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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Lopsided Law Of Medical Conscience, Dov Fox May 2024

The Lopsided Law Of Medical Conscience, Dov Fox

The Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues

We’re used to hearing about conscientious refusal: when physicians or pharmacists deny services they deem sinful or wrong, in violation of hospital policies or malpractice laws. Less familiar is conscientious provision: when clinicians supply care that their employer or state restricts. America’s conscience regime often protects refusers categorically: they get conscience without conditions or consequences. But doctors with heartfelt reasons to supply care their institution or government forbids? For them, conscience is no defense.

This radical asymmetry is indefensible and unjust. Both refusers and providers resist workplace rules and legislative directives at odds with their sincere moral convictions. Both sometimes …


The Consequences Of Homophobia: Analysis Of Discriminatory Medical And Legislative Policies And Their Influence On Health Disparities, Kaiden J. Fandel May 2024

The Consequences Of Homophobia: Analysis Of Discriminatory Medical And Legislative Policies And Their Influence On Health Disparities, Kaiden J. Fandel

Honors Thesis

Are there specific roots that influence the introduction and incorporation of discriminatory medical policies? What are the sources of such stigma, discrimination, and prejudice, in what forms does such discrimination take place, and what negative impacts does such hatred have on health outcomes, quality of care, and health disparities? Through a review of existing literature on this topic, intertwining the examination of the evolution of discriminatory policies and other explanatory literature in the United States, this thesis aims to answer the questions above, and explain the roots of such homophobic discrimination and its prevalence in the United States. Through the …


Clearing The Path: Improving Implementation Of Georgia’S Pathways To Coverage Program, Nicholas Smith Apr 2024

Clearing The Path: Improving Implementation Of Georgia’S Pathways To Coverage Program, Nicholas Smith

Emory Law Journal Online

Georgia’s Medicaid program is in flux. The State recently launched Pathways to Coverage, a partial Medicaid expansion program for non-disabled adults in households under 100% of the Federal Poverty Line, with eligibility contingent on reporting 80 hours of work per month. Pathways’ rollout coincides with Medicaid “unwinding,” an ongoing post-COVID redetermination process in which thousands of Georgians have already lost coverage. As such, Pathways could play an important role in offsetting the unwinding’s disenrollment effects. But Pathways may also serve as a test case for conservative lawmakers hoping to institute (or reinstitute) work requirements to restrict Medicaid coverage in their …


At-Will Employment And Healthcare: A Constant Conflict, Chris White Apr 2024

At-Will Employment And Healthcare: A Constant Conflict, Chris White

Mississippi College Law Review

Perfection is impossible. Perfection is essentially possible in the healthcare field, where adverse events are a part of the profession. For this reason, the government has developed systems that attempt to curb the inevitable issues that will arise; however, those systems do not always catch the shortcomings of healthcare-providing institutions. For this reason, the non-physician employees on the ground level, interacting with the patients on a daily basis, are often the best source of information when targeting and curing a healthcare organization’s shortfalls. Unfortunately, barriers exist that keep those non-physician employees from bringing to light what they have noticed.


Too Stubborn To Care For: The Impacts Of Discrimination On Patient Noncompliance, Alice Abrokwa Mar 2024

Too Stubborn To Care For: The Impacts Of Discrimination On Patient Noncompliance, Alice Abrokwa

Vanderbilt Law Review

The role of implicit racial biases in police interactions with people of color has garnered increased public attention and scholarly examination over time, but implicit racial bias in the healthcare context can be as deadly, particularly when it intersects with ableism and sexism. Researchers have found that medical providers are more likely to consider Black patients “noncompliant,” meaning the patient has not adhered to recommended treatment, even without evidence Black patients are less compliant than other patients. Being labeled noncompliant can have grave health consequences; providers are less likely to treat pain aggressively when they consider a patient noncompliant and, …


Systemic Failures In Health Care Oversight, Julie L. Campbell Jan 2024

Systemic Failures In Health Care Oversight, Julie L. Campbell

Georgia Law Review

Hospitals are intentionally shirking their duty to identify and report incompetent medical practitioners, and it is causing catastrophic injuries to patients. Why are hospitals doing this? Two decades of health care reforms have changed the way physicians and hospitals interact in the U.S. health care system, and as a result, the traditional health care oversight tools no longer work to ensure physician competence. With three out of four physicians now employees of hospitals or health care systems, hospitals have become the guardians of both the internal and external warning systems designed to flag incompetent practitioners. As the guardians, hospitals are …


