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Full-Text Articles in Law

Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina Dec 2014

Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina

Michigan Law Review

For the average investor trying to save for retirement or a child’s college fund, the world of investing has become increasingly complex. These retail investors must turn more frequently to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisers, to get sound investment advice. Such intermediaries perform different duties for their clients, however. The investment adviser owes his client a fiduciary duty of care and therefore must provide financial advice that is in the client’s best interests, while the broker-dealer must merely provide advice that is suitable to the client’s interests—a lower standard than the fiduciary duty of care. And yet …


Directorial Fiduciary Duties In A Tracking Stock Equity Structure: The Need For A Duty Of Fairness, Jeffrey J. Hass Jun 1996

Directorial Fiduciary Duties In A Tracking Stock Equity Structure: The Need For A Duty Of Fairness, Jeffrey J. Hass

Michigan Law Review

Part I of this article briefly describes the key distinctions between a tracking stock corporation and a conventional corporation. It then touches on the reasons why corporations have adopted tracking stock equity structures. Part II articulates the unique legal challenges presented by a tracking stock equity structure. Part III discusses the disclosure that tracking stock corporations have made with respect to these challenges. Part IV briefly summarizes the fiduciary duties of care and loyalty and explores why these duties are ill-equipped to address these challenges. Part V presents the duty of fairness and discusses the duty's elements in detail. In …


When It’S Ok To Sell The Monet: A Trustee-Fiduciary-Duty Framework For Analyzing The Deaccessioning Of Art To Meet Museum Operating Expenses, Jennifer L. White Feb 1996

When It’S Ok To Sell The Monet: A Trustee-Fiduciary-Duty Framework For Analyzing The Deaccessioning Of Art To Meet Museum Operating Expenses, Jennifer L. White

Michigan Law Review

Contrary to the view adopted by current codes of ethics, this Note argues that courts should approve a museum director's use of proceeds from the sale of deaccessioned art to meet operating expenses if the director's conduct comports with the duties of trustees under the law of trusts. Part I explores possible organizational structures for museums, including the charitable trust and the nonprofit corporation. Part I also compares the fiduciary duties of museum managers under trust and corporate law. Part II argues that courts should apply trust-law principles both to trustees of charitable trusts and directors of charitable corporations26 because …


Corporate Auctions And Directors' Fiduciary Duties: A Third-Generation Business Judgment Rule, Steven G. Bradbury Oct 1988

Corporate Auctions And Directors' Fiduciary Duties: A Third-Generation Business Judgment Rule, Steven G. Bradbury

Michigan Law Review

This Note proposes a rationale and a methodology for applying the business judgment rule when directors resist a hostile bid during the auction phase of a control contest. Part I examines the changes that occur in the responsibilities of target directors when a corporate auction is initiated. This Part describes the Unocal business judgment rule test and discusses its usefulness in the auction phase of a takeover. While the test requires modification if it is to complement effectively the auction-phase duties announced in Revlon, this Part suggests that the business judgment rule continues to be relevant and important during …


Shareholders Versus Managers: The Strain In The Corporate Web, John C. Coffee Jr. Oct 1986

Shareholders Versus Managers: The Strain In The Corporate Web, John C. Coffee Jr.

Michigan Law Review

Part I will seek to understand why firms trade in the stock market at a substantial discount from their asset value. It will answer that existing theories of the firm have not given adequate attention to a critical area where shareholders and managers have an inherent conflict, one that the existing structure of the firm does not resolve or mitigate. Despite the significant changes in the internal structure of the corporation over the last half century that have been described by business historians, there remains a deep internal strain between shareholders, on the one hand, and managers and employees, on …


Punitive Surcharges Against Disloyal Fiduciaries--Is Rothko Right?, Richard V. Wellman Nov 1978

Punitive Surcharges Against Disloyal Fiduciaries--Is Rothko Right?, Richard V. Wellman

Michigan Law Review

This Article criticizes the award of a penalty surcharge in the name of appreciation damages. Contrary to the statements in the Rothko opinions, neither precedent nor treatises offers clear support for the shocking awards made against Rothko's disloyal executors. Furthermore, even if appreciation damages were to be viewed, against the thesis here advanced, as an appropriate remedy for some kinds of fiduciary breach, the measure is inappropriate for cases which, like Rothko, involve hidden conflicts of interest. This is so because the threat of severe penalties in hidden-conflict cases adds unacceptable legal costs to honest administrations-costs that cannot be …


The Classification Of Some Powers Of Appointment, Joseph Gold Jan 1942

The Classification Of Some Powers Of Appointment, Joseph Gold

Michigan Law Review

Many problems involving powers of appointment depend for their solution on the classification of the power in question as general or special. It is now clearly established in English law and in most American jurisdictions that this classification depends on the persons to whom an appointment may be made. The fact that the power is exercisable on a contingency or in a specified manner does not affect the character of the power. Nor is it relevant for the purpose of classification that the power permits the appointment of a limited interest only. A general power is usually said to be …


Bankruptcy -Trustee's Liability - Effect Of Requirement Of Deposit In Designated Depositary On Trustee's Common Law Duty Of Due Care, Russel T. Walker Jun 1939

