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First Amendment

2006

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Full-Text Articles in Law

You Said What? The Perils Of Content-Based Regulation Of Public Broadcast Underwriting Acknowledgments, Andrew D. Cotlar Dec 2006

You Said What? The Perils Of Content-Based Regulation Of Public Broadcast Underwriting Acknowledgments, Andrew D. Cotlar

Federal Communications Law Journal

Public broadcast stations in the United States are forbidden to air promotional announcements in exchange for payment from commercial entities. However, these stations must acknowledge any financial contribution from donors that support particular programs without promoting the goods and services offered by those donors. While the FCC has attempted to maintain the conceptual distinction between promotional and nonpromotional information, it has struggled to apply this distinction within the context of an evolution in advertising practice.

As a result, many noncommercial educational licensees find it difficult to apply the FCC's rules. A careful analysis of how the FCC underwriting determinations yields …


The First Amendment Versus Operational Security: Where Should The Milblogging Balance Lie?, Katherine C. Den Bleyker Dec 2006

The First Amendment Versus Operational Security: Where Should The Milblogging Balance Lie?, Katherine C. Den Bleyker

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Censorship By Proxy: The First Amendment, Internet Intermediaries, And The Problem Of The Weakest Link, Seth F. Kreimer Nov 2006

Censorship By Proxy: The First Amendment, Internet Intermediaries, And The Problem Of The Weakest Link, Seth F. Kreimer

All Faculty Scholarship

The rise of the Internet has changed the First Amendment drama, for governments confront technical and political obstacles to sanctioning either speakers or listeners in cyberspace. Faced with these challenges, regulators have fallen back on alternatives, predicated on the fact that, in contrast to the usual free expression scenario, the Internet is not dyadic. The Internet's resistance to direct regulation of speakers and listeners rests on a complex chain of connections, and emerging regulatory mechanisms have begun to focus on the weak links in that chain. Rather than attacking speakers or listeners directly, governments have sought to enlist private actors …


The Supreme Court Report 2005-06, Julie M. Cheslik, Jamie Landes, Leah Pollema, Michael Shelton Oct 2006

The Supreme Court Report 2005-06, Julie M. Cheslik, Jamie Landes, Leah Pollema, Michael Shelton

Faculty Works

This article reviews the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court for the 2005-2006 term focusing on decisions of particular relevance to state and local government. The Court's 2005-06 Term began with much speculation as one, then a second new Justice joined the Court. After the close of the 2004-05 Term, the Court suffered the loss of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who succumbed to the thyroid cancer that had plagued him during that Term. President Bush ultimately replaced him with Judge John G. Roberts, who began the new Term and authored his fi rst opinion, the traditional 9-0 opinion of a …


If You Work For The Government, Then Shut Your Mouth: Garcetti V. Ceballos And The Future Of Public Employee Speech, Joseph E. Hardgrave Aug 2006

If You Work For The Government, Then Shut Your Mouth: Garcetti V. Ceballos And The Future Of Public Employee Speech, Joseph E. Hardgrave

ExpressO

This article dismantles the majority's reasoning in Garcetti v. Ceballos. A theory is proposed to why the Court broke with prior precedence and the sweeping effect of the ambigous holding is examined.


Coercing Adults: The Fourth Circuit And The Acceptability Of Religious Expression In Government Settings, Elizabeth B. Halligan Jul 2006

Coercing Adults: The Fourth Circuit And The Acceptability Of Religious Expression In Government Settings, Elizabeth B. Halligan

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Access To Audiences As A First Amendment Right: Its Relevance And Implications For Electronic Media Policy, Philip M. Napoli, Sheea T. Sybblis Jun 2006

Access To Audiences As A First Amendment Right: Its Relevance And Implications For Electronic Media Policy, Philip M. Napoli, Sheea T. Sybblis

ExpressO

When the issue of speakers’ rights of access arises in media regulation and policy contexts, the focus typically is on the concept of speakers’ rights of access “to the media,” or “to the press.” This right usually is premised on the audience’s need for access to diverse sources and content. In contrast, in many non-mediated contexts, the concept of speakers’ rights of access frequently is defined in terms of the speaker’s own First Amendment right of access to audiences. This paper explores the important distinctions between these differing interpretations of a speaker’s access rights and argues that the concept of …


"Lewd And Immoral": Nude Dancing, Sexual Expression, And The First Amendment, Kevin Case Jun 2006

"Lewd And Immoral": Nude Dancing, Sexual Expression, And The First Amendment, Kevin Case

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Nude dancing is a particularly awkward fit with the First Amendment. Should the Constitution protect this kind of "speech?" The question has vexed the Supreme Court. While most of the Court has agreed that nude dancing falls within the First Amendment, plurality opinions relegate nude dancing to the "outer ambit" of shielded speech, setting forth confusing and ultimately unsustainable legal tests.

