Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Federalism

2008

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 70

Full-Text Articles in Law

Spending Clause Litigation In The Roberts Court, Samuel R. Bagenstos Dec 2008

Spending Clause Litigation In The Roberts Court, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Duke Law Journal

Throughout the Rehnquist Court's so-called federalism revolution, as the Court cut back on federal power tinder Article I and the Civil War Amendments, many commentators asserted that the spending power was next to go on the chopping block. But in the last years of the Rehnquist Court, a majority of Justices seemed to abandon the federalism revolution, and in the end, the Rehnquist Court never got around to limiting Congress's power tinder the Spending Clause. This Article contends that it is wrong to expect the Roberts Court to be so charitable about Congress's exercise of the spending power. But the …


Federalism And Horizontality In International Human Rights , Margaret E. Mcguinness Nov 2008

Federalism And Horizontality In International Human Rights , Margaret E. Mcguinness

Missouri Law Review

The advent of the international human rights system is one of the many changes to international law since the time Missouri v. Holland was decided. As other contributions to this symposium note, one of the challenging federalism questions raised by Holland in this new era is the effect of international human rights treaties and emerging customary international human rights law on U.S. states. And just as the creation of the international human rights regime has affected domestic analysis of federalism, the international human rights system has itself adjusted to the processes of federalism. The human rights regime is largely structured …


Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh Nov 2008

Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh

Missouri Law Review

Even after the departure of two of its most prominent advocates - Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justice Sandra Day O'Connor - the federalism revolution initiated by the Supreme Court almost twenty years ago continues its onward advance. If recent court decisions and congressional legislation are any indication, in fact, it may have reached a new beachhead in the realm of foreign affairs and international law. The emerging federalism in foreign affairs and international law is of a distinct form, however, with distinct implications for the relationship of sub-national, national, and international institutions and interests. This article draws on the …


Federalism And International Law Through The Lens Of Legal Pluralism, Paul Schiff Berman Nov 2008

Federalism And International Law Through The Lens Of Legal Pluralism, Paul Schiff Berman

Missouri Law Review

In this brief Essay, then, I wish to engage in a thought experiment by looking at both federalism and international law through a pluralist rather than a sovereigntist lens. First, I summarize the pluralist literature and some of its core insights and suggest that scholars interested in international law (and its relationship with domestic law) would do well to consider this literature. Second, I provide a few examples of jurisdictional redundancy operating in the transnational, international, and federalist realm and show how the existence of multiple fora can both empower voices that might otherwise be silenced and effect changes of …


"The Threes": Re-Imagining Supreme Court Decisionmaking, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie Nov 2008

"The Threes": Re-Imagining Supreme Court Decisionmaking, Tracey E. George, Chris Guthrie

Vanderbilt Law Review

Article III is odd. In contrast to Articles 12 and II, which specify in some detail how the legislative and executive branches are to be assembled, Article III says virtually nothing about the institutional design of the Supreme Court.

Consistent with this Constitutional silence, the Court's look, shape, and behavior have adapted to changed circumstances. For example, the Court's membership has changed substantially. Initially, six Justices sat on the Court; in time, the Court grew to ten and shrank to seven. Only in 1869 did it settle at nine. Likewise, the Court's jurisdiction has changed, first expanding, then contracting, and …


Foreword, Margaret E. Mcguinness Nov 2008

Foreword, Margaret E. Mcguinness

Missouri Law Review

Columbia, Missouri is a fitting venue at which to continue the conversation about Missouri v. Holland and explore the intersection of law-making at the international, national and sub-national levels. This symposium revisits the debate over national and local control over foreign affairs and brings together the constitutional doctrinal discussion and accounts of the globalization of regulation that consider the complexity of influences operating within and between multiple systems of law. Both the factual background of Holland (primarily a case about environmental regulation) and the doctrinal context in which it arose (a Supreme Court poised to move toward constitutional endorsement of …


