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Full-Text Articles in Law

A More Capacious Concept Of Church, Philip Hackney, Samuel D. Brunson Jan 2023

A More Capacious Concept Of Church, Philip Hackney, Samuel D. Brunson

Articles

United States tax law provides churches with extra benefits and robust protection from IRS enforcement actions. Churches and religious organizations are automatically exempt from the income tax without needing to apply to be so recognized and without needing to file a tax return. Beyond that, churches are protected from audit by stringent procedures. There are good reasons to consider providing a distance between church and state, including the state tax authority. In many instances, Congress granted churches preferential tax treatment to try to avoid excess entanglement between church and state, though that preferential treatment often just shifts the locus of …


The Stubborn Persistence Of The Lawyer Exemption In Canadian Collective Bargaining Legislation, David J. Doorey Jun 2022

The Stubborn Persistence Of The Lawyer Exemption In Canadian Collective Bargaining Legislation, David J. Doorey

Dalhousie Law Journal

In 1948, the Canadian government introduced transformative collective bargaining legislation that would serve as a template for provincial labour law in the postwar period. However, some employees were excluded entirely from this legislation, including employees in five professions, law among them. By the 1970s, the federal government and most provinces had repealed the professional exclusion from the primary collective bargaining legislation. However, four jurisdictions—Ontario, Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (Exclusionary Provinces)—have stubbornly preserved the exclusion. This essay traces the history and justifications proffered for the lawyer exclusion from Canadian collective bargaining legislation from the 1940s to present day. …


Appealing Compelled Disclosures In Discovery That Threaten First Amendment Rights, Richard L. Heppner Jr. Jan 2022

Appealing Compelled Disclosures In Discovery That Threaten First Amendment Rights, Richard L. Heppner Jr.

Law Faculty Publications

Last year, the Supreme Court held in Americans for Prosperity Foundation v. Bonta that a California anti-fraud policy compelling charities to disclose the identities of their major donors violated the First Amendment. That holding stems from the 1958 case NAACP v. Alabama where the Court held that a discovery order compelling the NAACP to disclose the names of its members violated the First Amendment right of free association because of the members’ justifiable fear of retaliation.

In the over sixty years since NAACP v. Alabama, the Court has only decided a handful of cases about how compelled disclosures of …


Compelled Unionism In The Private Sector After Janus: Why Unions Should Not Profit From Dissenting Employees, Giovanna Bonafede Dec 2021

Compelled Unionism In The Private Sector After Janus: Why Unions Should Not Profit From Dissenting Employees, Giovanna Bonafede

Catholic University Law Review

This Note examines the impact of the 2018 landmark labor law case Janus v. AFSCME. Janus held it unconstitutional under the First Amendment to require public sector employees to pay fees to a union to which they are not a member. The Supreme Court based their decision on the idea that compelling public employees to subsidize union speech to which they disagreed violated their free speech rights. The author argues that the Court’s holding in Janus should be extended to protect the free speech rights of private sector employees through a finding of state action in the private unionized …


Guilt By Association On The Docks And In The Casinos, Conor Byrnes Jan 2021

Guilt By Association On The Docks And In The Casinos, Conor Byrnes

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Does Due Process Have An Age Limit? Why The Law Concerning The Parental Right To Freedom Of Intimate Association In The Relationship With An Adult Child Is A Mischaracterization Of A Circuit Split, Bryan Schenkman Jan 2021

Does Due Process Have An Age Limit? Why The Law Concerning The Parental Right To Freedom Of Intimate Association In The Relationship With An Adult Child Is A Mischaracterization Of A Circuit Split, Bryan Schenkman

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Don't (Tower) Dump On Freedom Of Association: Protest Surveillance Under The First And Fourth Amendments, Ana Pajar Blinder Jan 2021

Don't (Tower) Dump On Freedom Of Association: Protest Surveillance Under The First And Fourth Amendments, Ana Pajar Blinder