This Note contends that nude dancing can convey powerful and particularized erotic messages of sexual desire, availability, and appreciation of the nude female form. It is not mere "conduct." Moreover, arguments for categorizing nude dancing as "low value" speech, …


Does The First Amendment's Freedom Of The Press Clause Place The Institutional Media Above The Law Of Classified Secrets?, John Eastman May 2006

Does The First Amendment's Freedom Of The Press Clause Place The Institutional Media Above The Law Of Classified Secrets?, John Eastman

John C. Eastman

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, contending that Section 798 of the Espionage Act, prohibiting the publication of classified information regarding U.S. communications capabilities, can constitutionally be applied to the media, for several reasons: 1) A majority of the Justices in the Pentagon Papers case recognized that prior restraints on publication of highly sensitive, classified information regarding ongoing military and communications operations would be permissible; 2) The prospect of post-publication liability for violating the Espionage Act was also recognized by a majority of the Justices; and 3) The Freedom of Press Clause of the …


The Clear And Present Danger Test In Anglo-American And European Law, David G. Barnum May 2006

The Clear And Present Danger Test In Anglo-American And European Law, David G. Barnum

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article will examine the role that the danger test has played in the decisions of American courts and, more recently, in the decisions of British courts and the enforcement organs of the European Convention. Part I will briefly trace the immediate Anglo-American constitutional background from which the danger test emerged. It particular, it will examine the way in which the common law offense of seditious libel was defined by British judges and judicial commentators in the late nineteenth century. Part II will focus on the evolution in American law of judicial attempts to articulate both a "content-based" and an …


Testimony Before The House Committee On Veterans' Affairs, Subcommittee On Disability Assistance And Memorial Affairs, In Support Of H.R. 5037, The "Respect For America's Fallen Heroes Act,", David Forte Apr 2006

Testimony Before The House Committee On Veterans' Affairs, Subcommittee On Disability Assistance And Memorial Affairs, In Support Of H.R. 5037, The "Respect For America's Fallen Heroes Act,", David Forte

Law Faculty Presentations and Testimony

H.R. 5037, entitled the ”Respect for America's Fallen Heroes Act,” seeks to limit ”certain demonstrations” in cemeteries under the control of the National Cemetery Administration or on the property of Arlington National Cemetery. The bill defines what constitutes a demonstration disruptive of the memorial services or funerals being held in or within 500 feet of such cemeteries, but allows an exception for demonstrations on cemetery grounds if ” approved by the cemetery superintendent.” There are thus two constitutional issues to be confronted: (1) Does the ban on ”certain” demonstrations meet the requirements of First Amendment law as laid down in …


Regulating Food Advertisements: Some First Amendment Issues, John M. A. Dipippa Apr 2006

Regulating Food Advertisements: Some First Amendment Issues, John M. A. Dipippa

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Dignity - The Enemy From Within, Guy E. Carmi Mar 2006

Dignity - The Enemy From Within, Guy E. Carmi

ExpressO

The manuscript challenges the use of human dignity as an independent free speech justification. The articulation of free speech in human dignity terms carries unwarranted potential consequences that may result in limiting free speech rather than protecting it. This possible outcome makes human dignity inadequate as a free speech justification.

The manuscript also demonstrates why articulations of the rationales behind the “argument from dignity” are either superfluous, since they are aptly covered by the “argument from autonomy,” or simply too broad and speech-restrictive to be considered a free speech justification. As a matter of principle, the nexus between freedom of …


Against Freedom Of Commercial Expression, Tamara R. Piety Mar 2006

Against Freedom Of Commercial Expression, Tamara R. Piety

ExpressO

An article that announces itself in the title as “against freedom” has a heavy burden of persuasion to carry. At this time and in this place, it seems almost un-American to be “against freedom,” (however much our civil liberties have in fact been circumscribed in recent years). Nevertheless, the most significant word in the title is not “against” or “freedom,” but “commercial.” Conventional wisdom in the First Amendment area would have it that there is no meaningful basis on which to distinguish between commercial speech and other speech for purposes of the First Amendment. And in recent years the courts …


Can Commercial Corporations Engage In Non-Commercial Speech?, Tom Bennigson Feb 2006

Can Commercial Corporations Engage In Non-Commercial Speech?, Tom Bennigson

ExpressO

I argue that all speech by commercial corporations, regardless of content, should be classified as “commercial speech,” a category not protected as fully as speech closer to the core of First Amendment concerns. Although this position is not currently accepted, surprisingly, it is supported by various aspects of accepted legal doctrine.

