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The First 2 Years Of Covid-19: Lessons To Improve Preparedness For The Next Pandemic, Jennifer B. Nuzzo, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2022

The First 2 Years Of Covid-19: Lessons To Improve Preparedness For The Next Pandemic, Jennifer B. Nuzzo, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) Country Office in China reported novel “viral pneumonias of unknown cause” in Wuhan, but China did not confirm case clusters until January 3, 2020. Two years later, more than 285 million cases and 5.4 million deaths have been reported. As of December 2021, more than 800 000 COVID-19 deaths have occurred in the US, surpassing the 675 446 total deaths that occurred during the great influenza pandemic of 1918. The COVID-19 pandemic reduced global economic growth by an estimated 3.2% in 2020, with trade declining by 5.3%; an ...


No Future But A Shared Future, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Sam F. Halabi, Katie Gottschalk, Katherine Ginsbach Nov 2021

No Future But A Shared Future, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Sam F. Halabi, Katie Gottschalk, Katherine Ginsbach

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the fractured and inadequate state of national and global health law and institutions, revealing deeply embedded inequalities. In response to a World Health Assembly resolution proposing a special session to consider the benefits of developing a WHO convention or other international instrument on pandemic preparedness and response, the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) convened 30 of the world’s leading authorities on global health law, financing, biomedical science, implementation, and emergency response along with leaders from prominent international organizations deeply engaged in ...


Going Global, Acting Local: How An International Pandemic Convention Can Support Regional And Community Response, Kevin A. Klock, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi Nov 2021

Going Global, Acting Local: How An International Pandemic Convention Can Support Regional And Community Response, Kevin A. Klock, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A WHO pandemic convention could set in place an overarching framework needed for strengthening global health security. As the World Health Assembly (WHA) debated the merits of such an agreement, a critically important regional instrument – the Treaty for the Establishment of the African Medicines Agency (AMA Treaty) – entered into force on 5 November 2021. The new agency will, among other things, ensure there is a “common framework” for addressing “emerging issues and pandemics in the event of a public health emergency on the continent with cross border or regional implications.”

An improved worldwide health security strategy is essential but global ...


Pediatric Covid-19 Vaccines: What Parents, Practitioners, And Policy Makers Need To Know, William J. Moss, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jennifer B. Nuzzo Nov 2021

Pediatric Covid-19 Vaccines: What Parents, Practitioners, And Policy Makers Need To Know, William J. Moss, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jennifer B. Nuzzo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech’s mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) for children 5 to 11 years of age on October 29, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended use of the vaccine among children in this age group on November 2, 2021. Approximately 28 million children are now eligible for vaccination, with only those younger than 5 years remaining excluded from vaccine eligibility. The benefits of pediatric COVID-19 vaccines are clear. Vaccinations protect children, decrease spread to families and communities, and ensure educational continuity. What do parents, practitioners, and policy ...


Twenty Years After The Anthrax Terrorist Attacks Of 2001: Lessons Learned And Unlearned For The Covid-19 Response, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jennifer B. Nuzzo Oct 2021

Twenty Years After The Anthrax Terrorist Attacks Of 2001: Lessons Learned And Unlearned For The Covid-19 Response, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jennifer B. Nuzzo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The 20th anniversary of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, resulted in deep national reflection. Less remembered are the events that began to unfold 7 days later as anonymous letters laced with deadly anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) spores began arriving at postal facilities, media companies, and congressional offices. The first death from inhaled anthrax exposure occurred on October 5, with an additional 4 deaths and 17 infections over the ensuing months.

The anthrax attacks exposed a health system ill-equipped to respond to acute emergencies. This article explores the lessons learned, and unlearned, from the anthrax attacks, through to Ebola, Zika ...


