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Full-Text Articles in Law

The National Security Consequences Of The Major Questions Doctrine, Ganesh Sitaraman, Timothy Meyer Oct 2023

The National Security Consequences Of The Major Questions Doctrine, Ganesh Sitaraman, Timothy Meyer

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The rise of the major questions doctrine—the rule that says that in order to delegate to the executive branch the power to resolve a “question of ‘deep economic and political significance’ that is central to [a] statutory scheme,” Congress must do so expressly—threatens to unmake the modern executive’s authority over foreign affairs, especially in matters of national security and interstate conflict. In the twenty-first century, global conflicts increasingly involve economic warfare, rather than (or in addition to) the force of arms.

In the United States, the executive power to levy economic sanctions and engage in other forms of economic warfare …


The Rise And Fall Of Section 502b, John Ramming Chappell Feb 2023

The Rise And Fall Of Section 502b, John Ramming Chappell

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

The first major foreign policy legislation of the human rights revolution of the 1970s,1 Section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) is a latent oversight tool that Congress could use to promote human rights in U.S. security assistance. Section 502B may be the most potent provision of law regarding human rights and security assistance that has never been used. The provision prohibits U.S. security assistance to governments that engage in a consistent pattern of gross violations of human rights, requires the State Department to report on human rights issues, and provides Congress with a mechanism to enforce the statute’s …


Foreign Antisuit Injunctions And The Settlement Effect, Connor Cohen Apr 2022

Foreign Antisuit Injunctions And The Settlement Effect, Connor Cohen

Northwestern University Law Review

International parallel proceedings, which are concurrent identical or similar lawsuits in multiple countries, often ask courts to balance efficiency and fairness against the speculative fear of insulting foreign nations. Some litigants abuse foreign duplicative litigation to exhaust their opponents’ resources and pressure them into settling out of court. This Note provides the first empirical evidence of such abuse of international parallel proceedings: when courts deny motions to enjoin foreign parallel litigation, the settlement rate rises significantly. Considering the results of this empirical project and its limitations, I encourage future studies on international parallel proceedings and settlement. I also argue for …


Delegating Climate Authorities, Mark P. Nevitt Jan 2022

Delegating Climate Authorities, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Articles

The science is clear: the United States and the world must take dramatic action to address climate change or face irreversible, catastrophic planetary harm. Within the U.S.—the world’s largest historic emitter of greenhouse gas emissions—this will require passing new legislation or turning to existing statutes and authorities to address the climate crisis. Doing so implicates existing and prospective delegations of legislative authority to a large swath of administrative agencies. Yet congressional climate decision-making delegations to any executive branch agency must not dismiss the newly resurgent nondelegation doctrine. Described by some scholars as the “most dangerous idea in American law,” the …


Talking Foreign Policy, Radio Broadcasts Mar 2020

Talking Foreign Policy, Radio Broadcasts

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Talking Foreign Policy, Radio Broadcasts Sept. 25, 2014, Jan. 29 And Sept. 4, 2015, Feb. 5 And Oct. 7, 2016 Feb 2020

Talking Foreign Policy, Radio Broadcasts Sept. 25, 2014, Jan. 29 And Sept. 4, 2015, Feb. 5 And Oct. 7, 2016

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Talking Foreign Policy, Talking Foreign Policy Radio Broadcasts: Sept. 6, 2013 And Jan. 31, 2014 Feb 2020

Talking Foreign Policy, Talking Foreign Policy Radio Broadcasts: Sept. 6, 2013 And Jan. 31, 2014

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Talking Foreign Policy, Talking Foreign Policy Radio Show Feb 2020

Talking Foreign Policy, Talking Foreign Policy Radio Show

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Talking Foreign Policy: October 1, 2019 Broadcast: "The Rohingya Genocide", Tfp Panel Jan 2020

Talking Foreign Policy: October 1, 2019 Broadcast: "The Rohingya Genocide", Tfp Panel

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

"According to a recent UN report, Facebook bears responsibility for the worst humanitarian disaster on the planet – the mass attacks against the Rohingya people of Burma. Welcome to “Talking Foreign Policy.” I’m your host, Michael Scharf, [co-]Dean of Case Western Reserve University School of Law. In this broadcast, our expert panelists will help us understand the Rohingya crisis, the role of Facebook, and the prospects for achieving accountability for the international crimes that have been committed against the Rohingya people in Burma."