Bankruptcy -Trustee's Liability - Effect Of Requirement Of Deposit In Designated Depositary On Trustee's Common Law Duty Of Due Care, Russel T. Walker

Michigan Law Review

In a suit to charge a trustee in bankruptcy for the loss of funds of the bankrupt estate caused by insolvency of the depositary bank, the trustee contended that as he had fulfilled the requirement of section 61 of the Bankruptcy Act by depositing the funds of the estate in a "designated depositary," he could not be charged with liability for any loss occurring thereafter; he argued that section 61 repealed, by implication, the trustee's common-law duty of due care in the handling of estate funds after they were deposited in a "designated depositary." Held, the fact that the …


Corporations - Ratification Of Unauthorized Withdrawal Of Funds By An Officer Of A Corporation, Walter Probst Jr. May 1937

Corporations - Ratification Of Unauthorized Withdrawal Of Funds By An Officer Of A Corporation, Walter Probst Jr.

Michigan Law Review

The president of a corporation withdrew funds from the corporation with which to purchase stock for his own personal benefit. He used this money so as to save the brokerage cost of his securities. A great deal of the money was repaid a few days after its withdrawal. The board of directors, discovering these activities, approved all past actions and present loans of the president. Held, the attempted ratification by the board of directors did not relieve the president from his duty of accounting for the profits realized on the stock purchased with the funds, since there had not …


Corporations - Duty Of Director To Stockholder On Stock Exchange Sales Mar 1934

Corporations - Duty Of Director To Stockholder On Stock Exchange Sales

Michigan Law Review

The recent case of Goodwin v. Agassiz presents the problem of the duty owed by a director to existing and prospective stockholders in its most typical and difficult form. The defendants were president and general manager, respectively, as well as directors of the Cliff Mining Corporation which owned mineral lands in Northern Michigan. The stock of the corporation was listed on the Boston Stock Exchange. The defendants in their capacity of directors had knowledge of a geologist's report which forecast possible existence of copper deposits in the corporation's lands. The defendants were also directors of another mining corporation owning lands …


Banks And Banking - Misappropriation Of Trust Funds - Liability Of Bank Apr 1932

Banks And Banking - Misappropriation Of Trust Funds - Liability Of Bank

Michigan Law Review

Committee for incompetent deposited checks payable to him as such committee in the defendant bank to the credit of his individual account. The committee's account was entirely dissipated, but, so far as the facts appear in the opinion, the defendant bank at no time had any knowledge of the use to which the money was put. The committee was removed and the substituted committee sued the defendant bank for aiding the original committee in the diversion of the funds. Held, that it was the duty of the defendant bank to inquire whether the committee had authority to deposit the …


Trusts-Duty Of The Trustee To Sell Stock In A Falling Market Mar 1932

Trusts-Duty Of The Trustee To Sell Stock In A Falling Market

Michigan Law Review

Securities were turned over to defendant as trustee, among which were issues of common stock in two sugar companies, under the direction that the trustees were authorized to continue all investments of the testator without any personal liability in doing so. In the executor's accounting the stocks were valued per share at $22 and $12.25 respectively. In the present accounting, instituted by the beneficiary on becoming entitled to the corpus of the trust estate, the stocks had fallen to $7 and $.50 respectively. The trust company was experienced in the handling of securities and its officers were advised not to …


Public Officers - When Do They Owe A Duty To A Particular Individual Rather Than A Class? Mar 1932

Public Officers - When Do They Owe A Duty To A Particular Individual Rather Than A Class?

Michigan Law Review

The plaintiff, a stockholder in the Bank of the United States, sued the defendant, superintendent of banks for New York State, for losses sustained when the bank failed as a result of the defendant's failure to perform certain acts required by statute. Held, the defendant, being charged by statute with a duty to all the people of the state, owed no duty to the stockholders as individuals, and was not liable to the plaintiff. Walker v. Broderick, 252 N. Y. S. 559 (1931).


Corporations-Basis For Preemptive Rights Nov 1930

Corporations-Basis For Preemptive Rights

Michigan Law Review

Defendant corporation's authorized capital stock consisted of 800 shares of common stock, 76 shares of which remained unissued. Over the objection of the plaintiff, the directors of the corporation authorized the issue of 50 shares of the 76 to a salesman in satisfaction of a debt due him from the corporation, the remaining 26 shares to one of the directors for cash with which to meet corporate indebtedness. No contest for corporate control was afoot. No opportunity was given to the shareholders generally to purchase such shares. Later the faction of the individual defendants to whom said 26 shares had …


Some Legal Problems Connected With Stock Market Transactions, S. Ashley Guthrie, Henry F. Tenney Nov 1930

Some Legal Problems Connected With Stock Market Transactions, S. Ashley Guthrie, Henry F. Tenney

Michigan Law Review

If any one were asked what was the most dramatic event of the last year, he probably refer at once to the collapse of the great Bull Market on the New York Stock Exchange. This was not only a dramatic event, but it was literally a tragedy for hundreds of thousands of people. Securities shrank to less than half their former inflated values and hundreds of millions of dollars in cash and paper profits were lost over night, or possibly we should say over two nights, for the crash occurred in two stages, one in October and one in November, …