Growing, Growing, Gone: How Dobbs Fundamentally Altered The Way Reproductive Freedom, Private And Professional Liability, And Constitutional Rights Will Be Analyzed In A Post–Roe America, Amanda J. Sharp Jan 2024

Growing, Growing, Gone: How Dobbs Fundamentally Altered The Way Reproductive Freedom, Private And Professional Liability, And Constitutional Rights Will Be Analyzed In A Post–Roe America, Amanda J. Sharp

San Diego Law Review

This Note examines the Dobbs decision and its implications. Part II analyzes the history of abortion rights in the United States, including the role Dobbs played in overturning precedential cases. Part III describes the legal implications of Dobbs, including the status of abortion rights and how this decision altered the state of women’s healthcare. It then addresses Dobbs’ indirect implications, including its potential impacts on the foster care system, implied liability in healthcare professions, data privacy laws, and the employer-employee relationship. Part IV briefly proposes next steps that could be taken and concludes with a call to action.


Structural Sex Discrimination: Why Gynecology Patients Suffer Avoidable Injuries And What The Law Can Do About It, Christopher Robertson, Annabel Kupke, Louise P. King Jan 2024

Structural Sex Discrimination: Why Gynecology Patients Suffer Avoidable Injuries And What The Law Can Do About It, Christopher Robertson, Annabel Kupke, Louise P. King

Faculty Scholarship

The nearly four million Americans who undergo gynecological surgeries each year suffer avoidable lifelong, painful, and disabling injuries. This Article diagnoses the root cause in our legal framework for healthcare finance and identifies legal solutions.

America’s public-private system for reimbursing healthcare pays for procedures rather than outcomes, and it pays substantially more for work on male rather than female anatomies. This disparity is due to the federal government’s reliance on a secretive industry committee to set those rates, and the committee’s reliance on junk science surveys, allowing self-interested and gender-biased responses, contrary to objective measures.

As payors disvalue the bodies …


The Criminalization Of Mental Illness And Substance Use Disorder: Addressing The Void Between The Healthcare And Criminal Justice Systems, Emily B. Egart Jan 2024

The Criminalization Of Mental Illness And Substance Use Disorder: Addressing The Void Between The Healthcare And Criminal Justice Systems, Emily B. Egart

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Decoding U.S. Tort Liability In Healthcare's Black-Box Ai Era: Lessons From The European Union, Mindy Duffourc, Sara Gerke Jan 2024

Decoding U.S. Tort Liability In Healthcare's Black-Box Ai Era: Lessons From The European Union, Mindy Duffourc, Sara Gerke

Faculty Scholarly Works

The rapid development of sophisticated artificial intelligence (“AI”) tools in healthcare presents new possibilities for improving medical treatment and general health. Currently, such AI tools can perform a wide range of health-related tasks, from specialized autonomous systems that diagnose diabetic retinopathy to general-use generative models like ChatGPT that answer users’ health-related questions. On the other hand, significant liability concerns arise as medical professionals and consumers increasingly turn to AI for health information. This is particularly true for black-box AI because while potentially enhancing the AI’s capability and accuracy, these systems also operate without transparency, making it difficult or even impossible …


Book Review: Inequality In America: Causes And Consequences, Eya Mahouachi Dec 2023

Book Review: Inequality In America: Causes And Consequences, Eya Mahouachi

The Journal of Values-Based Leadership

Inequality in America: Causes and Consequences is a recent book authored by Rycroft (economics, Univ. of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA) and Kinsley (business law, Univ. of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA) and was written by scholars, advanced graduate students, and expert practitioners. Their book attempts to bridge the gap in scholarship and practice by incorporating the causes and consequences of history, the current state of inequality in the United States, and future consequences if left unresolved. This book is structured according to fundamental topics such as education, healthcare, housing, environmental issues, and the justice system. Using an effective approach to teaching …


Healthcare Reparations In California, Chelsea J. Gaudet Nov 2023

Healthcare Reparations In California, Chelsea J. Gaudet

San Diego Law Review

The Reparations Task Force has recommended several key areas in which the state of California can offer reparations for its systemic abuse of African Americans. The Interim Report issued by the Task Force highlights the discrepancy in health outcomes for White Californians versus Black Californians and attributes the difference not just to inequitable access, but also to a special compounding effect of physical and mental stress suffered solely by Black Californians as a result of systemic and personal environmental racial discrimination.

