hong Kong andSingapore, two Asian …


Public And Private Enforcement Of Corporate And Securities Laws: An Empirical Comparison Of Hong Kong And Singapore, Wai Yee Wan, Christopher C. H. Chen, Say H. Goo Jun 2019

Public And Private Enforcement Of Corporate And Securities Laws: An Empirical Comparison Of Hong Kong And Singapore, Wai Yee Wan, Christopher C. H. Chen, Say H. Goo

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Current scholarship emphasises the correlation between enforcement of corporate and securities laws and strong capital markets. Yet, the issue of how private and public enforcement may achieve the objectives of compensation and optimal deterrence remains controversial. While enforcement strategies have been studied extensively in the US and the UK, comparatively less attention is placed on Asia, where concentrated shareholdings are the norm. This study fills the gap by focusing on Hong Kong and Singapore, two leading international financial centres in Asia. Post Asian financial crisis of 1997, Hong Kong and Singapore have changed their laws to strengthen the private enforcement …


Enforcing Public Takeover Regulation: Reconciling Public And Private Interests, Wai Yee Wan Mar 2019

Enforcing Public Takeover Regulation: Reconciling Public And Private Interests, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Takeover regulation in the UK, Hong Kong and Singaporerelies on takeover codes and takeover panels. However, parties aggrieved by thedecisions of the panels may sometimes challenge them in the courts, giving riseto the potential of overlapping jurisdictions. The problem is compounded by twofactors: the enforcement of the takeover codes can have substantiveimplications on the parties’ ability to enforce their rights in courts, and takeoverpanels and courts assess matters differently. This article argues that thereneeds to be a clearer delineation between the potentially overlappingjurisdictions of the takeover panels and the courts.


A One-Size-Fits-All Approach To Corporate Governance Codes And Compliance By Smaller Listed Firms: An Examination Of Companies Listed In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen Feb 2019

A One-Size-Fits-All Approach To Corporate Governance Codes And Compliance By Smaller Listed Firms: An Examination Of Companies Listed In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This article examines the impact of a one-size-fits-all corporate governance code on smaller listed firms, which should have fewer resources to hire more qualified independent directors for their boards and board committees. After examining data from a sample of companies listed in Hong Kong and Singapore, we find some limited support for these resources-based arguments. While smaller firms do not necessarily have a lower proportion of board members who are independent directors, some evidence suggests that smaller firms do pay less to independent directors and that these directors have to serve on multiple board committees. Although many larger firms also …


Hostile Takeover Regimes In Asia: A Comparative Approach, Umakanth Varottil, Wai Yee Wan Jan 2019

Hostile Takeover Regimes In Asia: A Comparative Approach, Umakanth Varottil, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The market for corporate control is animportant corporate governance mechanism for the discipline of corporatemanagers. However, the process and substance of the regulation of hostiletakeovers differs remarkably among various jurisdictions. Existing andinfluential scholarship has focused on the differences in regulation between UnitedStates (US) and the United Kingdom (UK), with the explanations being founded ininterest group politics. Influential as it is, the question is whether thetheory can be extended outside of the US and the UK, particularly to theirlegal transplants in Asia? In the last few decades, many of the Asianjurisdictions have drawn heavily from the US and the UK when …


Comparative Approaches To Constitutional History, Jamal Greene, Yvonne Tew Jan 2018

Comparative Approaches To Constitutional History, Jamal Greene, Yvonne Tew

Faculty Scholarship

An historical approach to constitutional interpretation draws upon original intentions or understandings of the meaning or application of a constitutional provision. Comparing the ways in which courts in different jurisdictions use history is a complex exercise. In recent years, academic and judicial discussion of “originalism” has obscured both the global prevalence of resorting to historical materials as an interpretive resource and the impressive diversity of approaches courts may take to deploying those materials. This chapter seeks, in Section B, to develop a basic taxonomy of historical approaches. Section C explores in greater depth the practices of eight jurisdictions with constitutional …


A Director’S Duty Of Loyalty And The Relevance Of The Company’S Scope Of Business: Cheng Wai Tao V Poon Ka Man Jason, Pearlie M. C. Koh Sep 2017

A Director’S Duty Of Loyalty And The Relevance Of The Company’S Scope Of Business: Cheng Wai Tao V Poon Ka Man Jason, Pearlie M. C. Koh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal has utilised a ‘scope of business’ inquiry to delineate the boundaries of the no-conflict rule for the company director. Such an inquiry is directed at discerning the realistic ability of the company to exploit any particular business opportunity and a strict capacity approach is eschewed, at least where the no-conflict rule is concerned. The decision is premised on a bifurcation between the no-conflict and no-profit rules, suggesting that the tests to determine breach of these fiduciary rules are not necessarily the same, thus permitting a more nuanced consideration of directorial breaches.