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Government surveillance is ubiquitous in the United States and can range from the seemingly innocuous to intensely intrusive. Recently, the surveillance of protestors—such as those protesting against George Floyd’s murder by a police officer—has received widespread attention in the media and in activist circles, but has yet to be successfully challenged in the courts. Tower dumps, the acquisition of location data of cell phones connected to specific cell towers, are controversial law enforcement tools that can be used to identify demonstrators. This Comment argues that the insufficiency of Fourth Amendment protections for protesters being surveilled by government actors—by tactics such …


Privileged Violence, Principled Fantasy, And Feminist Method: The Colby Fraternity Case, Martha T. Mccluskey Apr 2020

Privileged Violence, Principled Fantasy, And Feminist Method: The Colby Fraternity Case, Martha T. Mccluskey

Maine Law Review

Colby College banned fraternities and sororities in 1984 after many years of unsuccessfully attempting to improve fraternity behavior. Sexual harassment and sex discrimination were major reasons for the college's decision. At first the college withheld official recognition of and financial benefits to the fraternities. Membership in fraternities was not punished, although Colby established a policy prohibiting any participation in fraternities. The college had hoped that without houses, financing, and other support from the administration, the fraternities would disband—particularly once all students who had belonged to the officially sanctioned groups had graduated. Although the sororities soon dissolved, most of the male …


Constitutional Law And The Presidential Nomination Process, Richard Briffault Jan 2020

Constitutional Law And The Presidential Nomination Process, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

The Constitution says nothing about the presidential nominating process and has had little direct role in the evolution of that process from congressional caucuses to party national conventions to our current primary-dominated system of selecting convention delegates. Yet, constitutional law is a factor in empowering and constraining the principal actors in the nomination process and in shaping the framework for potential future changes.

The constitutional law of the presidential nomination process operates along two axes: government-party, and state-national. The government-party dimension focuses on the tension between the states and the federal government in writing the rules for and administering the …


'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda C. Mcclain May 2019

'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

Today, many take it for granted that discriminating against women in the marketplace is illegal and morally wrong. Roberts v. United States Jaycees (1984) remains a foundational case on government’s compelling interest in prohibiting sex (or gender) discrimination in public accommodations, even in the face of First Amendment claims of freedom of association and expression. Curiously, Jaycees seems comparatively neglected by legal scholars, if measured by the cases included in the various collections of “law stories” or “rewritten opinions” projects. Looking back at the Jaycees litigation reveals the parties wrestling over the reach of public accommodations law and the force …


Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo Apr 2019

Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

Freedom of Association is entrenched in the Zambian Constitution and in several International Law instruments to which Zambia is a party. By hindering the independent and effective operations of NGOs, the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) Act of 2009 unjustifiably curtails this freedom. This paper examines the NGO Act and documents the various instances in which it imposes an unconstitutional, unjustifiable and disproportionate hindrance on the ability of NGOs to operate effectively. It argues that the Act threatens to roll back the enormous gains that NGOs have made and continue to make in fermenting accountable, democratic and effective governance in Zambia.


The Political Party System As A Public Forum: The Incoherence Of Parties As Free Speech Associations And A Proposed Correction, Wayne Batchis Jan 2019

The Political Party System As A Public Forum: The Incoherence Of Parties As Free Speech Associations And A Proposed Correction, Wayne Batchis

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Supreme Court’s jurisprudence addressing the associational rights of political parties is both highly consequential and deeply inconsistent. It dates back at least as far as the Court’s White Primary decisions more than a half-century ago. In recent decades, the Court has imposed an arguably ad hoc formula, striking down regulations on political parties on First Amendment grounds in some cases, while upholding them in others. From a jurisprudential perspective, critics might point to insufficiently principled distinctions between these cases. From a normative perspective, the very expansion of First Amendment rights to political parties, like the parallel extension to corporations …


Let All Voters Vote: Independents And The Expansion Of Voting Rights In The United States, Jeremy Gruber, Michael A. Hardy, Harry Kresky Jan 2019

Let All Voters Vote: Independents And The Expansion Of Voting Rights In The United States, Jeremy Gruber, Michael A. Hardy, Harry Kresky