Covid-19 Vaccine Mandates—A Wider Freedom, Lawrence O. Gostin Oct 2021

Covid-19 Vaccine Mandates—A Wider Freedom, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

President Biden has required COVID-19 vaccinations across much of the US workforce, reaching nearly 100 million workers. Opponents call it unconstitutional, a violation of personal freedom, and even “un-American.” The truth is that vaccine mandates are lawful and deeply entrenched in US history and values. They constitute a “wider freedom” so that everyone in society can feel safer where they work, learn, worship, and live.


The Supreme Court, The Texas Abortion Law (Sb8), And The Beginning Of The End Of Roe V Wade?, I. Glenn Cohen, Eli Y. Adashi, Lawrence O. Gostin Sep 2021

The Supreme Court, The Texas Abortion Law (Sb8), And The Beginning Of The End Of Roe V Wade?, I. Glenn Cohen, Eli Y. Adashi, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Thirteen states have enacted so-called “fetal heartbeat” laws banning abortions once embryotic cardiac activity can be detected. Courts have enjoined their enforcement as unconstitutional. However, on September 1, 2021, the Supreme Court declined to block a Texas fetal heartbeat law, which virtually eliminates access to abortion services. Texas Governor Greg Abbott signed SB8 into law on May 19th, with an effective date of September 1st. The law essentially prohibits abortion after 6 weeks of gestational age, before most women know they are pregnant.

Texas’ fetal heartbeat law has a unique feature. It empowers private individuals to bring civil lawsuits not ...


An International Agreement On Pandemic Prevention And Preparedness, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi, Kevin A. Klock Sep 2021

An International Agreement On Pandemic Prevention And Preparedness, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sam F. Halabi, Kevin A. Klock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

During late 2021, national delegations are, or have, met at the United Nations General Assembly, the G20, and, most importantly, the Special Session of the World Health Assembly in November to determine whether the world needs a new international agreement to address pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response. The current international agreement, the International Health Regulations (2005), failed to work effectively – SARS-CoV-2 was not detected sufficiently early, relevant information was not shared efficiently, and the global response has not been coordinated. Even the most basic investigations were inadequate such as to discover the origins of SARS-CoV-2. Current proposals focus on the ...


9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin Jun 2021

9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A year ago, the World Health Assembly (WHA) met virtually for the first time since the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948. Last year’s WHA adopted a resolution asking states to intensify action to fight COVID-19. Yet a year on, there have been 3.7 million deaths reported, with the real number estimated as more than 7 million. From May 24-31, 2021, the 74th WHA (WHA74) was again held virtually amidst this historic pandemic. The WHA created a member states working group on strengthening WHO preparedness for and response to health emergencies to make recommendations to ...


Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff Mar 2021

Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Following increased calls for racial justice, many organizations have pledged to play their part in dismantling systemic racism. One common step leaders take is to invest in diversity and inclusion programs. Yet, despite organizations’ bold claims to value diversity and the investment of billions of dollars on related efforts, workplace discrimination continues to be a major factor in the lives of people of color. Additionally, existing research highlights a principle-policy gap, wherein people--particularly White Americans--espouse support for the principles of diversity, yet their support wanes for policies that address inequalities. In this survey study, we explore attitudes about organizational diversity ...


Mandating Covid-19 Vaccines, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel A. Salmon, Heidi J. Larson Dec 2020

Mandating Covid-19 Vaccines, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel A. Salmon, Heidi J. Larson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines hold promise to control the pandemic, and help restore normal social and economic life. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for 2 mRNA vaccines and will likely issue full biologics licenses in the coming months. Anticipating vaccine scarcity, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) published guidance on vaccine priorities.

Data show 95% efficacy for vaccines granted an EUA, but even highly effective vaccines cannot curb the pandemic without high population coverage and maintenance of other mitigation strategies. Recent data from 1,676 adults surveyed November ...