Rule Of Law With Chinese Characteristics: An Empirical Cultural Perspective On China, Hong Kong And Singapore, Jeffrey E. Thomas Jan 2014

Rule Of Law With Chinese Characteristics: An Empirical Cultural Perspective On China, Hong Kong And Singapore, Jeffrey E. Thomas

Faculty Works

This article uses empirical data to analyse the meaning of rule of law with Chinese characteristics. It compares rule of law data on China, Hong Kong and Singapore from the World Justice Project and finds patterns of more limited protection of individual rights and fewer limits on governmental powers. It then uses Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to consider whether those patterns are related to common cultural characteristics. It finds low scores on the cultural value of individualism in those three jurisdictions are correlated with lower protection for individual rights, and that high scores on Hofstede’s Power Distribution Index are inversely …


The Obstacles Of Outsourcing Imported Food Safety To China, Chenglin Liu Jan 2010

The Obstacles Of Outsourcing Imported Food Safety To China, Chenglin Liu

Faculty Articles

Outsourcing regulatory power through a bilateral agreement with China is unlikely to ensure the safety of imported food for two primary reasons: (1) shifting the regulatory burden does not present a feasible alternative to the traditional enforcement tools of outcome-based and production-based inspections and sanctions; and (2) China's burgeoning food safety regime, based on an entirely different culture and legal system, provides little incentive for Chinese food manufacturers to increase production costs to comply with U.S. standards.

There are three approaches for securing food safety in the U.S.: (1) increase inspections at the borders by utilizing traditional outcome-based enforcement tools; …


The European Constitution And Its Implications For China, Xingzhong Yu Jan 2007

The European Constitution And Its Implications For China, Xingzhong Yu

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The European Constitution is significant not only for the European Union, but also for a developing constitutional system like that of China. The EU constitutional practice may have positive implications on China's constitutional theory and practice. In the wake of the European constitutional achievement, Chinese constitutional scholars need to re-examine their long-held conviction in the indispensable role of the state in constitutional formation and imagination. The EU experience may have provided China with valuable insights and ways to deal with its inherited ethnic problems and improve its institutions on regional autonomy for ethnic minorities. China's own constitutional experiment in Hong …


The Bid Challenge Procedures Under The Wto Government Procurement Agreement: A Critical Study Of The Hong Kong Experience, Henry Gao Jan 2007

The Bid Challenge Procedures Under The Wto Government Procurement Agreement: A Critical Study Of The Hong Kong Experience, Henry Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

While there has been an extensive literature on the challenge procedure of the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) in general, as well as excellent country studies on the operation of the national challenge procedures of several key GPA Members, no such study has been conducted for Hong Kong yet. In the view of the author, even though Hong Kong has a relatively small procurement market, it combines the features of a clean and effective government and a highly internationalised procurement market, and thus makes an interesting subject of study. In this article, the author examines the efforts made by the …


Procedural Issues In The Anti-Dumping Regulations Of China: A Critical Review Under The Wto Rules, Won-Mog Choi, Henry S. Gao Nov 2006

Procedural Issues In The Anti-Dumping Regulations Of China: A Critical Review Under The Wto Rules, Won-Mog Choi, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Since the World Trade Organization (WTO) was established, China his made large-scale efforts to shape its trade remedy system through legal and organizational changes. Through these changes, China could clarify the meanings of WTO anti-dumping provisions including the provision relating to the definition of domestic industry. Moreover, procedural disciplines on reviews were fortified in Chinese anti-dumping system. While the overall improvements to the trade remedy system of China are evident, definitions of several key legal terms, including the concept of related producers, the negligible import standard, and adjustment factors for a fair comparison between normal values and export prices are …


The Role Of Non-Judicial Mechanisms In Protecting Individual Rights : The China And Hong Kong Experiences, Ren Yue Jun 2003

The Role Of Non-Judicial Mechanisms In Protecting Individual Rights : The China And Hong Kong Experiences, Ren Yue

CAPS Working Paper Series

This study intends to examine, from a socio-legal perspective, the different ways of individual rights protection in the Chinese Mainland and Hong Kong. The common misperception is that as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is allowed to maintain its legal system inherited from the British colonial times, its residents enjoy more and wider individual freedoms than their Mainland compatriots. However, a comparison of relevant individual rights provisions of both Chinese Constitution and Hong Kong Basic Law finds that there is virtually no significant difference between them. The true differences of individual rights protection lie in various non-judicial mechanisms rooted in …


Hong Kong's Reformed Broker Contribution Rules, Lin (Lynn) Bai Feb 2000

Hong Kong's Reformed Broker Contribution Rules, Lin (Lynn) Bai

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Lynn Bai of the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission outlines the new risk-based calculation method for brokers' contributions to the stock clearing fund.