What Story Got Wrong - Federalism, Localist Opportunism And International Law, Paul B. Stephan Nov 2008

What Story Got Wrong - Federalism, Localist Opportunism And International Law, Paul B. Stephan

Missouri Law Review

I first explain the theoretical underpinning of the argument against the inevitability of localist opportunism. I then illustrate the general theory with three examples where the international obligations of the United States can be met without the strong federal supervision that Story deemed necessary and that latter-day nationalists embrace. I first discuss the body of law that was the subject of Swift v. Tyson, namely the rules governing negotiable instruments. Story thought that developing a federal common law was necessary to thwart idiosyncratic, and presumably opportunistic, state decisions. Yet both before and after the overthrow of Swift v. Tyson in …


Internationalism Of American Federalism: Missouri And Holland, The, Judith Resnik Nov 2008

Internationalism Of American Federalism: Missouri And Holland, The, Judith Resnik

Missouri Law Review

This Earl F. Nelson Lecture, given at the University of Missouri School of Law's Symposium, Return to Missouri v. Holland: Federalism and International Law, developed from and overlaps with a series of articles including Ratifying Kyoto at the Local Level: Sovereigntism, Federalism, and Translocal Organizations of Government Actors (TOGAs), 50 ARIZ. L. REV. 709 (2008) (with Joshua Civin and Joseph Frueh); Lessons in Federalism from the 1960s Class Action Rule and the 2005 Class Action Fairness Act: "The Political Safeguards'" ofAggregate Translocal Actions, 156 U. PA. L. REv. 1929 (2008); Law as Affiliation: "Foreign " Law, Democratic Federalism, and the …


The Unconscionability Game: Strategic Judging And The Development Of Federal Arbitration Law, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl Nov 2008

The Unconscionability Game: Strategic Judging And The Development Of Federal Arbitration Law, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl

Faculty Publications

This Article uses recent developments in the enforcement of arbitration agreements to illustrate one way in which strategic dynamics can drive doctrinal change. In a fairly short period of time, arbitration has grown from a method of resolving disputes between sophisticated business entities into a phenomenon that pervades the contemporary economy. The United States Supreme Court has encouraged this transformation through expansive interpretations of the Federal Arbitration Act. But not all courts have embraced arbitration so fervently, and therefore case law in this area is marked by tension and conflict. The thesis of this Article is that we can better …


Liberty, Liberalism And Neutrality: Labor Preemption And First Amendment Values, Harry G. Hutchison Oct 2008

Liberty, Liberalism And Neutrality: Labor Preemption And First Amendment Values, Harry G. Hutchison

Harry G. Hutchison

In Chamber of Commerce et al v. Edmund G. Brown, the Supreme Court offers one theory of judicial invalidation that protects employers’ freedom of speech claims and reinvigorates federal preemption doctrine within the meaning of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). Prescinding from an architectonic conception of freedom of speech that is supported forcefully and explicitly by the First Amendment, the Court relies on preemption doctrine to invalidate two provisions of a California statute because the enactment constitutes regulation, which intrudes into a zone that is protected and reserved for market freedom. The Court properly upholds its previous stance permitting …


Criminal Justice Federalism And National Sex Offender Policy, Wayne A. Logan Oct 2008

Criminal Justice Federalism And National Sex Offender Policy, Wayne A. Logan

Scholarly Publications

This paper, part of a symposium, examines the federal government's sustained effort to recast state policies regarding sex offender registration and community notification laws. While commentators have typically focused on federal Commerce Clause-based incursions on state criminal justice authority, with registration and notification the U.S. has invoked the Spending Clause, a less controversial yet more invasive strategy, driving outcomes nationwide, not merely within the federal system alone. As a result, borrowing from Justice Harlan, the U.S. has "fasten[ed] on the States federal notions of criminal justice" in a major way.