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Treading On Sacred Land: First Amendment Implications Of Ice's Targeting Of Churches, Gabriella M. D'Agostini Jan 2019

Treading On Sacred Land: First Amendment Implications Of Ice's Targeting Of Churches, Gabriella M. D'Agostini

Michigan Law Review

In the last few years, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has begun to target religious institutions—specifically churches—as a means to find and arrest undocumented immigrants. This technique is in legal tension with the First Amendment rights of free exercise of religion and free association. It is unclear, however, how these legal rights protect those most affected by this targeting tactic: undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants may lack standing to challenge ICE’s tactics on their own and may require the help of related parties to protect their interests.

This Note explores a potential solution to the ambiguity surrounding undocumented immigrants’ protection under …


Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman Jan 2019

Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman

All Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, changes to state and federal law have increased pressure on corporate law to serve as an ordering mechanism for interests and values beyond economics. On the federal front, two U.S. Supreme Court cases have put existing corporate law in a new quasi-constitutional light. In the landmark decisions of Citizens United v. FEC and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., the Supreme Court has pointed to state corporate law as the mechanism for ordering political and religious activity. In addition, Congress, the SEC, and federal courts have been embroiled in battles about the scope and appropriateness of regulating …


The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2018

The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Michigan Law Review

A review of Carlos A. Ball, The First Amendment and LGBT Equality: A Contentious History.


The Sky Is Not Falling: An Analysis Of The National Strategy For Trusted Identities In Cyberspace And The Proposed Identity Ecosystem, Aaron L. Jackson Aug 2017

The Sky Is Not Falling: An Analysis Of The National Strategy For Trusted Identities In Cyberspace And The Proposed Identity Ecosystem, Aaron L. Jackson

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


The Membership Decisions Of Religious Organisations: Equality, Religious Liberty And Freedom Of Association, G Walsh Jan 2017

The Membership Decisions Of Religious Organisations: Equality, Religious Liberty And Freedom Of Association, G Walsh

Law Papers and Journal Articles

The merit of a provision that regulates the membership decisions of religious organisations is typically assessed according to the right to equality and religious liberty. Although such rights are of central importance in assessing such a provision, it is necessary to also consider other relevant considerations in order to reach an informed conclusion on the appropriateness of the provision. Freedom of association is a right that is often neglected in this context. This article argues that any assessment of the merits of a provision that impacts on the membership decisions of religious organisations should have a strong focus on freedom …


Harris V. Quinn And Freedom Of Association: Why Congress Needs To Step In To Expand The Ruling, Ryan Sullivan Nov 2016

Harris V. Quinn And Freedom Of Association: Why Congress Needs To Step In To Expand The Ruling, Ryan Sullivan

Valparaiso University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Commentary: Private Clubs And Public Interests: A View From San Francisco, Herma Hill Kay Aug 2016

Commentary: Private Clubs And Public Interests: A View From San Francisco, Herma Hill Kay

Herma Hill Kay

No abstract provided.


The Wagner Model And International Freedom Of Association Standards, Lance A. Compa Sep 2015

The Wagner Model And International Freedom Of Association Standards, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

[Excerpt] I first met Pierre Verge just before beginning my service with the NAFTA labour commission in 1995. Not long after that, Pierre Verge and my own labour law professor at Yale in 1972, Clyde Summers, jointly wrote a penetrating evaluation of the first years of the NAFTA labour side accord, which still serves as the best single analysis of that seminal but flawed instrument linking labour standards and a trade agreement (Summers, Verge and Medina, 1998; Verge, 1999; Verge, 2002). Since then, my understanding of international labour standards and how they relate to labour law in North America has …


Solicitation Of Anticompetitive Action From Foreign Governments: Should The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine Apply To Communications With Foreign Sovereigns?, Ronald W. Davis May 2015

Solicitation Of Anticompetitive Action From Foreign Governments: Should The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine Apply To Communications With Foreign Sovereigns?, Ronald W. Davis

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


First Amendment Freedom Of Speech And Religion - October 2009 Term, Burt Neuborne, Michael Dorf Feb 2015

First Amendment Freedom Of Speech And Religion - October 2009 Term, Burt Neuborne, Michael Dorf

Michael C. Dorf

No abstract provided.