Democratic Policing Before The Due Process Revolution, Sarah Seo Jan 2019

Democratic Policing Before The Due Process Revolution, Sarah Seo

Faculty Scholarship

According to prevailing interpretations of the Warren Court’s Due Process Revolution, the Supreme Court constitutionalized criminal procedure to constrain the discretion of individual officers. These narratives, however, fail to account for the Court’s decisions during that revolutionary period that enabled discretionary policing. Instead of beginning with the Warren Court, this Essay looks to the legal culture before the Due Process Revolution to provide a more coherent synthesis of the Court’s criminal procedure decisions. It reconstructs that culture by analyzing the prominent criminal law scholar Jerome Hall’s public lectures, Police and Law in a Democratic Society, which he delivered in 1952 …


Foreign Affairs Prosecutions, Steven Arrigg Koh Jan 2019

Foreign Affairs Prosecutions, Steven Arrigg Koh

Faculty Scholarship

Contemporary global crime and cross-border law enforcement cooperation have multiplied “foreign affairs prosecutions,” cases that encompass foreign apprehension, evidence gathering, and criminal conduct, as well as cases that implicate foreign nations’ criminal justice interests. Robert Mueller’s Russia investigation, the fugitive Edward Snowden, and the cross-border crimes of FIFA and El Chapo all exemplify such foreign affairs prosecutions. This Article argues that foreign affairs prosecutions represent a consequential shift in U.S. criminal law, offering the promise of closing global impunity gaps. At the same time, however, such cases risk defendant interests at home and U.S. foreign policy abroad. This Article calls …


Piracy And Due Process, Andrew Kent Oct 2018

Piracy And Due Process, Andrew Kent

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article explores in depth the law of nations, English domestic law, and English government practice from the late medieval period through the eighteenth century, and the U.S. constitutional law and government practice during the Founding and antebellum periods. I conclude that Chapman’s claims about due process and piracy suppression are incorrect. Both Parliament and the U.S. Congress; both the Crown and its counselors and U.S Presidents and their advisers; both the Royal Navy and the U.S. Navy; and commentators both English and American believed that (1) pirates on the high seas could lawfully be subject to extrajudicial killing, but …


Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh Jun 2018

Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh

Robert B. Ahdieh

Even after the departure of two of its most prominent advocates - Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justice Sandra Day O'Connor - the federalism revolution initiated by the Supreme Court almost twenty years ago continues its onward advance. If recent court decisions and congressional legislation are any indication, in fact, it may have reached a new beachhead in the realm of foreign affairs and international law. The emerging federalism in foreign affairs and international law is of a distinct form, however, with distinct implications for the relationship of sub-national, national, and international institutions and interests.

This article - prepared for …


Expectations As Property: Histories, Contexualizations, Critiques, Freya Irani, Katharina Pistor Jan 2018

Expectations As Property: Histories, Contexualizations, Critiques, Freya Irani, Katharina Pistor

Faculty Scholarship

The last four decades have seen an enormous expansion in the number of international investment treaties (particularly bilateral investment treaties) and in investment treaty-based arbitrations and awards. Traditionally made between capital-exporters and capital-importing states (that is, along a North-South axis), such treaties generally assure investors of one signatory state (the "home state") protection on the basis of pre-determined standards in the other signatory state or states (the "host state"). Such treaties also provide for compensation in case of breaches of these standards, and give investors recourse to arbitration in case of disputes. Given these provisions alongside arbitral treaties themselves, in …


Introduction: Center On Human International Commercial Arbitration Symposium: Salient Issues In International Commercial Arbitration, Horacio A Grigera Naon Jun 2017

Introduction: Center On Human International Commercial Arbitration Symposium: Salient Issues In International Commercial Arbitration, Horacio A Grigera Naon

Horacio Grigera Naón

No abstract provided.


Written Testimony Of Gerald S. Dickinson For The U.S. Senate Hearing On Fencing Along The Southwest Border (Senate Committee On Homeland Security And Governmental Affairs), Gerald S. Dickinson Apr 2017

Written Testimony Of Gerald S. Dickinson For The U.S. Senate Hearing On Fencing Along The Southwest Border (Senate Committee On Homeland Security And Governmental Affairs), Gerald S. Dickinson

Testimony

It is with great pleasure that I submit this written testimony at the request of the Office of the Ranking Member, Senator McCaskill. I am pleased that the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee is devoting its April 4, 2017 hearing to an examination of efforts to secure the southwest border through the construction of a wall. Further, as a law professor who writes and teaches in the areas of constitutional property and land use, I take great interest in the committee's focus on the legal authorities related to the wall construction along the U.S.-Mexico border.