After a short critical introduction to commercial speech doctrine, I argue briefly that the legal requirement that all corporate activity be directed toward profit entails that all authorized corporate speech must be commercial in a significant sense. The principal part of the paper then surveys the First Amendment interests …


"You Can't Wear That To Vote": The Constitutionality Of State Laws Prohibiting The Wearing Of Political Message Buttons, Kimberly J. Tucker Feb 2006

"You Can't Wear That To Vote": The Constitutionality Of State Laws Prohibiting The Wearing Of Political Message Buttons, Kimberly J. Tucker

ExpressO

My research for this article began on Election Day 2004 when I was told that I could not wear a campaign button into the polling room while voting in Virginia. The article outlines the laws of all 50 states that restrict a voter’s right to speak in and around polling places. It focuses on the 10 states that explicitly prohibit a voter from wearing “buttons” to the polls.


Equal Protection In The World Of Art And Obscenity: The Art Photographer's Latent Struggle With Obscenity Standards In Contemporary America, Elaine P. Wang Feb 2006

Equal Protection In The World Of Art And Obscenity: The Art Photographer's Latent Struggle With Obscenity Standards In Contemporary America, Elaine P. Wang

ExpressO

In the realm of obscenity law in the United States, photography as an art form is not on equal footing with more traditional art forms such as painting, drawing, and sculpture. This is a latent dilemma for artistic photographers because the law itself – in the form of state obscenity laws and the Supreme Court’s three-pronged test in Miller v. California – does not explicitly set forth varied standards of obscenity based on artistic medium. However, given the marginalization of photography in art history, there exists a bias against photography as “serious art.” Furthermore, evidence of the differential treatment of …


Circular 230 Opinion Standards, Legal Ethics And First Amendment Limitations On The Regulation Of Professional Speech By Lawyers, David T. Moldenhauer Feb 2006

Circular 230 Opinion Standards, Legal Ethics And First Amendment Limitations On The Regulation Of Professional Speech By Lawyers, David T. Moldenhauer

ExpressO

This article addresses the legal ethics and First Amendment implications of recent Treasury Department regulations governing legal opinions on tax-motivated transactions. As discussed in the article, the regulations are intended to address the significant policy and budgetary issue of practitioners’ involvement in the development, marketing and encouragement of abusive tax shelters. However, the article concludes that the regulations are in many respects an inappropriate response to these problems because their prohibitions prevent a lawyer from giving taxpayers a complete, informed assessment of their rights. As such, they create significant ethical conflicts and deny the public legal advice. More generally, they …


The Suffocation Of Free Speech Under The Gravity Of Danger Of Terrorism, Tim Davis Feb 2006

The Suffocation Of Free Speech Under The Gravity Of Danger Of Terrorism, Tim Davis

ExpressO

On July 14, 2005, Ali al-Timimi was sentenced to life in prison plus 70 years for acts of pure speech. The United States government contended that Timimi, through his lectures and direct personal appeals, induced and/or aided and abetted local Muslim men to leave the country and pursue jihad training with the intent to defend the Taliban against all potential enemies, including the United States. Buried in nearly 200 pages of jury instructions was a single paragraph that unceremoniously described the law of protected speech under Brandenburg v. Ohio. At first blush, Brandenburg seemed to unequivocally lay down the rule …


Fair Use And The First Amendment: Corporate Control Of Copyright Is Stifling Documentary Making And Thwarting The Aims Of The First Amendment, Paige Gold Feb 2006

Fair Use And The First Amendment: Corporate Control Of Copyright Is Stifling Documentary Making And Thwarting The Aims Of The First Amendment, Paige Gold

ExpressO

Documentary motion pictures constitute a crucial part of contemporary public debate, because in today’s highly consolidated mass media environment, documentaries offer the kinds of independent voices that the First Amendment was designed to protect. However, current intellectual property practices are chilling speech by forcing documentary filmmakers to tailor their films to accommodate new, strict licensing practices. When filmmakers are compelled to edit their work to meet insurance requirements, it harms the interests of not just the filmmaker, but also the public. Thus, the “clearance culture,” in which anything and everything that could possibly lead to a lawsuit must be cleared, …


Religious Liberty And The Law, Stephen Wermiel Jan 2006

Religious Liberty And The Law, Stephen Wermiel

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Limited Powers In The Looking-Glass: Otiose Textualism, And An Empirical Analysis Of Other Approaches, When Activitists In Private Shopping Centers Claim State Constitutional Liberties, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jan 2006

Limited Powers In The Looking-Glass: Otiose Textualism, And An Empirical Analysis Of Other Approaches, When Activitists In Private Shopping Centers Claim State Constitutional Liberties, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Faculty Publications