This Essay discusses the unique aspects of “weathering” and the insidious effect of racial bias in research meant to …


The Future Of Healthcare Is Generic: Expanding Hatch-Waxman To Equitably Regulate The Healthcare Products Industry, George Encarnacion Jr. May 2023

The Future Of Healthcare Is Generic: Expanding Hatch-Waxman To Equitably Regulate The Healthcare Products Industry, George Encarnacion Jr.

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law

This article serves to address the statutory disconnect in the healthcare industry regarding generic products. There has been marked success in the generics market pertaining to pharmaceutical drugs, but the same cannot be said for medical devices and, in more recent times, biosimilars. The end result for consumers is higher product prices, limited access of care, and a more burdensome healthcare system. This article explores the statutory history of drug and medical device approval and production. It also explores differences between modern regulation of generic drugs and generic medical devices, focusing on key issues of FDA approval, consumer safety and …


Ballad Health: Understanding Appalachia’S Regional Healthcare Monopoly, Meredith A. Bailey May 2023

Ballad Health: Understanding Appalachia’S Regional Healthcare Monopoly, Meredith A. Bailey

Baker Scholar Projects

The Ballad Health merger of 2018, which combined the now 21 hospitals in the region under one organization, has impacted the healthcare landscape in Northeast Tennessee and Southwest Virginia. Historically, Appalachia has had to persevere through primary physician shortages, a lack of specialty care, geographic obstacles to accessing healthcare, challenges related to substance abuse, and much more. Since the merger of Mountain States Health Alliance and Wellmont Health System, little research has been done to assess the perceived impact the aggregation of providers has had on the population it serves. This study utilizes an online survey to better understand the …


S23rs Sgr No. 22, Gabby Boodhoo, Alicia Cerquone, Prakash Dangal, Terry Geraldsen, Cullen Hodges, Lauren Wise, Jocelyn Wood Apr 2023

S23rs Sgr No. 22, Gabby Boodhoo, Alicia Cerquone, Prakash Dangal, Terry Geraldsen, Cullen Hodges, Lauren Wise, Jocelyn Wood

Student Senate Enrolled Legislation

To Urge and Request Louisiana State University to implement the recommendations established by the Graduate Student Healthcare Crisis committee


Biased But Reasonable: Bias Under The Cover Of Standard Of Care, Maytal Gilboa Mar 2023

Biased But Reasonable: Bias Under The Cover Of Standard Of Care, Maytal Gilboa

Georgia Law Review

Inequities in the distribution of healthcare are widely acknowledged to plague the United States healthcare system. Controversies as to whether anti-discrimination law allows individuals to bring lawsuits with respect to implicit rather than intentional bias render negligence law an important avenue for redressing harms caused by implicit bias in medical care. Yet, as this Article argues, the focus of negligence law on medical standards of care to define the boundaries of healthcare providers’ legal duty of care prevents the law from adequately deterring implicit bias and leaves patients harmed by biased treatment decisions without redress for their losses, so long …


Un-Erasing Race In A Medical-Legal Partnership: Antiracist Health Justice Advocacy By Design, Danielle Pelfrey Duryea, Peggy Maisel, Kelley Saia Jan 2023

Un-Erasing Race In A Medical-Legal Partnership: Antiracist Health Justice Advocacy By Design, Danielle Pelfrey Duryea, Peggy Maisel, Kelley Saia

Faculty Scholarship

This Article covers a potential response to a Massachusetts state law which has been interpreted to require health care providers and birthing hospitals to report to state authorities any infant born to a person taking medication of opioid use disorder. While the statute mandates reports where a professional has "reasonable cause to believe that a child is suffering physical or emotional injury" as a result of substance dependence at birth, the Article highlights that many institutions report all infants born to persons with substance abuse disorders, regardless of risk of harm, for fear of penalty for failure to report. As …


From Patients To Patents: The Disappearing I Of Innovation, Maggi Robert Dec 2022

From Patients To Patents: The Disappearing I Of Innovation, Maggi Robert

St. Mary's Law Journal

The creation of the Mayo/Alice two-step test for patent eligible subject matter flipped the patent world upside down. Following its establishment, invalidation rates soared—particularly in the healthcare sector—impacting patients everywhere. The importance of patents in healthcare innovation and innovation generally has been emphasized as the consequences of this framework are realized.