Unilateral Executive Power Enshrined In Law: The Zivotofsky Court Stays The Course, Kimberley L. Fletcher Apr 2017

Unilateral Executive Power Enshrined In Law: The Zivotofsky Court Stays The Course, Kimberley L. Fletcher

Northern Illinois University Law Review

Zivotofsky v. Kerry (2015) is the most recent challenge to presidential prerogatives, and while the Supreme Court addresses the erroneous mistake espoused by Justice Sutherland in 1936, the Court ultimately fails to harness the unbridled powers of the Executive in the area of foreign affairs. The Court establishes a new standard for presidential ascendancy, which leaves the imperial president largely intact. This Article shows that a dynamic and fluid institutional relationship exists between the executive branch and the Court; the Court affects constitutional and political development by taking a leading role in interpreting presidential decision-making in the area of foreign …


A Politics-Reinforcing Political Question Doctrine, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2017

A Politics-Reinforcing Political Question Doctrine, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

The modern political question doctrine has long been criticized for shielding the political branches from proper judicial scrutiny and allowing the courts to abdicate their responsibilities. Critics of the doctrine thus cheered when the Supreme Court, in Zivotofsky I, announced a narrowing of the doctrine. Their joy though may have been short-lived. Almost immediately, Zivotofsky II demonstrated the dark side of judicial review of the separation of powers between Congress and the President: deciding separations of powers cases may permanently cut one of the political branches out of certain debates. Judicial scrutiny in a particular case could eliminate political scrutiny …


Harmful, Harmless, And Beneficial Uncertainty In Law, Scott Baker, Alex Raskolnikov Jan 2017

Harmful, Harmless, And Beneficial Uncertainty In Law, Scott Baker, Alex Raskolnikov

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the impact of four types of law-related uncertainty on the utility of risk-neutral agents. We find that greater legal or factual uncertainty makes agents worse off if enforcement is targeted (meaning that greater deviations from what the law demands lead to a greater probability of enforcement), or if sanctions are graduated (meaning that greater deviations from what the law demands result in higher sanctions). In contrast, agents are indifferent to changes in detection uncertainty induced by variation in enforcement resources or to changes in sanction uncertainty arising from legally irrelevant factors. Finally, risk-neutral agents benefit from greater …


War By Legislation: The Constitutionality Of Congressional Regulation Of Detentions In Armed Conflicts, Christopher M. Ford Oct 2016

War By Legislation: The Constitutionality Of Congressional Regulation Of Detentions In Armed Conflicts, Christopher M. Ford

Northwestern University Law Review

In this essay, Ford considers provisions of the 2016 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) which place restrictions on the disposition of detainees held in Guantánamo Bay. These provisions raise substantial separation of powers issues regarding the ability of Congress to restrict detention operations of the Executive. These restrictions, and similar restrictions found in earlier NDAAs, specifically implicate the Executive's powers in foreign affairs and as Commander in Chief. Ford concludes that, with the exception of a similar provision found in the 2013 NDAA, the restrictions are constitutional.


The Political Branches And The Law Of Nations, Bradford R. Clark, Anthony J. Bellia Aug 2016

The Political Branches And The Law Of Nations, Bradford R. Clark, Anthony J. Bellia

Anthony J. Bellia

In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the U.S. Supreme Court went out of its way to follow background rules of the law of nations, particularly the law of state-state relations. As we have recently argued, the Court followed the law of nations because adherence to such law preserved the constitutional prerogatives of the political branches to conduct foreign relations and decide momentous questions of war and peace. Although we focused primarily on the extent to which the Constitution obligated courts to follow the law of nations in the early republic, the explanation we offered rested on an important, …


"Cerd-Ain" Reform: Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline Through More Thorough Coordination Of The Departments Of Justice And Education, Lisa A. Rich Jun 2016

"Cerd-Ain" Reform: Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline Through More Thorough Coordination Of The Departments Of Justice And Education, Lisa A. Rich

Faculty Scholarship

In the last year of his presidency, President Barack Obama and his administration have undertaken many initiatives to ensure that formerly incarcerated individuals have more opportunities to successfully reenter society. At the same time, the administration has been working on education policy that closes the achievement gap and slows the endless flow of juveniles into the school-to-prison pipeline. While certainly laudable, there is much more that can be undertaken collaboratively among executive branch agencies to end the school-to-prison pipeline and the endless cycle of people re-entering the criminal justice system. This paper examines the rise of the school-to-prison pipeline through …


Congress And The Reconstruction Of Foreign Affairs Federalism, Ryan Baasch, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash Jan 2016

Congress And The Reconstruction Of Foreign Affairs Federalism, Ryan Baasch, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash

Michigan Law Review

Though the Constitution conspicuously bars some state involvement in foreign affairs, the states clearly retain some authority in foreign affairs. Correctly supposing that state participation may unnecessarily complicate or embarrass our nation’s foreign relations, the Supreme Court has embraced aggressive preemption doctrines that sporadically oust the states from discrete areas in foreign affairs. These doctrines are unprincipled, supply little guidance, and generate capricious results. Fortunately, there is a better way. While the Constitution permits the states a limited and continuing role, it never goes so far as guaranteeing them any foreign affairs authority. Furthermore, the Constitution authorizes Congress to enact …


Formalism And Distrust: Foreign Affairs Law In The Roberts Court, Harlan G. Cohen May 2015

Formalism And Distrust: Foreign Affairs Law In The Roberts Court, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

When it comes to foreign relations, the Roberts Court has trust issues. As far as the Court is concerned, everyone — the President, Congress, the lower courts, plaintiffs — has played hard and fast with the rules, taking advantage of the Court’s functionalist approaches to foreign affairs issues. This seems to be the message of the RobertsCourt foreign affairs law jurisprudence.