This article examines closely a narrow range of highly factually analogous cases, in which state constitutional rights are asserted despite a clear lack of entitlement to assert any federal constitutional claim. Specifically, the cases selected are those in which private persons assert a right to conduct expressive activity, including electoral activity, in private shopping centers during hours when the properties are held open to the general public. These cases may be referred to colloquially as “the mall cases.” Selected here are only those which were decided after the federal question became clear. The Article first inquires into the role of …


Traditional Values Or New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson Jan 2006

Traditional Values Or New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson

Eric Alan Isaacson

President William Howard Taft, a Unitarian leader whose liberal faith had been viciously attacked by religious conservatives in the 1908 presidential campaign, used the White House as a platform in 1911 to launch a new nonsectarian organization for youth: The Boy Scouts of America (“BSA”). Lately, however, the BSA itself has come under the control of religious conservatives – who in 1992 banned Taft’s denomination from the BSA’s Religious Relationships Committee, and in 1998 threw Taft’s denomination out of its Religious Emblems Program. The denomination’s offense: A tradition of teaching its children that institutionalized discrimination is wrong. Unitarian Universalist religious …


God And Caesar In The Twenty-First Century: What Recent Cases Say About Church-State Relations In England And The United States , Judith Fischer, Chloe Wallace Jan 2006

God And Caesar In The Twenty-First Century: What Recent Cases Say About Church-State Relations In England And The United States , Judith Fischer, Chloe Wallace

Judith D. Fischer

This article analyzes current jurisprudence concerning the relationship of church and state in the U.S. and England, with special attention to the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decisions in the Ten Commandments cases. The co-authors, law professors from the United States and the United Kingdom, present background about the history of religious establishment and church-state jurisprudence in the two countries. They then discuss the effects of each country’s recent cases on the subject. The authors conclude that the two countries are moving closer to each other on the continuum between establishment and disestablishment.


On Boy Scouts And Anti-Discrimination Law: The Associational Rights Of Quasi-Religious Organizations, Erez Reuveni Jan 2006

On Boy Scouts And Anti-Discrimination Law: The Associational Rights Of Quasi-Religious Organizations, Erez Reuveni

Erez Reuveni

This paper proposes a tripartite legal approach to analyzing the rights of private, expressive associations. Current law views private associations through a binary lens - either an organization is "religious," or it is "secular." But this dichotomy fails to account for organizations whose animating expressive purpose is both religious and secular. Using the Boy Scouts of America as a case study, this paper develops a third category of private associations, quasi-religious groups, and articulates why the category is necessary and how quasi-religious groups would fit within existing First Amendment jurisprudence. First, the article reviews numerous cases involving the Boy Scouts …


Rankings, Reductionism, And Responsibility, Frank Pasquale Jan 2006

Rankings, Reductionism, And Responsibility, Frank Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

After discussing how search engines operate, and sketching a normative basis for regulation of the rankings they generate, this piece proposes some minor, non-intrusive legal remedies for those who claim that they are harmed by search engine results. Such harms include unwanted (but high-ranking) results relating to them, or exclusion from high-ranking results they claim they are due to appear on. In the first case (deemed inclusion harm), I propose a right not to suppress the results, but merely to add an asterisk to the hyperlink directing web users to them, which would lead to the complainant's own comment on …


Lawyer Advertising And The Dignity Of The Profession, Rodney A. Smolla Jan 2006

Lawyer Advertising And The Dignity Of The Profession, Rodney A. Smolla

Scholarly Articles

None available.


Leave Those Kids Alone: Why The First Amendment Does Not Protect The Boy Scouts Of America In Its Discrimination Against Gay Youth Members, Sean Griffith Jan 2006

Leave Those Kids Alone: Why The First Amendment Does Not Protect The Boy Scouts Of America In Its Discrimination Against Gay Youth Members, Sean Griffith

The Modern American

No abstract provided.


Between A Man And His God: Violating The First Amendment Through Compelled Behavior Modification, Charles Davis Jan 2006

Between A Man And His God: Violating The First Amendment Through Compelled Behavior Modification, Charles Davis

Seattle University Law Review

Part II of this Note discusses the facts leading up to Boone v. State and the First Amendment arguments raised by Boone. Part III offers a brief historical perspective on religion in the American legal system, emphasizing specific developments relevant to Boone's case. Part IV analyzes the court's fatally flawed analysis, and Part V addresses the ramifications of the holding and offers some suggestions.


Justice Stevens, Religious Freedom, And The Value Of Equal Membership, Christopher L. Eisgruber Jan 2006

Justice Stevens, Religious Freedom, And The Value Of Equal Membership, Christopher L. Eisgruber

Fordham Law Review

No abstract provided.