Is It Lawful And Ethical To Prioritize Racial Minorities For Covid-19 Vaccines?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Michelle A. Williams Oct 2020

Is It Lawful And Ethical To Prioritize Racial Minorities For Covid-19 Vaccines?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Michelle A. Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected racial minorities in the United States resulting in higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and death. With a limited supply after the initial approval of a safe and effective vaccine, difficult legal and ethical choices will have to be made on priority access for individuals. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) has recommended prioritization of racial minorities who are “worse off” socioeconomically and epidemiologically. TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) similarly cautioned that “colorblind” allocation frameworks could perpetuate or exacerbate existing injustices. Both NASEM and WHO urge policy makers to allocate vaccines in ...


The Kids Are Not Alright: Leveraging Existing Health Law To Attack The Opioid Crisis Upstream, Yael Cannon Jul 2019

The Kids Are Not Alright: Leveraging Existing Health Law To Attack The Opioid Crisis Upstream, Yael Cannon

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The opioid crisis is now a nationwide epidemic, ravaging both rural and urban communities. The public health and economic consequences are staggering; recent estimates suggest the epidemic has contracted the U.S. labor market by over one million jobs and cost the nation billions of dollars. To tackle the crisis, scholars and health policy initiatives have focused primarily on downstream solutions designed to help those who are already in the throes of addiction. For example, the major initiative announced by the U.S. Surgeon General promotes the dissemination of naloxone, which helps save lives during opioid overdoses.

This Article argues ...


Constitutionalizing Abortion Rights In Canada, Joanna Erdman Jan 2017

Constitutionalizing Abortion Rights In Canada, Joanna Erdman

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article endeavours to understand the feminist activism from which constitutional abortion rights in Canada were born in the landmark Supreme Court case of R v Morgentaler 1988, and the influence of these rights on continued feminist activism for reproductive justice. Part I reviews abortion practice in the ‘back-alley’ prior to and immediately after the 1969 criminal reform with attention to the direct service activism of liberation feminists in their campaign to repeal the abortion law as a matter of constitutional justice. Part II turns to adjudication in the courts to study how judicial reasoning channelled these constitutional claims, exploring ...


Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part I), Sheila Wildeman Jan 2016

Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part I), Sheila Wildeman

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In this two-part paper, the author explores the significance of identity in mental health law and policy. In this as in other socio-legal domains, identity functions to consolidate dissent as well as to effect social control. The author asks: where do legal experts stand in relation to the identity categories that run so deep in this area of law and policy? More broadly, she asks: is “mental health” working on us — on the mental health disabled, legal scholars, all of us — in ways that are impairing our capacity for social justice? In the first part of the paper, the author ...


‘And Miles To Go Before I Sleep’: The Future Of End Of Life Law And Policy In Canada, Jocelyn Downie Jan 2016

‘And Miles To Go Before I Sleep’: The Future Of End Of Life Law And Policy In Canada, Jocelyn Downie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This paper reviews the legal status of a number of end-of-life law and policy issues that have, to date, been overshadowed by debates about medical assistance in dying. It suggests that law reform is needed in relation to palliative sedation without artificial hydration and nutrition, advance directives for the withholding and withdrawal of oral hydration and nutrition, unilateral withholding and withdrawal of potentially life-sustaining treatment, and the determination of death. To leave the law in its current uncertain state is to leave patients vulnerable to having no access to interventions that they want or, at the other extreme, being forced ...


Is It Time To Adopt A No-Fault Scheme To Compensate Injured Patients?, Elaine Gibson Jan 2016

Is It Time To Adopt A No-Fault Scheme To Compensate Injured Patients?, Elaine Gibson

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The tort system is roundly indicted for its inadequacies in providing compensation in response to injury. More egregious is its response to injuries incurred due to negligence in the provision of healthcare services specifically. Despite numerous calls for reform, tort-based compensation has persisted as the norm to date. However, recent developments regarding physician malpractice lead to consideration of the possibility of a move to “no-fault” compensation for healthcare-related injuries. In this paper, I explore these developments, examine programs in various foreign jurisdictions which have adopted no-fault compensation for medical injury, and discuss the wisdom and feasibility of adopting an administratively-based ...


Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part Ii): A Political Taxonomy Of Psychiatric Subjectification, Sheila Wildeman Jan 2016

Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part Ii): A Political Taxonomy Of Psychiatric Subjectification, Sheila Wildeman

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This is the second part of a two-part essay exploring the function of identity in mental health law and policy, or more broadly, the function of identity in the politics of mental health. Part one began with the Foucauldian exhortation to undertake a “critical ontology of ourselves,” and adopted the methodology of autoethnography to explore the construction or constructedness of the author’s identity as an expert working in the area of mental health law and policy. That part concluded with a gesture of resistance to identification on one or the other side of the mental health/ illness divide (the ...


Avoiding Unintended Disclosure: Representing Clients With Hiv And Aids, Lashanda Taylor Adams Jan 2015

Avoiding Unintended Disclosure: Representing Clients With Hiv And Aids, Lashanda Taylor Adams

Journal Articles

When the HIV/AIDS epidemic was initially recognized in the United States, many attorneys wondered what it would mean to represent a client with HIV. As the number of HIV-infected individuals grew, so did the need for attorneys to represent them. Specifically, attorneys questioned whether or not their duty of confidentiality would expose them to civil liability from failing to protect a third party.1 In response to this concern, several law review articles were written discussing the dilemma faced by attorneys bound by professional rules of conduct.2 These articles focused on the needs of the attorney and the ...


The Law's Duty To Promote The Kinship System: Implications For Assisted Reproductive Techniques And For Proposed Redefinitions Of Familial Relations, Scott T. Fitzgibbon Jan 2015

The Law's Duty To Promote The Kinship System: Implications For Assisted Reproductive Techniques And For Proposed Redefinitions Of Familial Relations, Scott T. Fitzgibbon

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Kinship relations, in our society and in most, are organized systematically. That is to say, each kinship connection is constructed, conducted, and considered, not in isolation but by reference to the others. Your uncle is your father’s brother, in just about the same way as your own sibling is your brother and your children are one another’s brothers and sisters. Your spouse is the mother or father of your children, in just about the same way as your mother and father are your parents and the parents of your siblings. One’s beliefs and expectations about what each ...


Off-Label Drug Promotion And The Ephemeral Line Between Marketing And Education, Joan H. Krause Jan 2015

Off-Label Drug Promotion And The Ephemeral Line Between Marketing And Education, Joan H. Krause

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Protecting Rights And Building Capacities: Challenges To Global Mental Health Policy In Light Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Sheila Wildeman Jan 2013

Protecting Rights And Building Capacities: Challenges To Global Mental Health Policy In Light Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Sheila Wildeman

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The World Health Organization (WHO) has in the last decade identified mental health as a priority for global health promotion and international development, to be targeted through promulgation of evidence-based medical practices, health systems reform, and respect for human rights. Yet these overlapping strategies are marked by tensions as the historical primacy of expert-led initiatives is increasingly subject to challenge by new social movements — in particular, disabled persons’ organizations (DPOs). These tensions come into focus upon situating the WHO’s contributions to the analysis of global mental health in light of the negotiation and early stages of implementation of the ...


Technical Standards For Admission To Medical Schools: Deaf Candidates Don't Get No Respect, Michael A. Schwartz Jul 2012

Technical Standards For Admission To Medical Schools: Deaf Candidates Don't Get No Respect, Michael A. Schwartz

College of Law - Faculty Scholarship

Medical schools utilize a set of technical standards used to screen applicants with disabilities, and one of the standards, which deals with communication, requires the applicant to be capable of speech and hearing. To the extent that medical schools exclude an applicant with a hearing impairment on the ground that the applicant cannot hear and speak, such exclusion would be (and should be) a violation of federal law. Schools must engage in an individualized assessment of how a Deaf medical candidate would satisfy the communication standard. The notion of an “undifferentiated graduate,” where all graduates qualify for practice in any ...