The Roberts Court has been active in foreign affairs law, deciding cases on the detention and trial of enemy combatants, foreign sovereign immunity, the domestic effect of treaties, the extraterritorial reach of federal statutes, the preemption of state laws, …


The Future Of The Foreign Commerce Clause, Scott Sullivan Mar 2015

The Future Of The Foreign Commerce Clause, Scott Sullivan

Fordham Law Review

The Foreign Commerce Clause has been lost, subsumed by its interstate cousin, and overshadowed in foreign relations by the treaty power. Consistent with its original purpose and the implied, but unrefined view asserted by the judiciary, this Article articulates a broader and deeper Foreign Commerce power than is popularly understood. It reframes doctrinal considerations for a reinvigorated Foreign Commerce Clause—both as an independent power and in alliance with other coordinate foreign affairs powers—and demonstrates that increasing global complexity and interdependence makes broad and deep federal authority under this power crucial to effective and efficient action in matters of national concern.


The President, The Congress, And The Panama Canal: An Essay On The Powers Of The Executive And Legislative Branches In The Field Of Foreign Affairs, Griffin B. Bell, H. Miles Foy Feb 2015

The President, The Congress, And The Panama Canal: An Essay On The Powers Of The Executive And Legislative Branches In The Field Of Foreign Affairs, Griffin B. Bell, H. Miles Foy

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Formalism And Distrust: Foreign Affairs Law In The Roberts Court,, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2015

Formalism And Distrust: Foreign Affairs Law In The Roberts Court,, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

When it comes to foreign relations, the Roberts Court has trust issues. As far as the Court is concerned, everyone — the President, Congress, the lower courts, plaintiffs — has played hard and fast with the rules, taking advantage of the Court’s functionalist approaches to foreign affairs issues. This seems to be the message of the Roberts Court foreign affairs law jurisprudence. The Roberts Court has been active in foreign affairs law, deciding cases on the detention and trial of enemy combatants, foreign sovereign immunity, the domestic effect of treaties, the extraterritorial reach of federal statutes, the preemption of state …


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson Jan 2015

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law, Kristina Daugirdas, Julian Davis Mortenson

Articles

In this section: United States Objects to Russia’s Continued Violations of Ukraine’s Territorial Sovereignty, Including by Convoys Purporting to Provide Humanitarian Aid • United States and Afghanistan Sign Bilateral Security Agreement • United States Announces “Changes and Confirmations” in Its Interpretation of the UNConvention Against Torture • United States and China Make Joint Announcement to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Bolstering Multilateral Climate Change Negotiations • United States Deepens Its Engagement with ISIL Conflict • NATO Affirms that Cyber Attacks May Trigger Collective Defense Obligations


The Abiding Exceptionalism Of Foreign Relations Doctrine, Carlos Manuel Vázquez Jan 2015

The Abiding Exceptionalism Of Foreign Relations Doctrine, Carlos Manuel Vázquez

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In their article The Normalization of Foreign Relations Law, Professors Ganesh Sitaraman and Ingrid Wuerth argue that “[foreign affairs] exceptionalism . . . is now exceptional,” and that this is a good thing. I agree with much of the authors’ normative argument for “normalization” of foreign affairs doctrine (as they define the term). But the authors overstate the extent to which such normalization has already occurred. There have indeed been some recent Supreme Court decisions that seem to lack the exceptional deference to the Executive that had characterized judicial decisionmaking in the foreign affairs area in previous years. But foreign …


Supremacy Of The Supremacy Clause: A Garamendi-Based Framework For Assessing State Law That Intersects With U.S. Foreign Policy, Alexandria R. Strauss Oct 2014

Supremacy Of The Supremacy Clause: A Garamendi-Based Framework For Assessing State Law That Intersects With U.S. Foreign Policy, Alexandria R. Strauss

Fordham Law Review

State and local governments across the United States increasingly act in areas that intersect with foreign policy. Federalism concerns and U.S. foreign relations are thus in constant tension.
In American Insurance Ass’n v. Garamendi, the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003 both expanded and detracted from where states and localities may permissibly act in areas that touch upon foreign affairs. This Note works within the confines of Garamendi to outline four distinct categories of state action that might intersect with foreign relations. It discusses how lower courts, namely the Ninth Circuit, the Eleventh Circuit, and the Northern District of Illinois, …