九七後香港普通法的淵源面臨衝擊 : 僱主所負轉承責任的例子, Kwok Keung Chow Nov 1997

九七後香港普通法的淵源面臨衝擊 : 僱主所負轉承責任的例子, Kwok Keung Chow

Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies Working Paper Series

香港現行法律淵源之一的英國普通法,在1997年主權回歸後將再難對法院產生自動的法律約束力,而以英國普通法為基礎、體現侵權法原則的僱傭轉承責任亦預期會出現至少兩方面的改變:第一,涉及轉承責任的案件在缺乏普通法適用地區司法判例約束力的前提下,出現案例與審判原則在援引及關釋上的困難。第二,在與國內司法系統的互動關係上,作為特別行政區的香港將受到國內司法部門有關侵權法及相關案例的影響,又或反過來衝擊國內這方面的立法工作。


中港兩地痛楚及失去人生樂趣賠償法律比較, Kwok Keung Chow Nov 1997

中港兩地痛楚及失去人生樂趣賠償法律比較, Kwok Keung Chow

Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies Working Paper Series

本文主要透過對中、港兩地法院關於人身傷害,侵權案的審判根據和準則,進行搜集和比較分析,當中特別針對有關案件中有否將受害者的痛楚和失去人生樂趣這賠償項目一併考慮,若有的話,計算的準則叉是怎樣等等問題作出比較,初步的結論是,本港人身傷害侵權案的受害者,一般可以獲得隨社會進步和時間而調整、並佔總、賠償金額較大比率的痛楚和失去人生樂趣的補償。不過,在國內侵權法的範疇內,卻沒有相關的賠償項目,對受害者並不公平。因此,本文建議國內應檢討全面補償的觀念能否適用。


The Empire Strikes Back: Britain's Use Of The Law To Suppress Political Dissent In Hong Kong, Richard Klein Jan 1997

The Empire Strikes Back: Britain's Use Of The Law To Suppress Political Dissent In Hong Kong, Richard Klein

Scholarly Works

This Article highlights historical events in Hong Kong under the British administration, and calls for a reconsideration of the widely-held view of approving of British rule. Among those instances highlighed by this Article include the British use of martial law, deportation, imprisonment, flogging and censorship to deal with those who dared criticize the governance of the colony.


Immigration Laws As Instruments Of Discrimination: Legislation Designed To Limit Chinese Immigration Into The United Kingdom, Richard Klein Jan 1997

Immigration Laws As Instruments Of Discrimination: Legislation Designed To Limit Chinese Immigration Into The United Kingdom, Richard Klein

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


The Tragedy Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein Jan 1997

The Tragedy Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein

Scholarly Works

While the world watched the fireworks and celebrations occurring in Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, a far sadder event was, in fact, unfolding. The people of Hong Kong, most of whom had originally fled from China -- the country which was now taking over -- have simply never experienced the basic human right of self-determination. Rule was shifting from a colonial power which had denied the people of Hong Kong their basic human rights for virtually all of its 155-year administration, to a country which, immediately upon assuming sovereignty, made it clear that democracy would remain but a dream.


Law And Racism In An Asian Setting: An Analysis Of The British Rule Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein Jan 1995

Law And Racism In An Asian Setting: An Analysis Of The British Rule Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


The Hong Kong Jury: A Microcosm Of Society?, Peter Duff, Mark Findlay, Carla Howarth Oct 1990

The Hong Kong Jury: A Microcosm Of Society?, Peter Duff, Mark Findlay, Carla Howarth

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The claim that the jury is a randomly chosen and representative sample of community is an important part of the ideology which currently underpins the institution. Supporters of the jury argue that both its impartiality and its independence from the State are bolstered by the fact that it represents a randomly selected cross-section of the populace. In most common law jurisdictions where the jury operates, various steps have been taken over recent years in order preserve and strengthen the perception of the jury as a "microcosm of democratic society". For example, in England the property qualification for jurors was removed …