The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos Feb 2012

The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Law & Economics Working Papers

Two conflicting stories have consumed the academic debate regarding the impact of deinstitutionalization litigation. The first, which has risen almost to the level of conventional wisdom, is that deinstitutionalization was a disaster. The second story does not deny that the results of deinstitutionalization have in many cases been disappointing. But it challenges the suggestion that deinstitutionalization has uniformly been unsuccessful, as well as the causal link critics seek to draw with the growth of the homeless population. This dispute is not simply a matter of historical interest. The Supreme Court’s 1999 decision in Olmstead v. L.C., which held ...


Doctors, Patients, And Pills--A System Popping Under Too Much Physician Discretion? A Law-Policy Prescription To Make Drug Approval More Meaningful In The Delivery Of Health Care, Michael J. Malinowski Jan 2012

Doctors, Patients, And Pills--A System Popping Under Too Much Physician Discretion? A Law-Policy Prescription To Make Drug Approval More Meaningful In The Delivery Of Health Care, Michael J. Malinowski

Journal Articles

This article challenges the scope of physician discretion to engage in off-label use of prescription drugs. The discretion to prescribe dimensions beyond the clinical research that puts new drugs on pharmacy shelves has been shaped by two historic influences: a legacy of physician paternalism, solidarity, autonomy, and self-determination that predates the contemporary commercialization of medicine by more than half a century, and regulatory necessity due to the limits of science and innate crudeness of pharmaceuticals prior to the genomics revolution (drug development and delivery based upon genetic expression). Although both factors have changed immensely, the standard for drug approval has ...


Foreword, Health Law And Policy Brief, Claudio Grossman, Mirta Roses Periago Jan 2012

Foreword, Health Law And Policy Brief, Claudio Grossman, Mirta Roses Periago

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Consent Requirements For Pelvic Examinations Performed For Training Purposes, Elaine Gibson, Jocelyn Downie Jan 2012

Consent Requirements For Pelvic Examinations Performed For Training Purposes, Elaine Gibson, Jocelyn Downie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In 2010, The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and The Association of Professors of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Canada (APOG) released an updated policy statement regarding pelvic examinations performed on women under anesthesia. The updated statement, unlike the previous 2006 guideline that applied to “medical trainees” (explicitly including students and residents), for the most part only applies to “medical students”. Pelvic examinations conducted for training purposes presumably constitute a battery in law, subject to the defence of consent. Residents need to be covered by an SOGC and APOG policy statement regarding pelvic examinations for training purposes with ...


Understanding 'Elder Abuse And Neglect': A Critique Of Assumptions Underpinning Responses To The Mistreatment And Neglect Of Older People, Joan Harbison, Steve Coughlan, Marie Beaulieu, Jeff Karabanow, Madine Vanderplaat, Sheila Wildeman, Ezra Wexler Jan 2012

Understanding 'Elder Abuse And Neglect': A Critique Of Assumptions Underpinning Responses To The Mistreatment And Neglect Of Older People, Joan Harbison, Steve Coughlan, Marie Beaulieu, Jeff Karabanow, Madine Vanderplaat, Sheila Wildeman, Ezra Wexler

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article provides an overview of the ways in which the mistreatment and neglect of older people have come to be understood as a social problem, one which is underpinned by a variety of substantive and theoretical assumptions. It connects the process of conceptualizing elder abuse and neglect to political-economic and social evolution. The authors draw on a review of the literature, government sources, interest group websites, and their own research to provide a critical commentary illustrating how these understandings have become manifest in legislation, policies, and programs pertaining to "elder abuse and neglect" in Canada. Suggestions are provided for ...


National Healthcare And American Constitutional Culture, William P. Marshall Jan 2012

National Healthcare And American Constitutional Culture, William P. Marshall

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Kickbacks, Honest Services, And Health Care Fraud After Skilling, Joan H. Krause Jan 2012

Kickbacks, Honest Services, And Health Care Fraud After Skilling, Joan H. Krause

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.