The United States is no longer seen as a clear leader in innovation, and as a result, the economy is at risk. Start-ups and investors have turned to foreign nations where return on their investments in innovation are protected. This level of uncertainty regarding patents has never been seen …


Transcript: Presentation On Artificial Intelligence And Discrimination In Healthcare, Sharona Hoffman Oct 2022

Transcript: Presentation On Artificial Intelligence And Discrimination In Healthcare, Sharona Hoffman

Journal of Law and Health

The following is a transcription from The Digital Health and Technology Symposium presented at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law by The Journal of Law & Health on Friday, April 8, 2022. This transcript has been lightly edited for clarity.


Transcript: Presentation On Individual Autonomy In Ai Healthcare, Charlotte Tschider Oct 2022

Transcript: Presentation On Individual Autonomy In Ai Healthcare, Charlotte Tschider

Journal of Law and Health

The following is a transcription from The Digital Health and Technology Symposium presented at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law by The Journal of Law & Health on Friday, April 8, 2022. This transcript has been lightly edited for clarity.


What The Harm Principle Says About Vaccination And Healthcare Rationing, Christopher Robertson Jun 2022

What The Harm Principle Says About Vaccination And Healthcare Rationing, Christopher Robertson

Faculty Scholarship

Clinical ethicists hold near consensus on the view that healthcare should be provided regardless of patients’ past behaviors. In classic cases, the consensus can be explained by two key rationales—a lack of acute scarcity and the intractability of the facts around those behaviors, which make discrimination on past behavior gratuitous and infeasible to do fairly. Healthcare providers have a duty to help those who can be helped. In contrast, the COVID-19 pandemic suggests the possible recurrence of a very different situation, where a foreseeable acute shortage of healthcare resources means that some cannot be helped. And that shortage is exacerbated …


From Healthcare To Hiring: Impacts Of Social And Public Policy On Disabled Veterans In The United States, Benjamin Michael Stoflet Jun 2022

From Healthcare To Hiring: Impacts Of Social And Public Policy On Disabled Veterans In The United States, Benjamin Michael Stoflet

Student Scholarship

The United States Government is struggling to fulfill commitments it has made to service members suffering from disabilities incurred during honorable service to the country. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability compensation structure, job training programs, and methods of alternative dispute resolution is a patchwork resulting from decades of legislation creating a system where veterans often become locked in a complicated and often combative process to obtain benefits they have earned. Employers, advocacy groups, academics, and federal officials agree that there are systematic issues within the VA negatively impacting disabled veterans. These include a lack of patient-centered care, divergent …


International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson May 2022

International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The impact of the COVID–19 pandemic has been felt world-wide, and despite having several vaccines in the market at this point, there are still issues of accessibility for certain countries. International intellectual property law has been a breeding ground for the exploration of intellectual curiosity and creation as it provides strong protections to creators. These strong protections have allowed for the monopolization of certain goods, such as vaccines, under the concept of patents. While patents are important to incentivize pharmaceutical companies to create life–saving medicines, these protections have also become a barrier for access to medicines, especially in less–developed countries. …


The Fate Of The Advancing American Kidney Health Initiative In A Biden Administration, Seth Shepherd May 2022

The Fate Of The Advancing American Kidney Health Initiative In A Biden Administration, Seth Shepherd

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article analyzes the Biden Administration’s healthcare priorities, contrasts them with those of the Trump Administration, discusses how Presidential administrations determine whether to continue policies, and examines the proper procedures for continuing previous administration policies. This article will then examine whether the Initiative will have a place in the Biden Administration’s healthcare policy. Part II considers Biden’s overall approach to healthcare. Part III discusses what the Trump Administration’s healthcare policy accomplished. Part IV dissects the Initiative and begins a discussion regarding its effectiveness. Part V explores an administration’s decision-making process regarding retention or rejection of a previous administration’s policies and …