After providing an overview of the historic reluctance of the …


Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh Oct 2008

Foreign Affairs, International Law, And The New Federalism: Lessons From Coordination, Robert B. Ahdieh

Faculty Scholarship

Even after the departure of two of its most prominent advocates - Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justice Sandra Day O'Connor - the federalism revolution initiated by the Supreme Court almost twenty years ago continues its onward advance. If recent court decisions and congressional legislation are any indication, in fact, it may have reached a new beachhead in the realm of foreign affairs and international law. The emerging federalism in foreign affairs and international law is of a distinct form, however, with distinct implications for the relationship of sub-national, national, and international institutions and interests.

This article - prepared for …


Choice Of Law, The Constitution And Lochner, James Y. Stern Oct 2008

Choice Of Law, The Constitution And Lochner, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


In Search Of Sub-National Constitutionalism, James A. Gardner Sep 2008

In Search Of Sub-National Constitutionalism, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

Two recent trends, one favoring federalism as a form of governmental organization and the other favoring written constitutions, have lately combined to produce an impressive proliferation of subnational constitutions. Documents that can fairly be described as constitutions now govern the affairs of subnational units - states, provinces, cantons, Länder - in federal states on every continent. What remains unclear, however, is whether the proliferation of subnational constitutions indicates a corresponding spread of the practice of subnationalism constitutionalism - whether, that is, the appearance of subnational constitutions around the globe evinces a spreading ideological commitment to a strong role for subnational …


Optimal Federalism Across Institutions: Theory And Applications From Environmental Policies And Health Care, Dale B. Thompson Aug 2008

Optimal Federalism Across Institutions: Theory And Applications From Environmental Policies And Health Care, Dale B. Thompson

Dale Thompson

This article presents a framework to analyze federalism based on enactment, implementation, and enforcement institutions. The framework provides a mechanism to determine whether a particular public policy should be conducted at a state or federal level, by examining economies and diseconomies of scale inherent in each of these institutions. This article then applies the framework in a comparison of environmental policies for wetlands and endangered species, and in an analysis of a health care policy. These applications can then serve as guides to legislators and judges in analyzing federalism concerns.


The Reagan Administration And The Rehnquist Court's New Federalism: Understanding The Role Of The Federalist Society, Amanda L. Hollis-Brusky Aug 2008

The Reagan Administration And The Rehnquist Court's New Federalism: Understanding The Role Of The Federalist Society, Amanda L. Hollis-Brusky

Amanda Hollis-Brusky

This article takes to task and complicates the narrative advanced by Professor Dawn Johnsen in her 2003 Indiana Law Review Article, “Ronald Reagan and the Rehnquist Court on Congressional Power: Presidential Influences on Constitutional Change.” Using evidence drawn from an in-depth examination of the speeches and writings of actors associated with both the early Federalists and the Reagan Administration, archival documents from the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, as well as data gathered from personal interviews, this study presents a richer, more nuanced, and more complete narrative of the impact of the Reagan Revolution on the New Federalism. In sum, it …


Tort Experiments In The Laboratories Of Democracy, Alexandra B. Klass Aug 2008

Tort Experiments In The Laboratories Of Democracy, Alexandra B. Klass

Alexandra B. Klass

This Article considers the broad range of “tort experiments” states have undertaken in recent years as well as the changing attitudes of Congress and the Supreme Court toward state tort law. Notably, as states have engaged in well-publicized tort reform efforts in the products liability and personal injury areas, they have also increased tort rights and remedies to address new societal problems associated with privacy, publicity, consumer protection, and environmental harm. At the same time, however, just as the Supreme Court was beginning its so-called “federalism revolution” of the 1990s to limit Congressional authority in the name of states’ rights, …