Response: Situating Ourselves In History, Steven D. Smith Feb 2015

Response: Situating Ourselves In History, Steven D. Smith

Pepperdine Law Review

The author presents his views on history of religious freedom incorporated in his Brandeis lecture and in the book "The Rise and Decline of American Religious Freedom." Topics discussed include hegemonic status of special protection to religious freedom for legal academics, role of ending religious freedom in providing protection to religious actors under other constitutional provisions like free speech, and impact of ending religious freedom on other freedom like freedom of association.


The Last Chapter?, Steven D. Smith Feb 2015

The Last Chapter?, Steven D. Smith

Pepperdine Law Review

An essay is presented in which the author presents contrasting views of law professors at Stanford and Harvard University, Michael McConnell and Noah Feldman respectively on religious freedom. Topics discussed include requirement of special protection to religious freedom, protection of religious belief and expression under other constitutional provisions such as freedom of speech, and the failure of Obama Administration in providing special freedom of association to religious associations.


Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo Jan 2015

Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo

Southern African Journal of Policy and Development

Freedom of Association is entrenched in the Zambian Constitution and in several International Law instruments to which Zambia is a party. By hindering the independent and effective operations of NGOs, the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) Act of 2009 unjustifiably curtails this freedom. This paper examines the NGO Act and documents the various instances in which it imposes an unconstitutional, unjustifiable and disproportionate hindrance on the ability of NGOs to operate effectively. It argues that the Act threatens to roll back the enormous gains that NGOs have made and continue to make in fermenting accountable, democratic and effective governance in Zambia.


Constitutional Labour Rights In Canada: Farm Workers And The Fraser Case, Fay Faraday, Judy Fudge, Eric Tucker Jul 2014

Constitutional Labour Rights In Canada: Farm Workers And The Fraser Case, Fay Faraday, Judy Fudge, Eric Tucker

Eric M. Tucker

On 29 April 2011, the Supreme Court of Canada released its much-anticipated decision in Attorney General of Ontario v Fraser, which dealt with the scope of constitutional protection of collective bargaining. The case involved a constitutional challenge to an Ontario statute on the grounds that it violated agricultural workers’ freedom of association and right to equality by excluding them from the statutory protection that is available to virtually all other private sector workers and by failing to provide them with alternative legislative support for meaningful and effective collective bargaining rights. Although the Court upheld the constitutionality of the legislation …


First Amendment Decisions In The October 2005 Term, Joel Gora Jun 2014

First Amendment Decisions In The October 2005 Term, Joel Gora

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Institutional Autonomy And Constitutional Structure, Randy J. Kozel Apr 2014

Institutional Autonomy And Constitutional Structure, Randy J. Kozel

Michigan Law Review

This Review makes two claims. The first is that Paul Horwitz’s excellent book, First Amendment Institutions, depicts the institutionalist movement in robust and provocative form. The second is that it would be a mistake to assume from its immersion in First Amendment jurisprudence (not to mention its title) that the book’s implications are limited to the First Amendment. Professor Horwitz presents First Amendment institutionalism as a wide-ranging theory of constitutional structure whose focus is as much on constraining the authority of political government as it is on facilitating expression. These are the terms on which the book’s argument — and, …


Associations And The Constitution: Four Questions About Four Freedoms, Nelson Tebbe Mar 2014

Associations And The Constitution: Four Questions About Four Freedoms, Nelson Tebbe

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

When should a constitutional democracy allow private associations to discriminate? That question has become prominent once again, not only in the United States but abroad as well. John Inazu provides a provocative answer in his impressive Article, The Four Freedoms and the Future of Religious Liberty. According to his proposal, “strong pluralism,” associations should have a constitutional right to limit membership on any ground, including race. Strong pluralism articulates only three limits: It does not apply to the government, to commercial entities, or to monopolistic groups. In this Response, I raise four questions about Four Freedoms. First, I ask why …