The Healthcare Legacy Of The Mission Civilisatrice In Unincorporated U.S. Territories, Sam F. Halabi Mar 2022

The Healthcare Legacy Of The Mission Civilisatrice In Unincorporated U.S. Territories, Sam F. Halabi

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Individual and population health in unincorporated U.S. territories – American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands – lag terribly behind those in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. The populations in the territories – with drastically higher rates of poverty – suffer and die from chronic conditions like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease at far higher rates; must find facilities and doctors thousands of miles away for even moderately complex cases; and perpetually struggle to make access to basic services available. While scholars have long pointed to the disparate treatment of these populations …


Rationing Healthcare During A Pandemic: Shielding Healthcare Providers From Tort Liability In Uncharted Legal Territory, Frederick V. Perry, Miriam Weismann Mar 2022

Rationing Healthcare During A Pandemic: Shielding Healthcare Providers From Tort Liability In Uncharted Legal Territory, Frederick V. Perry, Miriam Weismann

University of Miami Business Law Review

As the coronavirus pandemic intensified, many communities in the U.S. experienced shortages of ventilators, ICU beds, and other medical supplies and treatment. There was no single national response providing guidance on the allocation of scarce healthcare resources. There has been no consistent state response either. Instead, various governmental and nongovernmental state actors in several but not all states formulated “triage protocols,” known as Crisis Standards of Care, to prioritize patient access to care where population demand exceeded supply. One intended purpose of the protocols was to immunize or shield healthcare providers from tort liability based on injuries resulting from a …


Clinical Interactions In Electronic Medical Records Towards The Development Of A Token-Economy Model, Nicole Allison S. Co, Jason Limcaco, Hans Calvin L. Tan, Ma. Regina Justina E. Estuar, Christian E. Pulmano, Dennis Andrew Villamor, Quirino Sugon Jr, Maria Cristina G. Bautista, Paulyn Jean Acacio-Claro Jan 2022

Clinical Interactions In Electronic Medical Records Towards The Development Of A Token-Economy Model, Nicole Allison S. Co, Jason Limcaco, Hans Calvin L. Tan, Ma. Regina Justina E. Estuar, Christian E. Pulmano, Dennis Andrew Villamor, Quirino Sugon Jr, Maria Cristina G. Bautista, Paulyn Jean Acacio-Claro

Graduate School of Business Publications

The use of electronic medical records (EMRs) plays a crucial role in the successful implementation of the Universal Healthcare Law which promises quality and affordable healthcare to all Filipinos. Consequently, the current adoption of EMRs should be studied from the perspective of the healthcare provider. As most studies look into use of EMRs by doctors or patients, there are very few that extend studies to look at possible interaction of doctor and patient in the same EMR environment. Understanding this interaction paves the way for possible incentives that will increase the use and adoption of the EMR. This study uses …


Stifling Innovation: How Global Data Protection Regulation Trends Inhibit The Growth Of Healthcare Research And Start-Ups, Ryan Preston Jan 2022

Stifling Innovation: How Global Data Protection Regulation Trends Inhibit The Growth Of Healthcare Research And Start-Ups, Ryan Preston

Emory International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reparations For Black Health, Alexandre Rotondo-Medina Jan 2022

Reparations For Black Health, Alexandre Rotondo-Medina

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Liability For Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Medicine, W. Nicholson Price, Sara Gerke, I. Glenn Cohen Jan 2022

Liability For Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Medicine, W. Nicholson Price, Sara Gerke, I. Glenn Cohen

Law & Economics Working Papers

While artificial intelligence has substantial potential to improve medical practice, errors will certainly occur, sometimes resulting in injury. Who will be liable? Questions of liability for AI-related injury raise not only immediate concerns for potentially liable parties, but also broader systemic questions about how AI will be developed and adopted. The landscape of liability is complex, involving health-care providers and institutions and the developers of AI systems. In this chapter, we consider these three principal loci of liability: individual health-care providers, focused on physicians; institutions, focused on hospitals; and developers.