Like A Nation State, Douglas Kysar, Bernadette A. Meyler Aug 2008

Like A Nation State, Douglas Kysar, Bernadette A. Meyler

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Using California's self-consciously internationalist approach to climate change regulation as a primary example, this Article examines constitutional limitations on state foreign affairs activities. In particular, by focusing on the prospect of California's establishment of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading system and its eventual linkage with comparable systems in Europe and elsewhere, this Article demonstrates that certain constitutional objections to extrajurisdictional linkage of state GHG emissions trading systems and the response that these objections necessitate may be more complicated than previously anticipated. First, successfully combatting the Bush Administration's potential claim that state-level climate change activities interfere with a federal executive …


A Constitutional Right To Learn: The Uncertain Allure Of Making A Federal Case Out Of Education, Daniel S. Greenspahn Jul 2008

A Constitutional Right To Learn: The Uncertain Allure Of Making A Federal Case Out Of Education, Daniel S. Greenspahn

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Kewanee Revisited: Returning To First Principles Of Intellectual Property Law To Determine The Issue Of Federal Preemption, Sharon K. Sandeen Jul 2008

Kewanee Revisited: Returning To First Principles Of Intellectual Property Law To Determine The Issue Of Federal Preemption, Sharon K. Sandeen

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

In the early 1970s it was thought that states could regulate in the areas of trade secrets without interfering with federal patent policies. However, this concept was called into question in the Sixth Circuit's ruling in Kewanee Oil Co. v. Bicron. In 1974 the Supreme Court ruled that Ohio's trade secret law was not preempted by federal patent law. This article revisits the issues raised in Kewanee in light of the Supreme Court's current preemption jurisprudence, changes in patent law, copyright law, and trade secret law since that time. First, the article reviews the history and context of the Kewanee …


Administrative Law’S Federalism: Preemption, Delegation, And Agencies At The Edge Of Federal Power, Brian Galle, Mark Seidenfeld May 2008

Administrative Law’S Federalism: Preemption, Delegation, And Agencies At The Edge Of Federal Power, Brian Galle, Mark Seidenfeld

Duke Law Journal

This Article critiques the practice of limiting federal agency authority in the name of federalism. Existing limits bind agencies even more tightly than Congress. For instance, although Congress can regulate to the limits of its commerce power with a sufficiently clear statement of its intent to do so, absent clear congressional authorization an agency cannot, no matter how clear the language of the agency's regulation. Similarly, although Congress can preempt state law, albeit only when its intent to do so is clear, some commentators have read it line of Supreme Court decisions to hold that agencies cannot, except upon Congress's …


Tennis With The Net Down: Administrative Federalism Without Congress, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Ernest A. Young May 2008

Tennis With The Net Down: Administrative Federalism Without Congress, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Ernest A. Young

Duke Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Administrative Law As The New Federalism, Gillian E. Metzger May 2008

Administrative Law As The New Federalism, Gillian E. Metzger

Duke Law Journal

Despite the recognized impact that the national administrative state has had on the federal system, the relationship between federalism and administrative law remains strangely inchoate and unanalyzed. Recent Supreme Court case law suggests that the Court is increasingly focused on this relationship and is using administrative law to address federalism concerns even as it refuses to curb Congress's regulatory authority on constitutional grounds. This Article explores how administrative law may be becoming the new federalism and assesses how well-adapted administrative law is to performing this role. It argues that administrative law has important federalism-reinforcing features and represents a critical approach …


The Constitutional Dimension Of Immigration Federalism, Clare Huntington Apr 2008

The Constitutional Dimension Of Immigration Federalism, Clare Huntington

Vanderbilt Law Review

In Farmers Branch, Texas, the city council enacted a measure to fine landlords who rent their premises to unauthorized migrants,' and in Arizona, the state legislature passed a law imposing stiff penalties on employers who intentionally or knowingly hire unauthorized migrants. In San Francisco, the board of supervisors passed a measure that bars law enforcement officers from inquiring into the immigration status of an individual in the course of a criminal investigation. In Alabama and Florida, state officials have entered into agreements with the federal government permitting state law enforcement officers to arrest and detain non-citizens on immigration charges. Other …


Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown Apr 2008

Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown

William & Mary Law Review

Most of the judges in America are elected. Yet the institution of the elected judiciary is in trouble, perhaps in crisis. The pressures of campaigning, particularly raising money, have produced an intensity of electioneering that many observers see as damaging to the institution itself. In an extraordinary development, four justices of the Supreme Court recently expressed concern over possible loss of trust in state judicial systems. Yet mechanisms that states have put in place to strike a balance between the accountability values of an elected judiciary and rule of law values of unbiased adjudication are increasingly invalidated by the federal …


Safeguarding Fundamental Rights: Judicial Incursion Into Legislative Authority, Alexander Tsesis Mar 2008

Safeguarding Fundamental Rights: Judicial Incursion Into Legislative Authority, Alexander Tsesis

Alexander Tsesis

The Supreme Court recently limited Congress’s ability to pass civil rights statutes for the protection of fundamental rights. Decisions striking sections of the Violence Against Women Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act focused on states’ sovereign immunity. These holdings inadequately analyzed how the Reconstruction Amendments altered federalism by making the federal government primarily responsible for protecting civil rights. The Supreme Court also overlooked principles of liberty and equality lying at the foundation of American governance. The Court’s restrictions on legislative authority to identify fundamental rights and to safeguard them runs counter to the central credo of American governance that …


Political Externalities, Federalism, And A Proposal For An Interstate Environmental Impact Assessment Policy, Noah D. Hall Mar 2008

Political Externalities, Federalism, And A Proposal For An Interstate Environmental Impact Assessment Policy, Noah D. Hall

Noah D Hall

Interstate environmental harms, which occur when decisions or actions in one state produce negative environmental impacts in another state, have challenged environmental law and American federalism for over a century. While even the strongest advocates of state primacy in environmental policy concede that interstate environmental harms necessitate federal governance, federal adjudication and regulation have done little to address the problem. This is due, in part, to a failure to fully understand the causes of interstate environmental harms. This article provides a new framework for understanding interstate environmental harms as political externalities caused by a combination of inadequate information, public process …


Federal Fairness To State Taxpayers: Irrationality, Unfunded Mandates, And The "Salt" Deduction, Brian Galle Mar 2008

Federal Fairness To State Taxpayers: Irrationality, Unfunded Mandates, And The "Salt" Deduction, Brian Galle

Michigan Law Review

By sheer dollars alone, the largest impact of the Alternative Minimum Tax is to deny many taxpayers the deduction for the taxes they paid to their state and local governments under § 164 of the Internal Revenue Code. This Article provides a fine-grained analysis of the overall fairness of the state-andlocal- tax deduction--and, by implication, the fairness of its partial repeal through the Alternative Minimum Tax. I offer for the first time a close examination of how newly understood limits on taxpayer mobility and rationality might affect individuals' choices of bundles of local taxes and localgovernment services, which in turn …


Federalism, The Rehnquist Court, And The Modern Republican Party, Bradley W. Joondeph Feb 2008

Federalism, The Rehnquist Court, And The Modern Republican Party, Bradley W. Joondeph

Bradley W. Joondeph

Most scholars agree that federalism was central to the Rehnquist Court’s constitutional agenda. But there is a part of the federalism story that has been largely overlooked: the Court's decisions involving the structural constraints on state governments, the most significant of which are preemption and the dormant Commerce Clause. This article makes two empirical claims about the Rehnquist Court’s federalism jurisprudence, one descriptive and one interpretive. The descriptive claim is that that the Court’s overall approach to federalism was more complicated than many have assumed, and it was not necessarily friendly to the states. To support this contention, I present …


Waivers Of Immunity In Federal Environmental Statutes Of The Twenty-First Century: Correcting A Confusing Mess, Kenneth M. Murchison Feb 2008

Waivers Of Immunity In Federal Environmental Statutes Of The Twenty-First Century: Correcting A Confusing Mess, Kenneth M. Murchison

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.